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Full text of "A System of the anatomy of the human body : illustrated by upwards of two hundred tables, taken partly from the most celebrated authors, and partly from nature"

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Printed b^ J. Pillam 8f Sons. 


Attending the Medical Classes of the University of Edinburgh, 


With much respect, 

And with best wishes. 

By their most obedient. 

And very humble Servant, 


University or Edinburgh, } 
\st Nmember 1814. ' 





Off/ie Formafion of Soiie, 
Different kinds uf Connectimi of J 

. Mofio 

THE Head ok Skull in general, . . . 

THE Separate Bones of the Head, . . 

Os Ffontis, 

Ossa Paiietalia^ 

Os Occip-itisy 

Ossa Temporum^ ....:.... 25 

Os Sp/ienoides, 
the Bones of t 
Ossa Nasi, 
Ossa Vngid.", u 
Ossa Malanini, 
Ossa Maxilhirii 
Ossa Pa/aiiy . 
Ossa Spongiosa^ 
Ossa Tri,ni!-i>/o 
Maxilla Infrrio 
Teeth, . '. . 
Os Ht/oides, . 

;Face, . . 

m SpheHfjidalia, 

The True V 

The Talse V 

Os Sacrim, 

Os Cocci/f^is, 

lES OF THE Pel' 


Os Innominatuiii^ 51' 

Os Ilium, ib, 

Os Ischium, 55 

Os Pubis, ib. 

Costic, ib. 

Slermim, 61 

Bones of the Supekior Extremities, ... 64 

Skouider, ib. 

Clavick, ib. 

Snq'iila, ib. 

Arm C5 

Os Humeri, ib. 

I''ore~.lriii, 66 

Vina, ib. 

liadius, 67 

Hand, ib. 

Carpus, ib. 

Metacarpus, 69 

Fingers ami Thumb, 70 

Bones of the Inferior Extremities, ... 76 

Thigh, ib. 

Os Femoris, ib. 

Leg, 77 

Tibia, ib. 

Fibnla, ib. 

Patella, 78 

Tarsus, ib. 

Metatarsus, 80 

Tvcs, 8] 

Ossa Sesamoidea, ib. 

Principal TUfferences between the Male Qnd Female 
Skeleton, 88 





Df the Muscles in general, 103 

Muscles of the Integuments of the Cranium, 

flHdo/Mt liiE-LiDs, 104 

common to the B-Z AH and External Ear, 105 

of the Nose and Moutk, ib. 

f/ (Ac Lower Jaw, ...:... 107 

of the Fore and Lateral Part of the Neck, ib. 

situated bettveen the Os Hyoides and 

Trunk 108 

situated beluxcii thv Lower Jaw and Os 

Hyoides, ib. 

situated vpon the Bai k Part of the Pha- 
rynx, 110 

wf ///e Glottis, Ill 

biiiiated on the Anlcriur and Lateral 

Parts of the AsTtOMEi^, .... ib. 
of the Male Parts of Generation and 

of the Anus, 115 

of the Female Parts of Generation 

and of the Avus, 116 

Muscle of the Os Coccygis, ib. 

Muscles situated within the Cavitv of the Abdo- 

Muscles situated upon the Anterior Part of the 

Thorax, 118 

— situated between the Ribs, and within the 

Thorax, ib. 

_- contiguotis to the Anterior Part of the 

Vertebr;e of the Neck, .... 119 

situated on the Posterior Part of the 

Trunk, . . . : ib. 

of the Superior Extremity, .... 123 

Muscles arising fom the Scapula, . . 123 
— chieflj/ situated on the Arm, serv- 

ing for the Motion of the Fohe- 

Arm, 124 

on the Fore-Arm and Hand, 

serving for the Motion of the 
Hand and Fingers, . . . 125 
_- of the Inferior Extremity, .... 129 
Muscles on the Pelvis and Thigh, serv- 
ing for the Motion of the Teigh 

and Leg, . ib. 

- situated on the IjEG nnd To9T, 
serving fur the Mutu'ii of the 
Foot and Toes, ... !?. 




Of the BursvE Mucos;e in general, 
BuRs^ Mucos^E of the Head and Neck, . 
■ ...-.■■■ of the Superior Extkem 

of the Inferior Extrjjm 

Of the Ligaments, &c. of the Joints, . 

Ligaments of the Head and Trunk, .... 
Ligaments of the Lower Jaw, . . . 

connecting the Head mth the 

First and Second Verte- 
bra of the Necky and 
these tteo Vertebrte with 
each otheVf .... 


Ugaments of the other Verfebrce, 

of the Ribs, ..... 176 

of the Boms of the Pelvis^ 177 

Ligaments of the Superior Extremity, ... 178 

Lu'gavients of the ClaM>ictey . . : . ib. 

,,^^___^ prf^er to the Scapula, . . ib. 

of the Joint of the SheitUer^ ib. 

of the Joint of the Elbow, 179 

..^^_^,_ between the Bodies^ and be- 
tween the Under Ends of 
the Radius and Ulna, . ib. 
■■ II ^1 between the Fore-Jrm and 

Wrist, ....... ib. 

of the Carpus, .... 180 

_^_^.^ between the Carpal atid Me- 
tacarpal Boms, ... ib. 

^^_^v> between the Extremities of 

the Metacarpal Bones, . ib. 

.^__^^ at the Base of the Metacar- 
pal Bone of tlie Thumb, 
and at the First Joint of 
the Fingers, .... ib. 

_„_ of the First and Second 
Joints of the Thumb, and 



Second and Third Joints 

of the Fingers, . . .180 

Ligaments retaining the Tendons of the 
Muscles of the Hand and 
Fingers in situ, . . . ib. 
:s of the Inferior Extremity, . . . 181 

ijgaments connecting the Os Femoris 

with the Os Innominatum, ib. 

of the Joint of the Enee^ . ib. 

— ~-^— connecting the Fibula to the 

Tibia 182 

— connecting the Bones of the 

Tarstts with those of tie 
Leg, 183 

of the Tarsus ib. 

between the Tarsus and Me- 
tatarsus, ib; 

____^— connecting the Metatarsal 

Bones to each other, . ib. 

—. of the Phalanges of the 

Toes, ib. 

___^_« and Sheaths retaining the 
Tendotis of the Muscles of 
the Foot and Toes Si situ, ib. 




'I^HE Bones are the most hard, compact, and inflexible On the contrary, in the middle of ilie long Bones, aa 
A parts of the Body. the Os Humeri, the Ciwilies are so laige as to give to the 

They are more or less of a white or red colour, accord- Bone the appeai-ante of a A'/l/ow Ci/linder. 
ing to the proportions of JEarth or Blood entering their la some of the largest of the long Bones, as the Os 
composition ; and are therefore whitest in the Adult, and Femoria, their solid Siides, near thtir middle, are remark- 
reddest in the Child, more Earth beijig found in the for- ably thick, and there the Caneelli are almost jmpercep- 
mer, and more Blood in the latter. tibic ; uhile, at their extremities, theii- sides are scarcely 

In living Animals, they are of a bluish colour, in con- thicker than wi-itiiig-paper, and the Cancelli are so 
sequence of the Blood contained in their small Vessels ap- numerous as to occupy the ivhole space between their 
pearing through theu- surface. sides. 

Bones ai-e composed of LainelifF^ or Plates, which are The Cancelli of Bones are fonncd by the internal 
formed of Fibres running longitudinally, or in a radiated Plates passing inwards, and decussating taeli other ; and 
manner, according to the natural figure of the Bone. in the long Bones, tlie sides of the Bone, in consequence 

The lamellated structui-e may be seen, by exposing of sending off the Cancelli, become gi-adually tliinner to- 
them to the heat of a strong fire ; or to the weather ; or wards its extremities, while the Cancelli in proportion be- 
by boiling them under an increased pressure ; or by ob- come more numerous, 
serving their exfoliations when in the diseased state. The Cancelli, tliough extremely minute, exist even in 

A late Author, Scarpa, denies the lamellated struc- the most solid parts of Bones, as can be seen by exposure 
tui'c of the Bones, and endeavours to prove, that they to heat, or in Bones enlarged by disease. Jn either of 
have every \\'here a cellular textme. these cases, small Cells may be observed, and ai-e tUslin- 

The Plates of Bones are originally fonned by the guishable from theXanals for containing tlie Vessels, the 
Vessels of the Periostemn Externum and Membi-aua Me- former being irregular, and tlie latter cylindrical, 
dullaris, and not, as has been supposed by eome Authors, The Cancelli sujipm-t the Membj-ajies tontaiuing the 
from Layers detached from the external Periosteum. Maxrovi, aa ilie Cellulai- Substance does the Fat, and* 

The PlutPE ar.. panj>o^ Uj J\Vrr c!.; winch some have prevent one part of the colunni of Marrow &-om gra^'itat- 
4;onsidered as Claviculi or Nails; and called PviyendicU' ing upon another m the vai'ious positions of the Body. 
lai\ Oblique, &c. according to their different dii'ections. They also fm-nish a wider surface for the dispersion of 

The outei' Plates of Bones are firmly compacted, so as the Arteries which secrete the MaiTow. 
to appear like one solid substance. "Upon t\\e surface of Bones there i 

'iTie iimer Parts of Bones in geuei-al, (vhether long, sures, for the more uitimaf 
round, or flat, have theh' Plates and Threads running in with the Bone, and for loii 
vaiious directions, mtersecting each other, and forming pass into its substance. 
the Cancelli, or Spongy Substance of the Bones ; tlie Many minute Orifices 
Cancelli every where communicating with each other. and parti cnlai'ly in the Fu 

The Cancelli, in the middle of long Bones, are Fibrous, mission of Blood-vessels into tiicir substance. 
and form the JRetitiilar Substance wliich divides the Near the middle of most of the Bones, cbpecially the 
Bone into large Cells. long ones, tliere is a slanting Canal Cur the passage of the 

Towards the extremities of long Bones, the Cancelli principal Medullary Vessels, which consist of Arteries 
are lamellated, and much more nmnerous than iu their and Veins, 
middle. , Numerous Orifices, some of them very considerable in 

Cancelli, of a similar nature to those of the long Bones, size, are observed at the ei/rcnn'fiea of l<,/ig B<J7ies. 
are also placed between the Tables of flat, and inner parts Some serve for the ti-ansmission of Blood-vessels, and 
of round Bones. others for giving attachment to the Fibres of the Ijga- 

lu some of the broad Bones, however, as the Scapula, ments of the Joints, 
the solid parts are so much compressed, as to leave little The principal Vessels pass into the Cancelli, internal 
or no room for Cancelli. Membi-anea, and MaiTow, and i-eturo to the solid sub- 


stance of the Bone, \ihcie llicy meet those scut inwarJs its shape ; but in the foi-mcr il 

from the Peuo.teum. "liitc colour, while in the hnU: 

III some fat Bimes, a;, those of the Cranium, the piiiicip;illy of Cartihgiuous i\iatter. 

Bones aie entuelv suppheit fiom the Vessels of the sur- Ky boiling in water for a sullititiit length of time, and 

rounding Membi^n<9,^d the Vasculaiitythereisimifonu. especially if under an increased pressure, as in Papin'a 

In the Subject, the Artenet> of the Bones, and some- Digester, the Fat and Gelatin of Bones ai'e dissolved 

times the Fewis, can be shewn by a successful injection and sepnrated, and the Bone retainiag its Earthy Matter, 

thrown into them ; but the latter are more readily seen in preserves also its white colour. 

Subjects that die with their Veins full of Blood ; and in The geueral Use of Bones is, — to give firmness and 
living Animals, when tlie Bones are cut across, their Vas- shape to the Body, to furnish attachment to the Muscles, 
cularity appears by the Blood which oozes from their di- ana serve as Irfvei-s for these to act on, and to lodge, pro- 
vided extremities. tect, and support the Bowels. 

The Vasculai-ity of Bone is also shewn, by feeding an 
Animal for some time on the Bubia Tinctorum, or Mad- Pebiosteum. 
der-root, after which the Bones arc found to be complete- 
ly tinged with the coloni-iiig matter of the Madder. The Periosteum derives its name from its furnishing a. 

As a person advances in life, the Blood-vessels of the general Covering to the Bones. 

Bones contract in their diameters, as appears fi-om the In certain pai-ts, however, it is perforated by Muscles, 

Bones of old people having less Blood in them than those Ligaments, or Caitilages, which are fixed immediately 

of a person at an early period of life ; from Injections to the surface of the Bones ; and at the Joints it sepa- 

being tbro^vn into the Vessels of the Bones of old pei-sons rates from the Bones, to give a Covering to the Capsulai 

with more difliculiy than in youth ; from less of the in- Ligaments. 

iectcd mLitter being received in the former; and from the It is Jhrmed of many Fibres, which, in certain parts. 

Bones of old Animals receiving less of the tinging matter can be lUvided into Layers. , 

of Madder than those of yomig ones. The outer Surface of this Membrane is connected t« 

Fi-om compai'iug the Bones of people of diiTerent ages, the surrounding parts by Cellular Substance, 

it is found, that there is a constant waste and renewal of The inner Surface is more unifoim than the outer, and 

their substance; that the Bones increase in weight as a its Fibres ruH, most frequently, in the same direction 

person advances to maturity ; that they continue nearly with those of the subjacent Bone. 

of the same weight till old age begins, and then become The inner part of the Periosteum is intimately con- 
lighter ; that the specific gravity of their solid sides, on nected to the surface of the Bones by short Fibres ; and 
the contrary, increases by age ; for then they become this connection is much stronger in the Child than in the 
harder and more compact, but thinner, and have larger Adult. Some of these Fibres may be consideitd as Li- 
Cavities than the Bones of young persons. gamentous, but most of them axe found by Injection to 

Bones, like other parts, have their Lymphatics, as an- consist of Blood-vessels. 

pears by the absorption of Madder found deposited in the The PerioBti^im), ss welLsa other Menbranc**. mubl be 

-lubstance of the Bones of Animals receiving it with their gupplicd ivith Nerves i butthese are"'ii*o minute Iv be 

Food i by the absorption of pait of the Bone itself, when readily traced. 

in the diseased state j by the absorption of Boue as a The Sensibility of the Periosteum, like that oi' other 

person advances in life ; and even by injection. Membranes, is by no means acute. In ilu- inllwued 

The Nerves of the Bones are small, but may be ob- state, its sensibility is very considerable, 

served in certain parts of them ; and it is presumed they The principal Uses of this Membrane ai-e, — to trina- 

exist in all. niit the Yesseb which are spread out upon its surface into 

From the minuteness of the Nerves, and rigidity of the the substance of the Bones j — to give attachment to 

parts on which they are dispersed. Bones are not eenatble Muscles ; — to prevent the effects of Friction between 

in the sound state ; and even in the diseased, the pain them and the Bones ; — to assist in binding the latter to- 

felt may be owing to the Membranes within them. gether;— to assist in setting limits to the increase, and to 

The component parts of Bones are, an Earthy Matter, check the overgrowth of Bones ;— and, in young persons. 

Cartilage, Gelatin, and Marrow, and these varying in to strengthen the junction of the Bones with their EpU 

proportion in different persons, in different Bones of tlie pliyses, CartUagcs, and Ligaments, 
same person, and in the same Bone at different ages. 

The ferthy Jhltep, however, be^ the largest propor. MemoiAsa Medull*bis. 
tion i but this IS less in Children than m persons of more 

advimccd life. This, improperly called Pen'ofteum Internum^ is an 

The Earthy Matter is obtained by Calcination, or by extremely line Membrane, which lines the inside of the 

a diluted acid, and afterwards pi-ecipitating Bones Li general, sends Processes into the solid sides of 
u, wiicn II IS found to consist chiefly of Phosphate of these, and is divided into numberless small parts, which 
Lime. In either of these processes, the Bone retains also line the different Caacelli. It fonne so many iiregu- 



lar bags, communicating wilh each oilier, and affording ;i 
Urge siu'face for the dispersion of the secretory A'essi-la 
of the BlaiTOw. 

■ The Mari-ov) may be considered as an Appoidage to 
the general Coi-jius Adiposuin. It is found to be a spe- 
cies of fixed oil possessing peculiai" properties, and is 
deposited by tlie Arteries in the Cavities of the Bones, 
at the same time that the vest of the liody is supplied 
with Fat. 

The Blood-vessels of the Marrow, siurnuiulcd by the 
Periosteum, enter the Boiuw by obkique Can;ils, which 
have already been taken notice of in the dfstription of 
(he Bones in general. 

WTicn the Arteries have entered the Ca^ilies of the 
Bones, they divide uito branches, ivliich me spi'tad out 
upon the C;uicelli, Membraiia Medullaria, and i^Jarroiv ; 
fiom these many minute Branches are i-cflected oiHwuids 
to the Tables of the Bones, whicli cimnwiicMie with 
those sent fi-ora the iimer surface of llie Perioslctun. 

The Veins which return the Blood from ihe Marrow 
and Substance of the Bones, are coUecletk into small 
Trunks, wiiich pass out where the Arteries penetrated 
the Bones, and dischai'ge iheu' contents into the neigh- 
boiirinu Veins. 

The gi-eater degrtc ^ Va(,cularilv of thr Suliflc ;.. 
Children than in Adults, is no ivliere more conspicuous 
than here ; for Injections «'hich pass readily in these 
Vessels in Children, cannot be made to penetrate so far 
in those of persons more advanced in life. In conse- 
quence of uhich the Marrow is found to be thin nnd 
bloody in Childi-cn, oily and thick in Aduits, and watery 
in old people. 

The Marrow, like the Fat, iihcn viewed through a 
Microscope, i-csifiiililc a dnslei- ->!' i^uvlt. ; — or it is con- 
tamed in spherical ISacs, upon which Vcs.cis are minute- 
ly dispei-aed, but from which no Excretory Duels have 
been discovered to pass out. 

It possesses little Seii,sibilili/ in the sound folate ; and 
what it does possess is considered by the latest Authors 
as belonging rather to its Membranes than to the Marrow 

But that this part of the Body is not without Nerves, 
seems to be proved by the experiments made on the Mar- 
row when the Bones of living Animals are cut, and by 
the pain a person frequently suffers from Diseases within 
the Bones. 

1 of a white C'<ilour\ of an ehatk Sub- 
stance^ and much softer than Bones,* in consequence of 
the smaller quantity of Earth entering their composi- 

The StriKture is not so evidently Fibrous as tliat of 
Bones, yet, by long Maceration, or by tearing them 
asunder) a Fibrous disposition is perceptible. 

Their Vessels arc extremely small, thougli they can be 
readily injected in Cai'tilages where Bone is begimiing to 
form. The Vessels of the Cartilages of the Joints seem 
entii-cly to exclude the red Blood. No Anatomist has, 
been able to inject them i and Madder, mixed with the 
food of Animals, does not change their coloui- as it doey 
that of BonesiL 

The existence of Lymphatic Vessels in them, is proved 
by their being absorbed during the process of OBsihcatioii, 
or in certain diseases. 

No Nen'es can be traced to them ; nor do they possess 
any sensibility hi the sound state, let the Granulations 
which rise on the surface of Cartilages, after Amputatioa 
at the .lointP, are very sensible. 

Upon their .••nrface there is a thin Membrane, termed 
Ptricli'Midrumi, which, in Cjitila^as, supplymg the place 
of Bone, as in those of the Bib.^ or at the ends of the 
long Bones in Children, is a continuation of the Pei-m- 
ttu/)it and serves the same general pui'poses to Cartilage 
as the Periosteum does to Bone. 

The Pcriehondrimn of Cartilages which supply the place 
of Bone, or by their flexibihty possess a degiee of roo- 
tiou, has Blood-vessels, which, like those of thcPenos- 
teum, can be injected. But the Vessels of tliis Mem-, 
braue belonging to other, Cartilage.^, particularly those 
covering the Articular Cartilages, cannot be injected. 

np„„ a-t auiTdtc or aiiieiilar Caniiages, the Peri, 
chondriura is a Rejiection of the inner suitkce of the Cap- 
sular Ligament, ai]d is so very thui, and adheres so close- 
ly, as to appear like part of the Cartilage itf^elf. 

They have no Internal Cavity, nor Cancelli, nor in- 
ternal Membrane, for lodging MaiTow ; their wei^L^ht ia 
nearly a third less than that of Bone. Theii- texciue is 
less changed by acids ; but a much greater proportion of 
them thau of Bones is destroyed by the action of a strong 
fire. They are softened by maceration in water ; and 
the Articular Cartilages, by long boiling, are in a great 
measure dissolved. 

They are found to consist chiefly of albumen and water, 
with a small proportion of phosphate of lime. 

One set of Curtilages supply the place of Bone;— or. 


in/fn. Cartilages ',/ the liib>; Curti- 

thiiihcn, supply the place of Bone, 
'd a Nidus for the Oss 

Fibres to shoot in ; — as in the long Bones of Children. 

A third set, llie most extensive, by the smoothness and 
slipperiness of their surface, allow the Bones to move 
readily, witliout any abrasion ; — as in the Abducent or 
Articular Cartilages. By their elastic nature, tliey render 
the motions easier, and lessen the concussion in the more 
violent motions of the Body, as rnnuing, jumping', &c. 
They also prevent the inordinate growth of Bones at their 
articulating surfaces, and the coalescence of the Fibres 
of the adjoining Bones. 

A fourth set supply the office both of Cartilage and 


Ugameat, giving the elasticity of the fonner, aiid flexi- 
bility of the latter; uniting some immovtably together, 
and allowing to others a small degi-ee of motion ; — as in 
the Cartilages of the Bones of the Pelvis and Spine. 

Cartilages ai-e divided by some Anatomists into two 
Seta, viz. Temporary and I'ennanetit. The trst include 
those in which Bone is formed in the Child ; the other 
consist of those of the External Ear, of the Eye-lids, 
Nose, Lapynx, and Trachea, EOidof the Ai'ticulai-, Liter- 
acticular, aud latei'vertebraJ. 


3 Formation of Bone. 

The generality of Bones are originally formed, either 
between Membranes, or in the Substance of Cartilages ; 
the Teeth are formed in distinct Bags. 

The Ossification of broad Bones begins, in some, as 
in those of the Cmiium, between MembiiUits only, and 
in others, as in the Oysa IVij, in Cartiluije, and it ap- 
pears in each Bone in one or more phitL^ : There (he 
Osseous Particles are so joined together, a^, to havi; a 
Fibrous appearance. 

The Fibrous Sti-ucture is most distinctly seen in the 
Cranium of a Fcetus about three months after Concep- 
tion, where the beginning of the Ossilication is like a line 
iiregulai- Net-work, in the middle of which the Fibres 
are more closelv connected than in the circumterci.^.. 

In viewing the flat Bones-of a Foetus a little more ad- 
vanced, the bony particles are observed to be so disposed, 
as to have a distinct radiated appearance. 

The vacancies between the Fibres, which occasion the 
i-adiated appearance, are found by Injection to be chiefly 
passages for Blood-vessels. 

As the Foetus becomes larger, the Osseous Fibres in- 
crease in number, but become less appaicnt, the Inter- 
stices being now filled with Osseous nv.ii(<,r, which in- 
creases in quantity till a Lamina is produttd ; and ah the 
Bone continues to giow, more Lamina; arc added, till 
the more soHd part of a Bone is fonned. 

The Imier Layers of the Bones are obsen^ed to be more 
porous than the Outei> and none of them are found to 
have tlie solidity tliey acquire in the Adult state, till they 
have aiTJvcd at their full growth. 

The Ossification of hjtig Bones begins between the 
Periosteum and Membiana MeduUai-is, in a Jelly which 
afterwards hardens into Cartilage, and forms a Central 
■Ming, from ivhitli the Fibres extend towai'ds the ends of 
the Bones. 

Tlie Inferior Laraells, forming the solid sides of the 
long Bones, are considerably shorter than the Exterior, 
because they pass giaduaUy inwards to form the Cancclli, 
while the exterior parts are continued to the extremities 
of the Bones. 

The OasiBcation of spherical-shaped Bones, as in the 
^V^ist, begins by one Nucleus, and that of inejjular- 
formed Bones, as in the Vertebra, by different Nuclei ; 
and both of these sets of Bones have their origin in Car- 

In proportion as Osseous matter is deposited, the Car- 
tilage is absorbed, leaving behind it the diffeFeut Cavities 
and Cancelli. 

All the Epiphyses, likewise, have theu- original for- 
mation ui Cartilage. 

Hie Ossification which beguis in Cartilage is consi- 
derably later than that which has its origin between Mem. 
braues, and tliis ts at very diflerent times in different 
part;, of the Body ; the processes being soonest completed 

icli cover the Organs most essential 

When Ossification is about to begin in a particular 
part, the Arteries, whicli were formerly of tlie Herous 
kind, become dilated, in consequence of a gieater deter- 
mination of blood to liiem, and receive no^v the red Blood 
from wltich the Osseous matter is secreted. This matter 
retains, for some time, the form of the Vessels which give 
it origm, till, more Arteries being by degrees dilated, 
and more Osseous matter deposited, the Bone at length 
attams its complete form. 

Some Bones ai'e completely formed at the time of 
p;...i,. aa thp small Bmts ^■"'•^ ■^«''- 

The generality of Bones, however, are inconipivfe mitil 
the age of puberty, or between the fifteenth and twcutieih 
year, and in «oine few instances not until a later period. 

f Sj,»e» or F™<f «,».. 

The Epiphi/ses begin to appear after the Bodv of (lie 
Bone is ossified, and are themselves ossified .<i -i-v" ' 
eight years of age, Oioiigh their external kiu i h-l . 
somewhat Cartilaginous. 

In the«arly part of life, the Body and F-"! 
Bones make three distinct pnrtu, each of v : ■■ ■ 
centre of Ossification, and the parts can ri ui- ;>i ■ ;■ . 
rated by boiling, or by maceration in water. 

The Epiphyses are joined to the Body of the Bone by 
Cartilages, whicli are thick in Children, but gradually 
become thinner, in consequence of absoiiition, as Ossifi- 
cation advances, till at last, in the Adult, the external 
marks of division are not to be seen ; though frequently 
some mark of distinction may be observed in the Can- 

The Epiphyses belong chiefly to such Bones as are 
destined tor much motion, and have larger diameters 
than the Bones to which tliey are fixed, in consequence 
of which they fonn% firmer Articulation, aud give a more 
commodious attachment to Muscles. 

Part I.] 




Or Connection without inter-' 
• mediate Substance. 


Or Connection by Inti 
diate Substance. 

The Teeth in the Alveoli. 

I OrConnection by Cartilage, 

-J Bones of the Septum Nai' 

f The Bodies of the 
\ Ribs to the Sterni 
I Os Sacrum, or to 
f The 

Vertebi-ae tc 
mi : The Os9 
each other. 

I <^ r "■^"r-""'-,"'.' . i Kibs to tlie Spine: TheProe 

I^Or Connection by Ligament. ^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

each other: Tlie 


Where the flat ends of Bi 
are opposed to each other 
with littlp raotioH 


Between tlie Clavicle and Scapula. The Bones in the second row of the Carpus. 
The Carpus and Metacarpus. The Tibia and Fibula. The greater number of 
Bones in the Tarsus. The Tarsus and Metataj-sus. 

with ant 
Lateral a 


Or Ball and Socket, the Li- 

gaments allowing motion ii 

{The Lower Jaw and Head. The Joint of the Elbo^. 
The fiist and Hecond Joints of the Thumb, and second 
and thii'd of the Fingei's. The Joint of the Knee. 
The Ankle. The two last Joints of the Toes. 
f Between the first Vertebra and Processus Deutatus of the 
(^ second. Between the Radius and Ulna. 
r Between the Occipital Bone and Atlas. Between the 
Compound. J diiFerent Vertebrae. And between the Bibs and Ver- 

Inner end of the Clavicle. Head of the Os Humeri. Between the Fore-arm and 
Wrist, and between the two rows of the Carpal Bones. At the root of the Me- 
tacarpal Bone of the Thumb, and root of the first Phalanx of the Fingers. At 
the head of the Thigh-bone. Between the Astragalus and Os Na\icuJare, and. 
at the root of the fii-st Phalanx of the Toes. 



Though the tevni Skeleton be applied to a variety of 
Substances, yet, in Anatomy, it is always understood lo 

signiiy tlie iJonts of Animals, connected togtthc 

sinirthe Bont=:in the 

natural & 

s of the JJody in gene- \y 

;rmed a .Vn/w/-fl/ M^/c/fWS when the Bones ai'c tli] I I i t>umliiihi i IhdIv 

joined by their own Ligaments ; - as li tin i i-. ul HI iIk ]join ■. i i I b i ii » t 

And ao .^r//'/((«(/ .SXc/e/oM, when joined by Wire, &c. pci|H-iii]i(.uUi to the Iioh/jm, mil iiiu< li ^i t i 

' Small Subjects, aud the Bones of those which are not nes-, 1 1 t, .unl sliciislli, i-- _,niD I < iln UmU 

fully ossilied, arc most conveniently prepared the first of ib most ntces^uv iiKition 
way; while the Bones of large Adult Animals are more The Human SUelelon is guiendl) divided i 

readily cleaned when single, and are easily restored to Tnw/-, Unperior and Injn'ior Extreniilies. 
their natural situation. 


By tlie Head is meant all that part of the Skeleton 
which is placed above the first Bone of the Neck. It 
therefore compi-eheuds the Cranium and Bones of the 

The Cranium varies in shape in different Persons, ac- 
cording to the original foi-m of the Bram upon which it is 

The variety in shape not only exists in different Per- 
sona, but in the opposite sides of the same Skull, scarcely 
any one being found perfectly similar there when minute- 
ly examined. The variety of diape has been supposed by 
tome Authors to be increased by the different management 
of tlie Heads of Children at an eai-ly period of life. From 
this the difference of shape observed in the Skulls of people 
of different nations has been accounted for. The form, 
however, does not appear to be much affected by the ma- 
nagement of the Head at an early period of infancy, since 
its characteristic marks are found to remain nearly tlie 
same, however much the customs in dress and general 
management may vary. 

The Cranimn fonns a vai 
defending the Brain^ with i 

The General Figure of the upper part of the Craiium 
is compared to that of an Egg, Tab. VUI. The me- 
dium length of it appears to be about six inches and a 
half, and the greatest transverse diameter, wliich is a 
little behind the External Auditory passages, about five 

The Cranium is of a (lat form at its sides, partly by 
the action of the Temporal Musclea. Tab. IV. 

The flatness of this part of the Head is found to in- 
crease the sphere of vision, and to give a more advan- 

tageous situation for the Ears, that tliey may receive a 
greater quantity of souud, while they ai'e leas exposed to 

The Surface of the upper and outer part of the Cra- 
nium is smooth, wher:: it is little affected by Muscles, 
and is covered by the Periosteum common to all thi 
Bones, but in the Skull termed Pericranium. 

The luider and rmter Suffa<:e of the Cranium is irre- 
gular where it gives attachment to Muscles, &c. and 
passage to Vesseia and Nerves, Tab. VI. 

The anterior aud ujukr part of the Craiuum is Tinlhi. . 
to make pai-t «f the Oa-hits._ ^TahJU 

The posterior Surface of t&e Cranii'i 

Trunk. Tab. VI. 

The upper and ir. 
for lodging the Brs ' 

i ajiaiag from tht 


Surface of the Cranium is holhv!^ 
Tab. VUI. Fig. 2. 
'iider and inner Surface of the Cranium has many 
uiieqtial Cavities^ for lodging the Lobes and Appendages 
of the Brain and Cerebellum, and for allowing passage 
to the Vessels aud Nerves of the Encephalon in general. 
Tab. VIII. 

Upon tlie anterior part of the base of the Cranium the 
Anterior Lobes of the Brain rest ; in the middle of the 
base are two deep Fossic, for lodging the Lateral Lobes, 
while the posterior Lobes and the Cerebellum occupy a 
still deeper cavity behind. Tab. VIII. 

Along the inner side of the Cranium are many Furrows, 
formed by and for the reception of the Blood-vessels of 
the Diu-a Mater. Tab. VIII. Fig. 2. 

Upon the inner Surface of certain Crania, Sinuosities 

are observed, for lodging luxuriances of the Brain ; and 

here the Cranium ia sometimes so tluD, as to be rendered 

transparent ; 

heie Diplie, tlic. 


il) of the s ur 

Canccili in (itliu 

11 ii 


riiL J^UtuM 



111 lilt tiiu 

thickei t!, ,n tliL 



/, uh.tli » 

con-icriiRiit biillii 


Cllltd / 1/1117 

The Dtphe, 



rt//i, btlttini 

raoie regulai beti 


11 tbc iiont^ of the 

undci pait ol the Ci 

111, It hcie, in 

Bones, they arc 




The thickjics 



Bo US 1 iiie< 

parts of the Ci < 

middle heighi, t 


]i 1 

11 lull 

thickjieas, e\ctp 

t I 

I til 

C 1 t 1 111 , « 


ti'ansp-iient , tlie tno Tables being then closely compact- tween them, uhitli iit fl^c m mimbej Ot tlic c //net 
cd, without ail) Ciiirdli ire ttimcd Tim, iiom haMiig suiand appc tiancc', , 
lu some C I nil I, Pits lie seen of difleient figures and and tuo are called rahf or SqiiamAi\ SutLre--, iiom flie 
iizes, toi lod^^ii^^ Cnuti'/ji/s JBndies on the Dura Mater, Bones, \\hich torm them overlappmg c^ch other, as the 
termed Chiiiils i>j Fycciiioni, oi sometimes lliey aie Scales of Fishes do 
occupied by the uRcting ol I ipi,c \ cms of the Dui'a Ma- 
ter Hcie Iheie aUo is oiLui i (\aut ot Caiicdh Tab The three True Sutures are, 
VIII Fig ^ 

The Bones ot ll t fiauium aic composed of two Tlie Corotial Stftui e, placed between the Frontal and 

Tablcb, uhieh It Ihe upper put aie neaily paullel to Paiittal Bones, and j,eUing its name bom this bemg the 

each other Tib Mil put where ihe VneKiit^ woit iheu Coj «^ or Garlands 

The U\a Fibks hue mtermcdiate Caucelh, teimcd About m uieh ot cath ol its tMicniiliis wuits the aer- 

(Mth the iittd jppeiiuite lib H m 

Ihc Lnmbdoiif biu 

iimeuhAt ]" '1'^ r r.ct 1 1 ^ 

iiess ind w i\ below the \cii< , i (. roivn ot the Head, fiom 

^ , s uliiebustuoLto' "ii.]obh<|iicl>dow-nwaidsandtoeach 

jk , .1. si.k, iihimol Uie Gnek A I ah II b Tab VII 

m.tthe IK pul', ot the Limbdoid Sutme, pUced between 

die liiid tb Oecipital and Temponl Bones, ha\e little of the 
stiiited ippeannee, uid iiceilled Lddilttmcnta Sutut (C 

difleunt Ltimb(lm,/ah^ 

iboul il^ Ihi Sa^/ttiif Siidiic, situittd between the Pinttal 

n rneb in Bones, ui 1 iiinicd i.oni being eMende I b.tween the 

lie tlim- niiddk ot ibe tcioud tiid I.uubdoid Sutuie , is an 4i- 

ner, and' at the lioiil tiid 'OeLipi.t, wbtie thej aie low is between tlie Miinj, and Bow lab MU lig f 

thickex This thickness is un iu t ir d l 1 1 e m the piime (/, d 

of life, m >outh and old i «, thf tJ iie tie tonsideiably The Sagittal Suture is sonictimis contiuued tliiough 

thuiner, in the foimei cjsl ii it ti n m^ ilt imed their full the middle of the Fi-outal Bone to tlie JSose Ihis is 

growth, in the latter, p ti t oi tlieiii li i\ iii„ been absoibed said to be more tregucnt m the Female than in the Mak 

In the Skulls of old Subjeet'*, the Diploc ue often so Upon e\amming a gieat numbei of Ciaiiia, the Authoi 

obbterated, that scarcely any vestige of them c in be seen found it taking place m one of nine oi ten 

In certam diseased Bones, on the eoutiaij, the Di- The so i ated appearame of the liuchutui-es is seen 

ploe aie of great thickness, while the Tabks oi the dxstmctly on the outside of the Ci tnmm oulv , on the 

fakull are thm Lke paper mside, the Bones appear almost t i be | ined m sti ught 

The Cranium is gcnerall) composed o^ eii;/it Bonet , bnes Tab VIII Fig 1.2 

ffix of which are said to be pi-opci to the Ci uuum, and In some Skulls, the mtem il "si Ik i I mil (Uiit, 

lioo common to it md the Face whJc the Sutures are manitcst witl i i iJit iiinti I'lites 

rpi t til f meetuig and coalescmg sooner th m lIr txleiii d 

' ' ' As a person advances m life, the Tiiie Sutuies begui 

Tlie Os Fi>fih^, pheed m the tore ptrt of the Cra^ to be obbterated, tust on the mnci, then on the outei 

mum lab 111 i Side, till m \ei7 old age not a \ebtige ot one oi them is 

1 he tit I () s« Pai tttiha, placed in the upper and la- to be seen 

teral puis of the tienium J ib IV B The tuo Falsi, called al o Ttmpota! Suttncs, placed 
The luo r,mj)iia, pi iced m the undei and late- a httle lbo^e the Eai, between the uppci edge ot the 

ral paits fab I\ D Tempoial and undei ed„c ot the Paiietal Bonea Tab 

Ihe Os Oicipiti'., whith fonnb the back, and some of jy o 

the lowei pirt of the Ciajimm Tab VII J. ich of the Portions ot the Filse Sutuies, situated 

^, „ , „ ,^ between the miiki and buk pm ol (he Paiietal, and 

The two Bones common to the Cranium and Face are, ,,,^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^, ^|^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ j^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ 

The Os E^AmoMfcv, placed in the fore part of the Bate b) bome idditamtultim Siifina Sqiniim a^ md has m 
of the Qi-anium Tab V C, C that part the true sen m d ,ppe u ince I ib 1\ 

The 0« A/?Aenowfe¥, situated m the middle of the Base Besides the Stjuaiiiou '"utin I, ii t ikui notice of, it 

Tab V IS to be obsened, ih it il e t<i u Syi mii us is iKo applied 

Sutures *" **' *^ '^"tuies on whith the lempoi d Alusek is plac- 

ed , it theiefoie mcludes put ot the Coioml and *^phe- 
The Bones of the Ciajiium have Status or Stitiin^ be- noid Sutures 

Vol I B Sometimes, 


"^llic TnniMitse Sutiin, uliult luiis icioia the Oibit* 
and loot ol ilic Nose, between the Frontu), Malar, f?phe- 
uoid, Ethmoid, Supenor Maxillary, and Nasal Bones 
'I ib III (/,t,f 

J ht Zi/^'iiinlu S/i/iiK , ]ihcu! betiietD the Tcmpoial 
iiiil timk I im , J i! Iiutii]., nblicjutl) doinitvard^i and 

I he a(i\ lilt i^ts (lLii\td iiui. ti,p Cranium bting form- 

td ol diffeicut Bone ^id butiiieb aie, that the ^pheioidaj 

figure IS &oonei completed, — that the Bones, which ire 

at some distance trora each other at birth, ^leld, and 

(.iimiuii Ih '^utuiLs here lu, conduce to an easier Delivery, — that the Dura Mater, 

The EI/i/iiokI Siihfit, whiih suiiounds the Ethmoid by the Sutures, has a drmei adhesion, — and that Frac- 

Bone Tab A C, C tures are frequently presented fiom extendmg so fai ae 

The Sphenoid frntuic, \\lii<.h suiroimds the Sphenoid they nould do m one contmued bony substance , ■nhich 

Bone T^b 'S f,') last circumstance takes place m extreme old age. 

nuiiibei, and arc occasion ilh 


1 III t 

111 ilillcunl ^u 

tuics, though mo^t hcnutiii l\ i 


1 II 

1 .1 Ihc Limb 

doid Tab All F.g 1 , 1 

1 1 

Wieieici ihcv occ.ii, llu 

^1 iin 

ii.iiiidinjic tlieii 

aieob=eiiedtiibCHi„„l„ t,. 

tl t II 

kl i 

ot loui^e the» -ut ei,ii.l)i uil 

II ill 

III ^111 liid imii 

Fiactmcs of llic '-kull 

Between tlic Bones oi thr 
Pace, lite Sutures are also 1 

mil those of tin 
Ihe, aiesaidte 



becoimtiontollie e mo sets o 


Puts, hoiieve. 

nt these '>iuuils, aic onh h< 


1, the 

Bones of the 

Tab. 1- 

( 11 ) 

Represents a Front View of the Male Skeleton, with some of the Cartilages and Liga- 
ments which connect the Bones to each other. 

Heao and Neck. 

A, The fifonfal bone. 

B, The parietal boue. 

C, T)ie temporal process of the sphenoid bone. 

D, The squamous part of the temporal bone. 

E, The r 

that bone. 

F, The nialai-, or cheek bone. 

G, The nasal boiic ; behind which is the uasal j 
H, The superior maxillary bone. 
I, The lower jaw. 
K, The cervical vei-tebi'se, with their intermed 

iages and transverse processes. 

A, The sternum. 

B, Tlie seventh, or last true rib. 

C, The cartilages of the ribs. 

D, The twelfth, or last talse rib. 

E, The lumbar vertebrje, with theii- intervertebral cai-- 
tilages and transverse processes. 

F, The OS sacrum. 

G, The OS innominatum, composed of, 
o, The OB ilium, 

6, The OS pubis, 
c. The OS ischium. 

Upper Extremity. 
A, The clavicle. 

E, The iimer surface of the scapula. 
a. The acromion of the scapula. 
fe, Tlie coracoid process of that bone. 
C, The OS humeri, 
f. The head or bail of the os humeri, articulated \vith 

the glfuoid cavity of the scapula, 
<7, The InicniLiI tiibeiTle of the os hmneri, and, farther 

out, tilt ij.iHDVf to]' lodging the tendon of the long liead 

e. The imier, and, 

/, The outer condyle of the os humeri. Between e and 

yi Tlie hollow for lodging the coronoid process of the 

ulna iu the flexion of the fore-ann. 
D, The radius. 
g. The hca.l of (he radius. 
£, The ulna. 

//, Tlie corouuid process of the uka. 
r, 'I'he bones of the carpus. 
G, The metacaipal bone of the thumb. 
H, The metacarpal bones of the ^gers. 
I, The two hones of the thumb. 
K, The thi'ee phalanges of the fingers. 

, lodged in the acctabu- 

, The cervix of the bone, 
; The large trochanter. 
■, The smaU U'ochanter. 
', The imier condyle. 
, The outer condyle. 

i. The patella, placed upon the ti-oclilea of the os femoris. 
\ The tibia. 

-, The head of the tibia. Between the head of the ti- 
bia and condyles of the os femoris, the semilunar cai'- 


; appeal 

, The tubercle of the tibia. 
7, The malleolus internus. 
), The fibula ; the upper cud of 

the tibia. 
>, The midleolus externus. 
i:, The bones of the tarsus. 
, The projection of (he os calcis 
% The metatarsal bones. 
J, The phalajiges of the toes, . 

( 13 ) 


Kepeesents a Back View of the Male Skeleton, with some of the Cartilages and LiGAMENTi 
which connect the Bones to each other. 

A, The parietal hone. 

fl. The sagittal sutare, and parietal hole. 

B, The occipital booe. 

G, The fii-st c 

H, The second ccnical veitebi-a. 

J, Tht; bLntiUh cci-vloal v«tebr=i. 

r. The spinous pioceisses of the cemcal vertebra, 

K, The Urst doi-sal vertebra. 

ti. The twell'th dorsal vcrtcbi'a. 

rf, The spinous processes of the dorsal vertebrae. 

M, Tfit 

- P"'"*-' 

O, The OS sacrum. 

//, The uppemiost spinous process. Farther out are seen 
the snper'ior oblique processes of this bone, joiucd to 
the inferior oblitjue oithe last lumbar vertebra. 

7', !, The kienil parts of the os sacrum, joined to the ossa 
iiinoiiiHiata. Uelweeu i and O, the posterior foramina 

A-, .-lu opening in the under and back part of this bone, 
covered in the subject by a ligamentous membrane. 

P, Tlie OS coccygis, joined by its shoulders to the os 
sacrum, at the lower part of the opening A. 

Superior Extremity. 

A, The clavicle. 

E, The dorsum scapulx. 

a, Tlie spine of the scapula. 

ft, The acromion of the scapula. 

t', A fossa for lodging the supra-spittitus muscle. 

J, An irregulai- surface, occupied by the uifi-a-spinatMjj 

C, The OS humeri. 

e, Tlic b;ill of the os humeri. 

/, nif extt-nial lubcrde of the bone. 
g, Thu external condyle. 
/,, Tlic iiitmial condyle. 

f, Tlie cn'ity lor lodging tlie olecranon of the ulna. 

D, The radius. 

A", The head of the radius ai-tlculated %vith the trochlea 

of the OS humeri. 
/, The under end of the radioB, grooved by the tendons 

of muscles. 

E, Tlie ulna. 

w(, The olecranon of tlie ulna. 

»j. The under end of the ulna, with the styloid process, 

F, The bones of the carpus. 

G, The metacarpal bone of the thmiib. 
H, The metacarpal bones of the fingers. 
I, The two bones of the thumb. 
K, The three phalanges of the fingers. 

Inferior Extremity 
L, The OS femoris. 

, Part of the ball of the os femoris, 
, The cervix of the bouc. 
, The tmchanter major. 
, The trochanter minor. 

, Tlic cavity for lodgiug the popliteal vessels and u 
, The external condyle. 
, The internal condyle. 
, TliB semilunar cartilages. 
J, The tibia. 
, The head of the tibia. 
, The malleolus interaus. 
;, The fibula. 
, The head of the fibula. 
I, 'The malleolus extemus. 
, The bones of the tarsus. 

, The a 

, The o 

, The fore part of the 

:, Tlie bones of the mi 

', Tlie phalanges of the 

( 13 ) 


A Front View of the Skull. 

A, The frontal bone. 

fl, Tlie temporal process, or ridge of the frontal bone. 

A, The temporal fossa of that bone. 

c, The superciliary ridge. 

d. The foriunen supercUiare. 

f, e, Tlie external and mtemal orbltax processes. 

g. The orbitar plate. 

A, The iacrymal fossa. 

B, The under and fore part of the parietal bone. 

C, The squamous part of the temporal bone. 

I, Tlie zygomatic process of that bone. 
r». The pars plana of the ethmoid bone, 

kf k. The ossa spongioaa Huneriora of the etlimoid bone. 

E, Tlie temporal plate of the sphenoid bone. 
/, Part of tlie squamous suture. 

«(, The orbitar plate of the sphenoid bone. 

II, The foramen opticum. 

0, The tbvamen lacerum of the sphenoid bone, and the 
foramen lacerum inferius of the orbit, the former above, 
and the latter below. 

F, The OS nasi ; in the middle of wliich is a hole proper 
to this bone. 

C, The 03 unguis. 

I', The laciymal gioove of tlie os unguis. 

H, The 03 malae. 

5, q, 9, g. The four angle* 

r. The internal orbitar i>r< 

r processes of this bone. 

1 between the superior maxillary boiK 
, Tlie alveolar pmcpsRes, with the tpeth. 
, The fossa nasalis. 
, The foramen iufra-orbitarium. 
L, The 03 spougiosmn inferius. 
,, The vomer. 

r, The symphysis or middle of the lower jai> . 
r, The base of the lower jaw ; 

. T!ie ascending plate which sends off the coronoid ai 
condyloid processes ; 
. The alveolar processes and tectli ; 
. The mental hole. 

( 11 ) 

A Profile of the Skull. 

A, The os frontis. 

1 Tlie zygomatic, tuid, 

a. The temporal process of this bone. 

b. The temporal tossa of the bone. 

2 ^ The tmMlJir^ pioci 

«£,i of the OS malse 

3 The oibil n pUl( (t tl 

. It bojie 

r, The superciliary ridge. 

4 TheuMti 1 1 1 ,1^111, 

]i 11 1 ol tlie temporal musde. 

d. An elevation formed by the fi-ontal sinus. 

1 Tlieuibilii III teil 

tlie 01 maid! 

p. The extci'iial and iotenial orbitar pi'ocesses. 

k, Tin n , illui r , 

y, The foramen superciiiare. 

f ( Iliei.t 1,1 ,(li,c( 

1 lie OS na-si -ind os maxiUare 

g, A, The orbitar plate. 

i|)(i II , 1 I 1 kI Uii 

.mill c .,1 the nose are fixed. 

;, Pai't vi' lilt lacrimal fo.ssa. 

; II ,ii,iiii pi 11 „i 

llii . II iMlluesuptrias. 

k, /, Thai pait of the transverse sutiu-e which 

unites the 

S J 1 i 1 1 .11 ul 

OS frontis to the os planum and os luiguis. 

'1 \ ilijnt 1 1 (t tiK < 

niiMllare at the entrance of 

/, /, 'I'he foriuiiinaoi'bitaria interna, anterius et 


the Dibit 



J of the orbit which belongs to the o 

I upon the surface of that bone. 

/., Part of ihelai 

C, A Muall poi'tif 

D, Thep.,-ss.,u: 
5, Part ..nhe s.i 

, The n 
, The z 

t^ The zjgomailc sulm^e. 

«, The matitoid process of the tenipoi-al bone. 

f. The meatu.s auditorius extemus. 

-iy. Part of the base of the p;irs petiosa. 

E, The para plana of ihc ethmoid bone. 

F, The temporal plate of the sphenoid hone. 
J, TliL- forauiei, aa.i.U-. 

H, The ... iinsnu,. 

t the openmg oi the nose 
}i The foramen infi a-orbitarium 
13 IJ "ie^era] t.maJJ holes in the os m 

passage ot blood-vessels and ntr\es 
It T he spine or ndge, formed bv the u 

Ifi. If.. The malar processes to which tl 

>. IS. The edge of the alveoli. 
, The lower jaw. 
K v.: its base; 
I. Its anyles. 
. '.il. Muscular prints. 
'.. The coiidyloiu pixicess. 
i. The coronoid process. 
t. 'ITie nitcii between these procf 
). 2;», The shai'p edge of the coi 

7'A7i. .S 

( 1'5 ) 


A View of the Inner Surface of the Base of the Cn.v 

a, «, The upper edge of the zygoma. Between 
terior a, ;iinl tlie cut edge of the skull, a portio 

b, Tlie m;i.toi( 
A, The left IVoutal fossa, 

filled partly with bone, and paitly tvit 

t" the temporal bone, 
e of the occipital bone. 

marked with ritlges and de- 

rf, Part of tliG froatal spine. 

B, ITic foramen plarpH at- t-lifibottom of the fi-outal spine. 

C, The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. 
f, Theoiitagalli. 

D, The seUa tiu-cica. 

E, The left anterior cliuoid process. 

F, The posterior clinoid process. 
^ A small process of the splieuoid bone^ projecting i 


the back-pa 
Part of the 

rt of tlie cthinoid bone. 



sphenoid suture. 


The processus semi-olivaris. 


The left t( 

^mpoi'al fossa of the splienoi 

A bone. 


The left ti 

ans verse spinous process. 


The forarae 


The \TZ 

n ot the foramen laceruju. 


en votundum. 


, The foiara 

len ovale. 

N, The foramen spinale. 

/■, An impression made by the internal carotid artery. 

/, The point of the pars petrosa of the temporal bone ; un- 
der which is the passage of the mternal carotid artery, 

At the fore-part of the process, in the shaded place, 
there is au irregulai' opening, \\'hich, iu the subject, is 

old and temporal 

S, The 

the t 

which lodges the superior petrosal s 

: of the foramen laceruin coi 
:ipit " " 

I- pai 

T, Tlic po.'jterior part ot the s 
V, The fossa for lodgmg a portion of the lateral sinus, 
V, The cuneiform process of (he occipital bone, 
W, The anterior condyloid foramen of that bone. 
X, The foramen magnum. 

Y, Tlie infeiior occipital fossa, which lodges the corre- 
sponding lobe of the cerebellum. 
Z, Z, p, A fossa of the occipital bone for the left lateral 

p^ Part of the lambdoid 
q, A continuation of the fossa for the lateral s 
'/■, A fossa for tlie inferior petrosal sinus. 
s, 5, The cut edge of the skull. 

( 16 ) 


The Outer and Under Surface ot the Skull, turned a little to the Left Side. 

A, The inferior posterior iingle of llie parietal bone. 

B, B, The lanibdoid suture. 

C, C, 'ITie large transverse arch, ridge, or spine of the 
occipital bone ; the upper and outer part of which 
gives rise to the occipit(>.£routalii^, and the middle to 
the ti-apezii ranscles. 

C, m, C, m. Depressions made by the insertions of the 
complexi muscles on that bone. 

M, The spinous tuberosity, observed only in some skulls. 
i, if The perpendicular spine. Between ;», m^ and the 

back-parts of the temporal bones, are impressions made 

by the splenii muscles. 
/, /, The smaller transverse ridge or spine. 
k., kf The cavities where the recti mmores muscles are 

inserted. On the outer side of these cavities, the ob- 

liqui superiores and recti majores make impressions. 

D, The foramen magnum. 
£, The cuneiform process. 

F, F, The condyloid processes. 

A, A, The tuberosities at the roots of the condyles, which 
^ve attachment to the capsular Ugament of the first 
vertebra. — The A placed at the root of the left con- 
dyle, points out the superior condyloid hole. 

G, G, The posteiior condyloid holes. 

H, The squamous portion of tlie temporal bone. 
I, I, The squamous suture. 

/, /, The mastoid hssiires. 
», The foramen mastoideum. 
I/, The root of the zygoma ; 
^, Its articular process. 

M, The styloid process ; behind the root of which the 
foramen stylo-mastoideum is concealed. 

N, The meatus auditorius extemus. 

O, The glenoid cavity, for the articulation of thelower jaw. 

q^ The glenoid tissure. 

P, The foramen caroticum. 

Q, The thimble-like cavity, or jugular fossa. 

R, R, The pterygoid fossa, at the outer sides of which 

are the external pterygoid plates. 
V, The intenial pterygoid plate. 
W, The hook^like process, round which the circumflex 

muscle of the palate moves. 
S, The temporal process of the sphenoid bonc, 
T, The spinous process and spinous hole of that bone. 
7. The osseous mouth of the Eustachian tube. 
Y," The foramen ovale. 
s, 5, JPassages common to the temporal and sphenoid 

X, The foramen pterygoideum. 
Z, The inferior orbitar fissure, 
fl, The under part of the tuberosity of il • yvcv.-.-L' 

A, The palate process of that bone. 

c, The foramen inciMvum. 

d, The internal suifate of the 09 malfe, which c 
portion of the temporal muscle. 

f. The under edge of the zygomatic process. 

0. The zygomatic sutuie. 

/, The palate process of tlie palate bone. 
5. 6. Tlie superior and inferior spongy bones. 

g. The posterior edge of the vomer. 
■1. The foramen gustativum. 

1. 1. I. 1. Thctkntesincisoi-es. 

2. t.'. The dfntus canini. 

3. 3:c. The denies molai'ea. 

'IlUi. o. 

( 17 ) 


A Back View of the Skull, with the Additional Bones called Ossa Tbiquetua. 

FIG. 1. 

The Skull seen from its Posterior and Left Side. 

Oy The fi'ontal bone. 

by Fart of the temporal fossa of that bone. 

f, c, Tlie parietal bones, 
rf, The coronal suture, 
tr. The sagittal suture. 
/,/, The lambdoid suture. 

g, gf Ossa triquetia, between the lambdoid and sagittal 

A, A, The lorimmn, parietalia. 

if /, The arched impression ot the left paj'ietal bone. 

k. The occipital bone. 

/, Part of the large transverse arched ridge of that bone. 

Illy The squamous suture. 

n. The squamous part of the temporal bone. 

o. The mastoid process. 

p. The zygoma. 

q. Part of the meatus auditorius cxtemus. 

1', Part of the temporal fossa of t)ie sphenoid bone. 

,e. The temporal fossa of the temporal bone. 

fy The outer surface of the othitar process of the cheek- 

■Uy The zygomatic suture. 

I', The superior orbitai' pi-ocess of the cheek-bone. 

tVj Pai't ot the superior maxillary bone. 

X, Fart of the outer plate of the pterygoid process, 

y, y. Some of ibe teeth. 

Oy a, Part of the parietal bones. 

by A portion of the sagittal sutuie. 

f, c, The parietal foramina, uncommonly large. 

d, Tlie upper part of the occipital boue. 

An additional piece of Bone in the Side of (he Crt 
inclosed by a double Squamous Suliircy and fori 
kind of Os Triguetrum. 

C 18 ) 


Tn this Table are represented the Outlines of Six Skull-Caps taken from Adult Bodies, to shew 
how far the Human Ckanium differs in its Form. The Figures are drawn about one-fourth of 
the original Size. 

FIG. 1: 2. 3. 4. 
Are from Natives of BEitain. 

the TJniTersity of this place. TKe SkuU-Cap i 
markable for its. length and d 

Is from the Skull of a Person of this Country, though 
the history is uukno^m. It corresponds with the Sub- 
ject of the former Figure in its diroimshed breadth, and 
great degree of length. 


This and the two following Tables represent a few of the Characteristic Differences in the 
Skulls of People of different Nations. The Figures are only about a fourth part of the Size 
of those from which they are taken. 

Gives a Side A^cw of the Cranium of tlie Mummy re- 
presented in Fig. 5. of the former Table. It is re- 
markable not only for its length and narrowness, but 
for the strong impression made by the Tempoi-al 
Muscle, and for the sharpness of the Arclies of the 
Forehead and Occiput. The Cranium tiom which this 
Figure is taken is filled with Pitch. 

FIG. 2. 

Shews the Skull of another Egyptian Mummy. The 
Cranium is narrow and compressed at the sides, espe- 
cially towards the Vertex. The Forehead is small, 
and elegantly arched ; but the Face, from the root of 
the Nose to the point of the Chin, is elongated. 

FIG. 3. 

Represents the Skull of a TttrJc^ which is singular for its 
spheroidal form. The Occiput is small, and the Fora- 
men Magnum Occipitis is placed near tlie extremity 
of the base of the Cranium. The Forehead is broad, 
the Glabella prominent -, the Alveoli of the Upper Jaw 
are short, ana the Nostrils uanow. 

FIG. 4. 

This Figure exhibits tlie Skull of a Hindoo. The Cra- 
nium is smaller, but ihe Face rather lajger in propor- 
tion than in the Emopean. The Os Frontis is ele- 
gantly arched, and uncommonly narrow. The Orbits 
are large, and the Anterior Nares small. Tlie Facial 
line approaches to the perpendicular. 

FIG. 5. 

Is the Skull of a Lascar. Like that represented by the 
former Figure, the Cramum is smaller than in the Eu- 
ropean, but the Bones composing it are uncommonly 
thick. Tlic Ossa Nasi protrude more, and the Supe- 
rior Maxilla is deeper from the Nose downwards than 
that represented in the former Figure. 

FIG. 6. 

Shews the Cassaii Tarfar. Tliis Cranium is considered 
by Blumenbach as an elegant one. Here the Fore- 
head is laigc and moderately aiched ; the Nasal Bones 
are well formed, descending in a proper direction from 
the Forehead. The Incisor Teeth of the Upper Jaw 
project considerably ; and the Chin is somewhat piomi- 
Bent. The Occipital Spine is wanting. 

( 186 ) 

TABLE Vlie. 

FIG. 1. 

This Figure veprcsenls the Skull of a TnngU'San. Here 
the Face apptais flat, and broad towariis tlic Zygomatic 
Arches, The Fpreliead is depressed ; the Olfactory 
Organs large i the Occiput 10 the Ci-ajiium fiom which 
9 taken, is observed to be remarkaij^ pra- 

t behind. 


liibibits the Skull of a Cossack. The aspect is altoge- 
ther disagreeable to the eye. The Orbits avc deep, 
depresiiedf aud widely separated. The Superciliary 
.Arches are promiDent, and almost cnojoined. The 
opening of the Nostrils is large and patulous. The 
augles of the Lowei- Jaw are turned outwards. 

FIG. 3. 

Represeuts tlie Skull of a New HoUaiuler. Tlic Os 
Frontis is large, and a little flatteucd. The Superci- 
liary Ai'ches are elevated. The Orbits are long, when 
taken in a transverse direction. The Ossa Nasi are 
short, and the Anterior Nares large. The under and 
fore part of the Upper Jaw is a little prominent, and 
the liower Jaw longer than in the European. The 
-whole Skull bears a cousidemble resembhoce to that 
of the Ethiopian. 

FIG. 4. 

I<s the Skull of a NorHi .■limrirnn Indian CTifrf. Th<" 

what prominent, and the Concha: excavated as into a 
Bulla. The Olfactory Organs aie extensive, the Iru. 
perciliary Ridges large and arched. The Facial line 
inclines to the perpendicular. The Occiput is broader 
than in the European. The Incisor Teeth are uncom- 
monly small, but '.harp. The Skull is light, and all 
the Bones of the Crimium small. 

FIG. 5. 

Shews tlie Skull of an Esquimaux^ ■which Blhmenbaci: 
consiiltrs 4is holding a place between the Cranium of thi 
Mongol :ind that of the American. The Face is flat, anc 
the projection outwards of the Malar Bones is less thai 
in the Mongal. Tlie Nose is small, but pi-ojects mon 
thani • . " . ■ "- t. .. , 

FIG. 6. 

Is the SkuU of an Oiaheitean. The Cranium is 
nan-ow, but the Bregma is protuberant. Tlic 
Jaw is somewhat prominent, approaching tg that 
Bcnted in Fig. 3. but the Lower Jaw is slioite 
in that Figure. The middle of the Foiche; 
Occiput are wider than usual. 1'he Supn 
Arches are a liltle niised, and the whole Skull li 
appearance of gre^L strcuglli. 


( IBc 7 


FIG. 1. 

Tlic Skull of a Cahnttck^ in which there fs great apiicar- 
aiice of thickness aiid strengllu The Crajiium some- 
what resembles th:il of the Negro in the flatuess of the 
Occiput, the retreating Forehead, and the impression 
made by the action of the Temporal Muscles; but the 
Face i& very dirteieiit. The Matar Bones project more, 
but the Maxillapy less, than in the Negro. The dis- 
tance betvvt-cn the Chcck-Euncs, and the general ap- 
pearance of the Face, is so remarkable, that, accord- 
ing to Camper, the Calmuck is the ugliest of all the 
inhabitants of the eartli. 

FIG. 2. 

Represents the Skull of a Carib^ The Forehead is re 
markably flattened, which is said to be from pressure 
;arly period of life. The side of 
jugly marked by the Temporal 
occupying the place of the Bregma 
I. The Frontal Sinuses scarcely 
miliary Arches are sraaU. The Or- 
! large, spreading, and somewhat oval when 
taken transversely. The Olfactory Organs are large ; 
the Superior Maxilla very prominent j the Basilar 
Fossa large, broad, and flat. The Cranium is situated 
so much backwards, that the Skull, being placed upon 
the Table with the Under Jaw removed, the Maxilla 
Superior rises so much, that it does not touch the 
table. By this the Negro Skull can generally be dis- 
tinguished from the European. 

FIG. 3. 

ihcws the Skull of the Ethiopian. All the Bones hei 
are found to be thicker, heavier, and stronger, tiian i 
tiie European. The Prominences and Depressions ai 

the Cranium is st 
Muscle. The Bone! 
are remai'kably hig 
appear. The Super 

more conspicuous. The I'uder Jaw is remarkably 
.strong, and the sides of the Cranium deeply depressed 
by the Temporal Muscles. The Os Frontis is nar- 
row, and flatter tiian in the European. Tlic Zv- 
gomatic Processes are much arched. The ^falar 
Bones are Urge, prominent, and square. '1 he Antra 
Maxillaria are larger than in the European, but tht^ 
Ossa Nasi are smaller and more depressed. The Or- 
bits are larger and deeper, more like those of tin 
Simia;. The Cavity of the Nose is observed to b' 
broad aud large, like that of the American Indian ; 
Iiencc is supposed to arise the acuteness of smell pe- 
culiar to these nations ; but no part of the Kegro Skull 
is so remarkable as the projection of (he fore part of 
the Alveolar Processes of the Mamillary Bones. These 
are evidently more prominent than iu the Skulls of any 
other nation ; so much so, that there is a strong simi- 
larity to the Jaws of the Ape tribe. In the JN'ugio, 
the Chin also retreats a little, approaching to that of 
the Monkey. The space between the Incisor Teetii 
and the Nose is longer. The Teeth have more of an 
oblique direction, and are larger and 6rmer than iu the 
European. The Occiput is narrower and flatter, aud 
converges more to a point behind. The Foramen 
Magnum is more oblique, and is placed nearer the Oc- 
ciput. By this obliquity, the Face of the Ethiopian is 
more elevated, and the Head thrown more backwards, 
tlian in the European. 

FIG. 4. & 5. 

Represent the Skulls of au Oiiratig-Oitfajtg, and the Si- 
mja Caudiitn, or Eong-tailed J\lonkey, to shew the di- 
rection of the Facial line, when compared with that 
of the Human Skull. In the Ourang, (Fig. 1.) the 
high Forehead gives the Animal a sort ol' lesemblauce 
to the Human Face. In tlie Moukey, the great size 
of the Maxillary Bones, compared with tlie Cranium, 
gives more the appearance of the Canine race. 

C 19 ) 


The principal tbiiigs to be attended to iu thia Bone 

'i'he Situation of the Os Froiitis iii the fore part of the 
Cmiiuin. Tab. III. A. 

Its Shape, which his been compared to tliat of a CUm- 
sliell, oi- to the Concha Bivahis^ or Cockle. Tab. VIll. 
Fig. X 4. 

Its external Surface sniootli, and above convex, being 
little impressed by inuscuUr action. Tab. VIII. Fig. 3. 

The Superciliarif Jtt'tlges, on which the Eye-brt 
are pUced, cxlendiiig between the extenwl and int 
ual iigular Processes on each side. Tab. VUl. Fig 

s callt-d F^-ontal Siiui^vs. Tab. IV. d. 

The Ma^fil Process, plactd between the internal An- 
gular Processes, and forming pait of the Nose. Tab. 
VIII. Fig. 3./. Fig. 4. A. 

Part of tlic TvmjioraJ, or Ridge^ on each side, 
behind thu txlunial Aii^jular Process, which forms the 
boundaiy between ilie Temporal and Fi'ootal Muscles, 
Tab. I\ . a. 

The Otbilar Processes, or Plates, which, contrify to 
tlie re^t of the Bone, are hollow below, and extend a con> 
siderable way hack, to form the upper pai'ts of the Or- 
bits for lodging the Eyes and their Appendages. Tab. 
VIII. Fig. 3. X, A. 

The Orbital- Plates are rendered so thin by the pres- 
sure of the Brain and I^ye on the oppoaite sides, that 
they become tranfiparent, and the CanceUi,. especially in 
oldpeople, are obliterated. 

The Si/iuosifi/ at the upper part of the Orbit, behind 
the outer end of the Kupereiliai-y Ridge, on each side, 
for lodging the Lacrynial Gland. Tab. III. k. 

Behind each internal Angulai' Process, a small Pit, to 
which the Cartilaginous Pulley of the yuperior Oblique 
Muscle of the Eye is fixed. 

The Temporal /Wvf, behind the Temporal Proecss, 
for lodging pait of the Muscle of thatname. Tab. VIII. 
Fig. 3. rf. 

VIII. Fig. 4. p. 

Tlie Foramen Siipra-orbitoirimn, a little to the inner 
side of the middle of each Superciliary Ridge, through 
wjiich' a branch of the Ocular Artery, and part of the 

Ophthalmic Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves, pass t» 
the soft parts of the Forehead. Tab. III. rf. 

In some Skulls, the Vessels and Nerves aj-e lodged ia 
Furrows ou the Surface of tlie Bone. 

Fretpiently, instead of a Hole, a Notch only is seen, 
tlie Vessels and Nerves then passing over the Superciliary 
Ridge ; or two Holes in one side, and one in the other, 

The Foramina Orbitaria Interna, A)iieriiis' ef Pos/e~ 
ritis, between the Orbitar Plates of the I'routal and Kth- 
nioid Boneti, and about three-fourths of an inch uistLinl. 
from each olhcr; through which small Twigs of Nerves 
from the fii-si p;irt of the Fifth Pau-, and of Arteries from 
the Ocular Aitery, pass into the Nose. Tab. IV. I, I. 

Small Perforations are found upon the under and fore 
part of the Frontal Bone, for the tianbrnLssion of very 
minute Arteries or Nerves into the Sinuses, or to the 
Substance of the Eoue. 

The concai-v inner and fore part of the OsFi-ontls, for 
lodging the Anttrior Lobes of tlie lii-ain. 

The convei mider parts, for supporting these Lobes,, 
and covering tlie Tab. V. between g, g\, and the 
fore-part of the Cranium. 

Tlie liitlges and liepressio?is of the Orbitai- Processes, 
raaiked by the convolutions of the Brain. Tab. V. A. 

Smalt f'tirrows on the inside of the Bone, for lodging the 
Blood-vessels of the Duiu Mater. Tab. VIII. Fig. 4. 

Slight Si/iiia^ities, more evident on the under than on 
the upper paii of the Bone, occasioned by the convolu- 
tions of the anterior part of the Brain. Tab. V. between 
g, g, and the foi'e pait of the Bone. 

rhe Frontal Spine, in the middle of the under part of 
the Bone, formed by the coalescence of the inner tables, 
for the attachment of the Falx of the Dura Water. Tab. 
VIII. Fig. 4. c. 

In such Skulls as have the Sagittal Suture continued 
to the Nose, the Frontal Spine does not appear ; the 
inner Plates,, in sucii cases, not having, gi-own. together to ■ 

The Frontal Furrow, extending upwards from the 
Spine, for lodgiiiji the upper part of the superior Eongi- 
tudiiial Suius of tlie Duia Mater, and for the attachment 
of the Fa!.\. Tab. VIII. Fig. 1. d. 

The Foramen Ctecum at the under part of the Spme, 
for the reception of a Process of tlie FaLx, and of sraaJl 
Blood-vessels which penetrate into the Nose, or to the 
substance of the Bone. Here also the superior Longi- 
tudinal Sinus takes its origin. This Hole is frequently, 
common to the Frontal and Ethmoid Bones. Tab. VIII. . 
Fig. 4. 0, Tab. V. B. 
2^ Tl» 


The Frontal Simeses,, placed beliiod the iiuier ends of A Communication which they sometimes have with 

the Superciliary Bidges, about an inch in height, and each other. Tab. XIII. Fig. 1 . C. 

somewhat more than that in breadth, and, in some Skulls, At the inner and under part of the mteraal angular 

fonning prominences near the root of the Nose. Tab. Pi-ocess, a small round Pasmge from eacli, leading into 

IV. rf. the Cavity of the anterior Ethmoid CcUb, and fiom thence 

The Walk of the Sinuses, formed by a separation of to the Nose, 
the Tables of the Bone ; there being no Diploe here. The Frontal Sinuses add to the strength and melody of 
The Partitiim between them placed perpendicularly, the Voicp, hj> sciviug as a vault to i-e^tmud the notes, 
and preventing them from havingany communication with Htncc, in a stoppage of the Nose, by disease or other- 
each otlier. wise, the Voice is i-endered harsh and disagreeable. 

Theii- capacities vai-y much in diiferent Subjects, and The Frontal Bone eei-ves to defend and support the 

they are fiequentty imequal in size in the same Body. Anterior LoIjcb of the Brain. It forms a considerable 

In some they are wanting, which is oftenerfomid to hap. part of the Orbits of the Eyes, assists in forming the 

pen in persons having a flat Forehead, and where the faa- Septmn Narium, Organ of Smelling, &c. 

gittal Sutiu-e is continued to tlie Nose. In others, they In a Fcctus of nine months, the Os Frontia is divided 

are so large as to extend from one side of the Frmital through its middle into two Pieces, which are incomplete 

Bone to the other. In some Skulls, each of these Si- at their upper and back part, where they assist in the 

nuses has partial partitions, and, in others, one Sinus formation of tlieBregmaoropeuingoftheHead. — TheSiu 

occupies the place of two, perciliary Holes and Froutal Sinuses are not yet formed. 

Tab. <y 

( 21 ) 


Views of the Upper Part of the Cranium and of the Frontal Bone. 

o, Tl»e frontal bone. 

A, A, Tlie coronal sutui'e, 

f, (T, Tlie parietal bone. 

rf, rf, The sagittal suture. 

e, e,, The parietal holes. 

fj Part of the occipital bone. 

■gj g. The middle of the lambdoid suture. 

FIG. 3. 

A View of the Upper and Inner Surface of the 

?/, The outer and fore part of the frontal bone. 

j', 7', Prints made by the blood-vessels of the dura mater. 

k, k. The sinuosity where the upper part of the falx is 
fixed, and the superior longitudinal sinus is lodged. 

iy /y Pits frpijueiitly found i the laj-gcr occaoioned hy luxu- 
riancies of the brain, and the smaller by tlie glands of 
PACcnroNi, or by the meeting of blood-vessels of the 

FIG. 3. 

The Outer Surface of the Frontai. Bone. 

-o. The middle and convex part of the frontal bone, 

i, 6, The elevations of this bone, 

Cf The muscular print of tlie left side. 

df Part of the temporal fossa. 

e, e. The external and internaj angulai* processes. 

f, The nasal process. 

I which the nasal and 

maxillary bones are fixed. 
hy //, The superciliary arches. 
7', 7', The supticiliary holes. 
/■, *t, The orbital- plates. 
/, /, The lacrimal fossa;. 
lilt Illy 'I'he foramina orbitaria interna. 
«, 11, The inequalities wliich unite the Ij-ontal to the 

sphenoid bone. 

FIG. 4. 
The Inner Surface of the Frontal Bone. 
ft. The internal concave pari of the frontal bone. 
hy Tlie cavity which lodges the anterior lobes of the brain. 
Cy Tlie frontal spine. 
dy A fuiTOW where the falx is iixed, aad the superior 

3 forming 
' the coronal suluj-e. 
/,/, Other inequalities, wliich join the fi-ontal to the 

sphenoid bone. 
gy g, gy gy The inner surface of the four angular processes. 
A, The posterior surface of the nasal process. 
7', I'y Other inequalities near the uasal process. 
ky ky The orbitar plates. 
lyfy The lacrymal fossse. 
»j, j«. Cells which correspond ivith those of the ethmoid 

Passages from the ti-outaj 


' OssA Parietalia. 

TLe parts here to be ^tttudtd to are, be attended to by Surgeons in the operation of the Tr&.. 

The sttuaiion of the Oesa Purietalia, in the upper and pan over tliis pail, 
lateral parts of the Cranium. Tab. IV. B. lu tlieir m-ogresa upwaris, the Furrows divide into 

The figure of each Parietal Bone a Trapciium, or muuy Branthes, and tretiueutly small passages are seen 

approaching that of a, Square. Tab. IX. Fig. 1. 2. raiming fram these into the Uiploe. 

The «p/)«' edge longest. Tab. IX. ^ The itepi-essum at the upper edge of the Bone, for 

The anterior edge uext in length. Tab. IX, the attachment of the upper part of the Fabc» and lodge. 

The /xw/crior edge shorter. Tab. IX. meut of the supeiior longitudiu:*! Sinus. Tab. VUI. 

The inferior shoitebt, and in form of a ragged aich. Fig. 2, Tliis is most distinctly been wheu the Bones are 

to be connected to the upper rounded edge of the Squa- conjoined. 

"^ ' "' The depression for the longitudinal Sinus, like the Si- 

UB itself, becomes larger in its course backwards ; and 

assist 111 jurming the tiue Sutures. Tab. IX. frequently it is larger in one Bone than the other. 

Tlie cor»er.t of the Bone ohtu^e, excepting the under The Fossa at the under and back part of the Bone. 

anteiior, uhich forms a kind of Process. Tab. IX. for lodging a small pait of the lateral Sinus. Tab. 1\' 

The external surface of the B<Mie, smooth and convex. Fig. 2. 
Tab. IX. Fig. !. Numerous thpressi6ns found on the inside of the Ben 

The Tiaiisvcrse arched Ridge, ot Ltne^ fi-equeatly of occasioned by the prominences of the Brain. 
:i whiter colour than the rest of the Bone, placed e»ter- The connection of the Parietal Bonee to the Oa Fiir^ 

nnllv a littk' beiiiw its middle height, for the origin of the tis by the Corona), and to each other by the Sagittal ^l 

Tt-nporAi Mii,^tk-. Tab. IV. «. ture. Tab. VIII. Fig. 1. 6, i, rf, rf. 

7'lie railiuted Fiirroivs at the under part of the Bone, The Bones have the two Tables and Dijiio, 

formed by tlic Fibres oftheTempor.ll Muscle. Tab. IV. o. the completest, aud.are the most equal and smooth of an/ 

Near the semicircidar edse, many inequalitie,i, which of the Ci-anium. 
join similar mequalities on the ijiside of the Temporal In the Fcetus, the sides of the Paaietal Bones are in. 

Bone, to fbi-ra the Squamous Suture. complete^ and there is no Parietal Hole. Between the 

The Foramen Parietale, near tlie upper and- back part Panetal Bones and the middle of the divided OsFronti^ 

of the Bone, for the transmission of a Vein from the In- there is a large interstice, termed^ in common language, 

teguments of the Head to tne superior longitudinal Sinus; Opeiiing of the Jlta^ and by Anatomists, BregtuOf 

and sometimes of a small Branch from the Temporal or Fons, or Fontanella^ from its having been supposed by 

the Occipital Artery, to the Falx of the Dura Mater, the Ancients, that tliroughit the superfluous Humours of 

Tab. VIII. Fig. 1. 2. the Brain are evacuated. Tab. XT. B. 

In several Skulls, one of the Parietal Holes is want- TTie Bregma ia occupied hj a strong Ligajucnic,, 

ilig ; In some, two are fouud in one.side ; in others, none Membrane, which adheres firmly to tlie ragged edgp:v . 

in either. the Bones, and is lined-within by the Dura Mater, ai'; 

The internal fonfdre surface of'the Bone. covered extenially by the Pericranium. 

The Furrows made by the Blood-vesst la of the Dura The whole of the Bregma is generally ossified by two, 

plater ; the principal of which begin by a TVimk at the though sometimes not till near seven years of age ; and ii 

under and fore part of the Bone, Tab. IX. Fig. 2. h^s sometimes, though very rarelj, been found open in 

whert frequently a full C^oal is formed, which ought to the Adult. 


Uorc attend-to, the passage termed Jbmflwn jtfo^nwfli. Tab. IX. Fig.5". 

The .rt'tiiatim of tlic Occipital Bone in the back and g, h, A. 
uiuitr part of the Cnuiium. Tab. VI. The depressions betweea the middle of the laige and 

lis rhomboid figure, with the angle above generally a fimaJI Arehesjfortheconnection of the Compleji Muscles. 
little rounded. Tab. IX. Fig. 4. The /mprewKtw between the Arches and the Temporal. 

The two lateral ^/«g/e^ obtuse. Tab. IX. Fig. 4. Bones, for the aUachmentof the SplenU. Tab.IX.Fig-S* 

Tlie external, surface conr?x> and wwooM at the upper Cavities het^veen the smaller Arch and, the Fonunea 

part. Tab. 1%. Fig, 3. Magmim,.foF the reception of the Recti Minores, asA 

The lafigcj^rched Ridge^, running across the Bone^ impressions made more externally by the Recti Majcres 

near the niddle of the convex surface, to the centre of and Obliqui Superiores. Tab. IX. Fig. 3. 
which the Tranezii Miwcles ape fixed^ the outer parts T^e peiyerwMcular Spine^ of inconsiderable size, nm- 

giving ongifl to the Occipilo-frontalis. Tab. IX. Fig. 3. ning through the middle of the two Arches, and separal- 

%^' It "'S '■'** Muscles of the opposite sides, 

riie sittQller Aich, half-way between the former and The unequal edges of the Foramen Magnum, f<>r '>>■ 



insextion of tbe Ligameuta, by wUich the Head is fixed 
to the Vertebrie of the Neck. 

The inferior Angle, contr#y to the rSt of the Boiie, 
flattened and stretched forwards in form of a wedge ; 
hence called Cuneijorvi^ or, from its situation, Basilar 
Process. Tab. IX. Fig. 3. p. 

The unequal Surface of the Cuneifonn Process, for the 
attachment of the Recti Anteriores Muscles. 

The Condi/le.t placed at the base of the Cuneiform 
Process, and at the fore and IuIcimI partri of tlie Foramen 
Magnum, for the articulation with the Atlas*, or fii'st 
"Vertebra of <he Neck. Tab. IX. Fig. 3. /, /. 

The ovai form and smooth Cartilaginous surface of the 
Condyles, corresponduig with the superior aittculatmg 
Processes of the Atlaa. 

The Condyles run obliquely foiAiai-ds and inwards, and 
are deepest at their inner parts ; in consequence of t\liich 
they are prevented from blidiug to either side out of the 
Cavities of the Atlas. 

In some Subjects, each of the Condyles is more or less 
divided transversely, giving the appearance of t^vo Pro- 

Bone to the first one of the Neck. 

The rough Prominences between the Condyles and 
Mastoid Processes of the Temporal Bones, for the in- 
sertion of the Recti Capitis Laterales Muscles ; and, an- 
terior to these, the Semilunar Notches whicli form part 
of the Holes common to the Temporal and Occipital 
Bones. Tab. VI. between F and K, 

The Flexion and Extension of the Head are performed 
at the Condyles, but they axe found to be placed behind 
its centre of gravity, which aifoi-ds space for the Mouth, 
ThfoaT, &c. ; antl the Head is prevented from falling for. 
wards by the constant action of the strong Extensor 
Muscles, placed on the back part of the Neck. 

The internal Surface of the Bone kolfotc, for contain- 
ing the back ^art of the Brain. Tab. IX. Fig. 4. 

The Cruciform Spine of the inner side, formed by two 
Ridges, the one placed perpendicularly in the middle of 
the Bone, the other crossing the first in a horizontal di- 
:-ecUon. Tab. IX. Fig. 4. «,/, i, b. 

The upper Limb of the pei'pendicular Spine hallotr in 
the middle, or fi-ecjuently at one side, for the reception 
of the superior longitudinal Siuus, and the attachment of 
the Falx. Tab. IX. Fig. 4. fl— ft. 

The lateral -Ziiuibs, placed opposite to tlie great exter- 
nal aixhed Spine, and Itolhw in the middle, for contain- 
ing the latei-al Sinuses, and giving attachment to the 
Tentorium Dui-k Matris. Tab. IX. Fig. 4. i, b. 

The hollow in one of the lateral Limbs, and more 
especially the right one, is frequently the continuation of 
tluit'Siade m the peipcndicular Spine by the iongltudiiial 

termed Torcuim' He: 

The lower Limb short, for the attachment of the Fals 
Minor, ajid sometimesi hcllow, foi- the reception of an 
Occipital J^inua. 

The Fossoi at the sides of the upper Limb, for con- 
talnmg the posterior Lobes of the CtiUjruni. Tab. IX. 
Fig. 4. c, e. 

The Fomut at the sides of ilic lower Limb, lor ttfti- 
taining the Cerebellum, Tab. IX, 1 1;^. I. c, c. 

Anterior to Uie Fossa; for 1-ulying liiv CiTebellum, two 
Cavities for itceiving flie lati'ial .'■^(,^, previous t* 
their leaving the tavily of the CiJiiiuni. 

The cmicavc .-iirfriv (if ihi; Cuinif-'oim Process, fox- 
receiving the Medulla Obloiij^ala iuid Biisihir Arterv. 
Tab. IX. Fig. 4. 71. 

The depre^itions at each side of the Cuneiform Process, 
where the inferior Petrosal Sinuses are placed. Tab. V. 

The Foramen Magnvm, behnid the BasDar Process, 
and between the Cundvles, lor the passage ol the MtiU:!- 
!a Oblongata, Vcittbi'al Blood- \csse Is, and Accts-oiy 
Nerves. Tab. \. X. 

The superior ov aidevior Co/uli/hid Foraiiiino, -^i I'r 
bides of tlie Foramen Magiiuiu, ami in ii.uiiateiy c-ti .. ., 
Condyles, for the passage of the ninth i.air (,1 Ntiies. 
Tab. IX. Fig. 3. «, n. 

l he posterior- Condyloid Fornmiiia, thp b?tk part 
of the root of the Condyles, for the pi'-r^a^.c .,( '.tins 
from the Occiput, or from the Vertebral \ em-, into ihc 
lateral Shiuscs, neai- their tenninarions. Tab. IX. n, m. 

Frequently one of the posterior Condyloid I'oranlna is 
wanting; sometimes botli, when the Aeins pass through 
the Foramen Magnum. 

Besides the Holes above taken notice of, others are 
often found, near the edges of the Bone, for the transmis- 
sion of \'eins, the number and size of whicii are unccrtaui. 

The connectimi of the Bone to the Ossa Paridtalia, by 
the Lambdoid Suture. Tab. VII. 

This Bone is among the thickest of the Cranium^ 
though very unequal ; being thick and strong above, 
where it is little impressed by Muscles, and so thin below, 
where it is pressed by the weight of the Cerebellum inter- 
nally, and aSected bj-the action of the Muscles extcriiaJlj', 
as to be in many Skulls rendered transparent. But the 
thick Muscles and strong Spine of the Bone assist gi-eatly 
in preventuig injuries fi-om happening here. 

In the Foetus, the Occipital Bone is divided mto fhur 
pieces i the fii-st, whjeh is laiger than the other three, 
forms all the part of the Bone above the Foramen Mag- 
num ; the second and third are placed at the sides of that 
Foramen, and constitute almost the whole of the Coq- 
dyies \ aud the fourth forms the Cuaetfona FixKess. 

T A B L E tX. . 

,v,s of tlie Parietal and Occipital Bones. 

riG. I. 

The Exlcnml Surface of lie BigU Pakietal Boke 

«, Tlie nucid 

le coiivi 

:;x pari of the bone. 

fjjcd edge of the bone, ^vhich. 

t, b, Tlie u] 

liptr ni- 

juined to i 

ts ft'Uov 

V, fonns the sagittal suture. 

V, The aiitcrim- edge, 
ronJ suture. 
d. Tile pcisteiior edge, ' 


i the occipital booe, 

e, e. The inierior aciuiluiiir edge, uhith isi joined to the 

p-.trs squamosa of the ttmponti boiic. 
/, riie parietal hole. 
gj gy Tlie aixhed ridge of the parietal bone, which gives 

origin to a, large share of the temporal muscle. 
Ji, The anterior and superior angle of the bone. 
?', The anterior-inlei-ior angle. 
/,-, k. The posterior angles. 

FIG. 2. 
The Litenmi Surface of the same Parietal Bone. 

(7, The middle internal concave part. 
6, ft. The inner surface of the upper edge of the bone, 
e the indeutations are more appai'ent than those 

nf the 

r. The iiiuer onfice of the paiictal hole. 

(/, (/, The anterior aeii'ated edge of the bone. 

f, e. The Tiosterior edge,, more strongly niai-ked with iu- 

dcnt;Ltioiis t"hau it^ :mtc-rior edge. 
/,/,Th.M.pu-,w angles. 

^, The iiitt-iior-antcrior angle, where the beginning of 
the furiiMv is seen, which lodges the trunk of the prin- 
cipal artery of the duia mater. 
/(, A, A, At The ramifications of that fiin-ow. 
?', ;', Small furrows of the bone, which corr^pond to its 

pobteii 01- inferior angle. 
A, A ili.prcbsion which lodges part of the lateral sinus. 
/, The inferior edge of the bone, considerably thinner 
than the rest. 

FIG. 3.' 

A Vieiv of the External Surface of the Occipital Bohe, 
n, The superior angle of the bone. 

, C-, The irregulai-ities at the lateral and inferior parts 

the bone, «iiei-e it is joined to the ossa temporum. 
I, f, f. The large tranaverae aicbed ridge, gr spiae. 

, f , Muscular prints upon the transverse ridge. 

', The perpendiculai' spuie. 

', The smaller ai-clied ridge, running acrosi the spine or 

the bone. 
I, A, MuBCular prints above the foramen magnum. 
; /, The edge of, 
r, The foramen magnum. 
, /, The occipital condyles. 
H, w/, The poateiior condyloid foramina. 
I, », The inner hide of the left, and outer side of tht 

right anterior cond)'loid foramina. 
', o, Nitches 1^'llich assist in forming the holes couunoa 

to the occipital and temporal boneti. 
>, The extremity of the cuneitbi'm process, upon which 

Q of the flexor mus- 

The Internal Siifface of the Occipital Bone. 

I, The superior angle of the bone. 
i, 6, The middle, or lateral angles. 
:, c, <Sfc. The eminences and canities M-hicb assist in 

foniiing the lambdoid sutm'e. 
■/, rf. The superior occipital IYmss:, which lodge a shaje 

of the posterior lobes of the cei'ehrum. 
?, e. The uiferior occipital fossK, which lodge a part of 

the cei-cbtUuiti. 
f,f. The extremities of the /, points out 


e. The fossa i 

and has the falx iixed t 
A, The middle of the crucial ridge. 

I- longitudmal sinus, 

the lettci-s /f, b, b. 
I, /, The openings of the os occtpitis, which form part of 

the foramina lacera, common to the occipital and tern* 

poral bones, 
i, X-, TJie small processes of the os occipitis, which asfiirt 

in forming part of the foramina lacera. 
If /, The intei-nal orihce of tlie posterior condyloid holeS' 
til. The anterior condyloid hole of the os occipitis of the 

right side, 
n. The concave surface of the cuneiform process. 
«, Tlie niequalities of the cuneiform process of the os oc- 

cipit'Sf by which it ia united with the sphenoid bone. 
Pj The foi-amcn magnum. 

T.Ui .9. 

( 25 ) 


In these we observe, great size, and lined wiili C utilise, foi ilie Articulation 

The situation of each Temiioi-al Boue in the under and of the Lower Jau 'I d,b l\ O 
lateral part of the Cranium. Tab. IV. D. The Glemtd Fmure, at the bai-L put of this Cavjtj, 

The Squamous Plate^ which forms a part of the and between it and the Pin> Petiob^ jiid al=o between 

■ Templef and gives origin to a portion of the Temporal the Pars Petrosa and Sphtnoid Jione, iui lljt ittiichiiient 

Muscle. Tab. IV. D. of part of the Cap&ular Ligament o( thL AiliLuialion of 

The ^(^uamous Plate appearing equal and smooth ex- the Lowei Jaw 1 ab A 1 5 i ib \. I ig "j u 
tercaJly, with a thin semicircular edg-e above, which, by A Dcpt es-iio/i between tht. Glenoid lissuit .uid '-t)loid 

overlapping the under edge of the Parietal fioiie, gives Process, for lodp,ug a portion ot tht PluoIiJ Gliud. 

name to this Process. Tab. VU. Fig. 1. N, N. Tab. VI. between G and the btjloid Piouess M 

The Mastoid OT MammiUary Pi-ocess^ giving insertion The TlnmbU-l kc Cuiili/, 01 the Jiigih? I ssa, at the 

to strong Muscles, particularly the Stemo-maatoid j and inner side oi the loot oi the '~>tyloid Pioceis, ioi U dying 

containing Cells which communicate with each other, the top of tjie uitenial Jugular Vem Tab \i Q 
and with the Cavity of the Ear, called Tympanum. This Cavity is fi-equently largei in the one &idt oi the 

Tab. IV. «. Head than the other, correapondnig with the siic ot tlie 

The Petrous Process^ remarkably hard, very unequal. Vein which goes tiirough it 
and of an oblong form, but becoming smaller in its pro- The Jlltatiii In I 'ui ;c JEifeinus^ — a large Canal, 

gress 1 placed at the base of the Bone, from which it runs between the M i 1 id md >* v ^onjatit, Pjoceasts, 1 jding 

obliquely Ibrwai'ds and inwards, and contains the internal inwai-ds and t juv mi-. Ui Uil Ort,an ol Heanng Uab. 

Organ of Hearing, to be afterwai-ds described. Tab. X. IV, v. 
Fig. 6._^ q, Ai'ound the external Meatus, a rough Surfa'p, fc ' *> 

The Zygomatic Process^ ruiming firom the under and connection oi the Caitilages and LigainLUls ol u 

fore part of tlie Squamous Plate, to join the Ob Mala:; Tab. VI. betore N. 

foraung an Arch, on the inner side of which the Tempo- The Foiamen ititjlo-ma'-toKleutn, or jfji/a't'ct r I al- 

ral Muscle passes to the Lower Jaw, while its edges give lopius, between the "styloid and Waftoid ] lOLtbsi'i, lor 

attachment to part of the Temporal Muscle, and to the the transmission oi the Poitio Duia ot tJ c t^tnth jair 

Aponeuiosis Temporalis. Tab. X. Fig. 5. e. Tab. of Nerves 
IV.*. The Fo,amti 

A Tubercle of an oblong fomi at the root of this Pro- inner aud fore p 

cess, covered with a smooth Cartilage, making part of and at the insidt of IJic Miloid Pif us-,, k u 1 

the Articulation of the Lower .Taw. Tab. IV, behind «. then forwards, thioujjh ihc point cl tit I 

The Styloid Process^ placed at the i-oot of the Pars for the tran';rais',ion of the uit'iii il di i a 

Petrosa, and going obliquely downwards and forMards, and of the Great bynip ithttic iNti\L tiun , 

to give origin to Muscles ivhich boirow part of their Tab. VI. P. 

Dame from it, and belong to the Tongue and Throat. In the upper and back pait of the Canal, 

Tab. X. Fig. 5. r. Tab. VI. M. times two, minute Holes aie obsuitd, tt mv^] 

It is generally about an inch in lengh, though some- internal Carotid irtery sends out 01 two Iv 

times a great deal more, and is remarkably slender. It Tympanum 

is frequently, even in Adults, not entirely ossified, and is The i/t; a Pahito a<{ luuii. 11 Tl t til 

therefore apt to drop off in macerating the Bones. between the Iis'.nit Im tii t i] ul n \\ uu 

The Vaginal Process, of an inconsiderable size, siir- Lower Jaw, lud tlic pi s i^c ot tin. mitn I (. 

rounding the root of the Styloid Process, aud deepest at tery, extendnij, outudida and bicLn udo in a 

its fore part. Tab. X. Fig. 5. «. direction, till it icmiuiites in the lyiupauuMi 

The itoiigh Semicircular Hidge, at the under part of In tlie Subject, it 1 

the extei-nal Meatus; sometimes also considered as a (ilage :md Ligament, 

ProccHS, and called AiKfifory, for the connection of the is continued loiwai'ds and iii« u 

Cartilage of the Ear. Tab. X. Fig. 5, Jt. Nostril, and con\ejs air tiom ll 

A Grooi'e at the inuer pait of ihc root of the Mastoid of the Eai- 1 ab w illi i n " 
Process, giving origin to the Digastric Muscle ; and a On the external =idi i>l iIr 

little anterior to this another Groove, in which the Oc- tachian 'I nbe,and U th< t p > 

cipital Artery runs. Tab. VL t. thecouise ot the Ncr\c ttruied 

The Glenoid or Articular Cavity^ behind the root of The Finamtn Masfoi(!iu}ii, ( 

the Zygoma, of an oblong or somewhat oval fonn, of back part ol the Mastoid Pi oc 

Vol. 1. D 



Sature. When present, it sometimes transmits an Artery 
lo the Dura Mater, but more commonly a Vein tVom tlie lu- 
teguments of the Head to the Lateral Siiius. Tab. VI. u. 
Sometimes two or three Foraniina Maytoidta are ob- 
served, ser%'iiig the siunc pui-jinsf uith that aU'cady no- 
ticed ; but these, like Ai tlit nihcr passages for Veins 
leading into the t;inuse'i, arc- vei^ tiiicertaiD. 

The upper and iiim-r Etli^e of the Squamous Plate 
formed into Ridges and Furroips, m here it is coiuucttd 
with the Parietal Bone. Tab. X. V\g. G. a, ii. 

The inner Surface of the Sriuamous Plate, mmpml 
where it is marked by the Convolutions of the middle 
part of the Brain, and by the Ai-tcriea of the Duia Ma^ 
ter. Tab. X. Fig. ti. 6, A. 

Tlie Pars Pftroxa, of great size, running fonvards and 
inivards, with a sharp angle above, and two fiat sides ; 
one facing obliquely forwiirds and outivards, and the other 

miria ; one above, more conapieuoUB than the rest, is the 
beginning of the passage for the Portio Dura of the Se- 
venth Pair of Nerves. The others are the Passages of 
the Branches of the Poitio Mollis of that Nerve. Tab 
LXXiXA. Fig. 1. 

boiiiev\:iy below the Mcatua Intemus, is the opening of 
the p;iss:ij;e termed, by CoTUNNIUS, Aquaductus Cochltie ; 
■^ni\ jr;ii' ihe aanie ditilancc behind the Meatus, and on 
the Maine side of the Hone, is the mouth of the Aquaduc- 
tiis Vestibuli. 

'l"lie Foramen Innominatum^ near the middle of the 
jiterior Surface of the Pars Petrosa, and leading back- 
'ards for the passage of the Vidian Nerve, which is re- 
eded fi'om Ihe Second Tlnuuh of the Fifth, to the Por- 

as much bi 

The anterior a 
oppo'^ed to the lati 

■ The 

ml inwards. 
outfr Siirfiue of the Pars Pe 
1 Lobes of the Brain. Tab. V. 
inner Surfacv of the Pars Pe 


' The Ridge between the two Surfaces of the Pars Pe- 
trosa, for the attachment of the Tentorium Dui-a Matria. 
'Fab. V. Q. 

A Groove frequently found upon the Ridge of the Pars,for lodging the superior Petrosal Sinus. Tab. V.o. 
A Fmm^ at the root of the Posterior Surface of the 
Pars Petrosa, and opposite to the Mastoid Process, for 
lodging the Lateral Sinus, where it turns dowwvaids to 
go out of the Cranium. In this Fossa the passage is ob- 
served which corresponds with the Foramen Masloideuni. 
Tab. V. 

a.d Cu 

1 Boi 

Fo.^tenii6; or Ho/e common to 
ilorni Process of the Occlpi- 
tlie Lateral .Sinus, the Ei^th 

The Ner\-es pass through the fore pail of the Hok^ 
and are separated from the Sinus by a Process of the 
Dui-a Matter, stretclicd between two small Processes of 
these Bones. lu some Skulls, an Osseous Pai-tition at- 
pai'atcs the Nerves from the Sinus. 

Tiie Connection of the Rone, 
Edge, to tlie Parietal Bone by the Squ: 

upper ( 

This Ca^ 

e Temporal Bone 
jes w hen tlie La^ 


teral Sinuses are of unequal 

The Meatus Juditorius Intemiis, or Foi amen Au^i- 
tivHtn, passing outwards and backwards, m the posterioi 
" irface of the Pars Petrosa. for the p insage ot the Se- 
cipal Ai-ttry belongmg 

■enth Pair of Nerves, and the ( 
o the Inner Ear. Tab. V R 
In the bottom of this passage, theie 

lab. JV. 

'I'o the under and back part of the Parietal Rone, h\ 
the Additamentum Sutura; Squamosa;. Tab. IV. 

'io the Occipital Bone, by the Additameutuiu Sutui-a 

The .Squamous part of the Temporal Bene is thin, bui 
eqml, while the Paia Pttiosa is thick and stixmg, but ir- 
letjUlai, iiaMug witlmi it seveial Canities, Piocesses, and 
Bunts, which belong to the Oig^n of Heaimg 

In A Feet us the S(,i,3iiK)ns is sepai ated from the Pc- 
pjrt b\ i 1 1 suit, , theie i-, no apptirance of Ma; 


! nidJij Foja- 

lU^, tluH 


. id ol an Oss 

i Me; 



The Situation of the Ethmoid, or Cribrifoi-ra Bone, 
the fore part oF ilic Base of the Cranium. 
Its Cxhm,} Figure. 

The Cribriform P/^tc, from which the Bone has 
, placed horizontally, and perforated, excepting 

of different si? 
of the First < 
Fig. 4. f. 

Nerves, that they are much less evident than 

back part, with many Holes, disposed ijTegidarly and Bones where the Meuibrsuics liave been removed. 


The Crista Callt, arising perpendiculai-ly from the 
middle of the Cribriform Plate, and highest at the upper 

and fore part. Tab. X. Fig. 4. b. Turbinatum. 

To the edge of this Process, and to the imimntTforatcd Its Cunvciity towaitt'j the Septmn, and Omcavify out- 
part of the t 'ribrilbi-m Plate, the Falx of the Diua Ma- Mards. Tab. X. Fig. :>. t. 
ter is fixed. The Ossa Plana, or (hbitar Pla!t:s for covering a 

A Ao/cA .it the fore part of the root of the Crista large share of the Ethmoid Ctlls, and fonuing the greater 

Galli, coutributijig, Li a binail di'gTee, to the formation of part of the inner sides of the Orbili. Tab. X. Fig. 4t.g. 

the Foramen Ckcuiii of the Frontal Bone. 'I'ab. 1\. E. 

The Naval Plate, extending doivn^vards and forwards On the upper edge of each Os Planum, ttvo small 

from the base of llie Crista CialU, to form the upper and Notches appear, which, with similar Notches in the 

back part of the Scptnm Naiiuni, or Partition of the Frontal Uone, form the mtenial Orbitar Holes. Tab. 

Nostrils. Tab. XIII. Fig. -i. F. IV. /, /. 

The gi'eater part of this Process is very thin, but to- The Coiuwctiun of the Ciibrifoi-m Plate to the Orbitar 

ivaids its anterior and under edge it becomes thicker, for PLitts of the I'routal JJune by the Ethmoid Sutui*; and 

its hruitr juiictiou irith the Pones and middle Cartilage of to the Sphenoid Jjone by a Suture common to the two 

the Nose. Bones, but generally considered ai belougiug to the latter. 

It is irer|uentlv bent a little to one bide ; in such cases. Tab. \ ./, g, g. 

the two Nostrils'become mic(]ual in Mze. The Cw/j/Rt/wwof the OssaPbuato the Orbitar Plates 

The Ethiiwi<l Ctll-s of -in indelcnniiuite number and of (he Fi-ontal Bone, by pai-t of the Transvei-se Sului-e. 

fonn, placed under the Cribriform Plate, a little To the out- Tab. IV. k, I. 

Eidcot theNd'7alLamf-lla,sepuratedfronita<.liotherbythin The pfjuterior edge of the Nasal Plate, joined to tlie 

Pai-titiiu'-, and scnniL, the m ne pui-[)Osea is the Frontal Processus Azygos of the >phenoid Bone. Tab. XIII. 

Sbiuses fib X lit, 1 (/ lab MJI Fij, 1. G, H. Fig. J. 

Their Cjmmunicatims uith cich othei, with the Fron- Its upper edge, joined to the Nasal Processes of the 

tal Sinuses, and also «ilh the t i\ity of the Nose. Tab. Frontal and Nasal Bones. Tab. XIII. Fig. 2. 

XIII. Fig 3 B Its anterior edge, jomed to the middle Cartilage of the 

The Oa Spftiigw^vm Sirpeiiiiv^ on each side, projecting Nose. Tab. XIII. Fig. 2, I. 

inwards and domiuaids fiom the Fthmoid Cells at the In the Partus, the Ethmoid Bone is divided into two 

side ot tlie Nasal LanitUa, loi enUiging tlie Organ of by a Cartilaginous Partition, which afterwards forms the 

Smell. Tab X Fig J e Nasal Plate and Crista Galli. The other parts of the 

The Ttianguhi Foim and Spongy Teature of each. Bone are completely ossified. Tab. XI. 
Tab. XIU Fig 1 k,l,m,n 


The two Pteri/goi^, or AHform Processef, placed al- 

lOst pei-peudiculaily to the Base of the Cranium. The 

:" the Ci-aniuni. Tab. V. g, /, O, F. Pterygoid Processes are compared to the "ings, though 

Its irn-giihir Figure, which luis been compared to that more properly resembling the feet, of the Bat. Each is 

of a Bat with extended wings,. Tab. X. Fig. 2. composed of two Plates. 

'I'he Temporal Phttts, or U'l'ngv, placed at the sides of 'Ilie Eitenuii Plate, broad and hoUmv without, whei'e 

the Boub, ami each hollow at the upper and outer pai't, the External Pterygoid Aluscle ha.s its origin. Between 

for lodging a share of the Temporal Muscle. 'lab.l\./. the root of this Plate and that of the Temporal one, a 

The Orbitar Plates^ at the ftire part of the Tcmpor;il tai'ge Depi-ession, where the principal part of the I'.xter- 

Wings, foruiing a portion of the outside of the Orbits, ual Pterygoid Muscle has its origin. At the fore part of 

Tab. III. III. this is ajiother Depression, forming pai-t of the opening 

The Spinous Pinrc^s, at the under and back paj-t of common to the Sphenoid, and to tiie .Mular and superior 

each Temporal Plate. Tab. \. Fi-. .'. v. Mamillary Bones. 

A S.\i/loul Process, fiT(|ucullv observed at liic point <,f The Inh; „ul PItdc, uarrauvr and loagi r ih-m the Ex- 

the : pioous, from bi.lh of which the tircuiullcxus Palati tcrnal, :uul, m ith its kWuw on ihc opposite aide, forming 

aiiscs. Tab. X. I'ig. 'J. the back part of the Nose. 

K:l\veen the Temporil and Spiooua Processes, an A hmk-like PnicetiK upon the Internal Plate, over 

Artli for rcctiviui; the fore part oi the Tenporal Bone, which the Cu-cumflcxi'.>. l*alati moves as on a Pultev. 
Tab. IV. 2- 'I'ab. X. Fig. 2. y. The Fasm Pten/goidai^ facing back^vards between the 

D 2 Pterygoid 


Pteiygoid Plalcb, giMug iiac to the mterual PtLn^^itl '''<■ Dui i "Vlater, to be di'^perued upon the Biain Tab. 

■\Iuscle T.ib MR \ A 

A AHKi// jDepj f^swn ^t the back part of ihc lootofllic lJi.Mdcs these Impi cisions, scvei-il others, maybe ob- 

uiteni'U Ptcngoid Plite, whjch gi\es oii^in topaitot bciitd, niatk bv JStntH and ^ ebfith kadmg to or fa-ODi 

tbe tiicumfltx Ulii'.ilt. ot the Palate thtu it putne Holes in tht bosi. ot the trajiiuin 

A GifMtt on L ich 'idt, uhiih extends at the umer part Ihi 1 timim Opiua at the lOOts ot the anteiior Ch 

of the JJoiie, btiivttu the loot ot the btvloid Process and noid Pi l , tm tht ti uismibsion ot the Opta Nervet. 

that of the lu ciual PtLij^oid Plate, asiistuii, m the ioi- mdOcilLi \iliiieb Jib \ tj^ *. / 
mation oi the Euitathiau lube Hi / i mm nn Ln< 1 1 n Siijtn ;<(, oi Suptntu Orbitai 

'Ihe two T/?«/(^K/fl/ P;cttfjses which adliere to the T/ w; t , tind i (he il i >! ( Im ml Puhls ts uid (hen 

under part of the ^phellOld, and to the Ethmoid ISwne, ti uibiti i Sj u < ll I' l1 , i i ll < p l ^ d the tJniJ, 

and whicfa are consideied as tiio ot the Bones ol the U liill , tii t i u it 1 IlUI iid tin. l tli imi of ISiivt 

Eace. 'lab. X lig 1 b lig J k uith tU O il i \l 1 1 \ 1 it, i 

The PrrctsM/f 4zigo ^ btajidmg single, lud fonmng a Ihc 1 li ninna L tn n I j I it ti en iiinei tiida 

sh'trp ridge, i^hieh piojeets tioni midei the middle md \t tlitii outu extuniities tK\ aie t inidti il)l> siiialiei, 

fore part ot the lione Tab \ lij, I n Ihii, Piote&s uid ue tonned tlieie b\ the O-^ Jioutis h.nte tlie> may 

13 ottCD bent to one side, dividing the two Nootnls unc- be i uiktd amoiif, the eomnKm HoK', o! the Ciajiium 
qtially. Phi / iiuiniHi h /i iidn, a httte behind the Poiamuia 

Ihe Cluioid Pr-ocesses^ seen on the inside of the Laeei i, t( i the pa iL,e ot the second part ot the fatth 

Bone, comparedi to tbe supporters of a bed, of \\hich piu ol Nme ,\\hiLl] uc termed Jso Supenoi MauUary 

theieaie, lab X I il. , /< 

i J iiUi 01, proiectuig from the fore pait of the Ihc rotainwa Oiaha, considerably larger than the 

F ' 'i 1 , end eUembng hciuoutally outnaids , Foramma llotuiida, md placed farther back, and more 

< I 11 V point "Inch obtuns the name ot cxtemaQy, foi the passage oi the thud pait ot the tfih 

' ; 'ij ' ' Ptottii, lab '\ L lab X Fig pair ot >ienes, anel, coumionl>, for the passage of the 

~. e aiiJ, \emg which accompany the prmcipal 'ialeiies of the 

OjiC /*«■./* J it/;, situated traniiverbely, some « ay behmd Duia Matei Tab X Pig Si o 
the antenor Processes, and fi-equentJy endmg m two ihe i-wwrnj/ic !7>i«a/ifl, a bttle to the outer and back 

Knobs, which mebne obhcjuelj torwards lab X Ii;^ part ot the I'oratuina Ovaba, aud m the pomts of the 

2. A Spmous Pioccsses, toi the transmission of tbe pimcipal 

SometuDes one oi both of the anteuor Chnoid Pro- \rteiiea of the Dura Mater, the mipres&ions ol which 

CC83C!> oi-e imited with t! i puatenoi, lotninig an Aich are &o conspicuous on tlit lunei side, ot the 'lemporal 

over the mtemal tdidid Uili> Bones Jab X l-jg 2 p 

The Pi-occ'-u'' O'naii , con ideied b\ some as a fourth The Foiamina PUfycioiJea^ termed -il so, after the dis- 

Clmoid Piocesa, lying bctHccn. and a httk bchmd, the coverer, pjramina \idiana, at the roots ot the mnei 

t-, Tab "\ h Plates ot the Pterygoid Processes, tor the passage of two 

e-isc-, a •,muU~pmtitcd reflected bi-anches of the second pirt ot the fatth pair ot 

1 join the Cnbntorm Serves fab X Fig 1 « lab MX 
Plate of the Ethmoid Jjone, tiom whit h it is sometimes Tbe Foramina Ptengoielea aie the smallest of the 

called 1 thnioid I'loec!, J ib \ ^ Sphenoid Holes, and cinneit be distmctly seen m the en 

Tbe Tempo/ al I J sd of this liont, which lodge a shaj-e tire 'skull, being paiily concealed by the Palate-Bones 
of the htei ll Lobes ol the Brem lab \ P Sometimes one or more small passages are observed m 
A jTo' a between ihc iiiteiior Ctmoid Processes, t\ here or near the Sella Turcici, foi the tiansmission of Blood- 
part ot the tiilLTHii Lobes ot the Brain rests vessels mto the Sphenoid ', or to the substance of 
A Depie i ? b 1 ic llic Pioccssns Olivans, where the the Bone These passages wcie, m former tunes, con- 
coiyoiued Opti Nenes lie and a Fossa on each Side of sidered by some Autboi's as conducting Pituita by the 
it, when tht e >.( ive iie sitintcd, previous to their SpheuoidU Sinuses mto the ^ose 

cnteiuigtht Ol ll J Lb X D The loiamvm I^tictia Antuvna, common to the 

The / ( /-*/ iltiiK, SI! linua, Ephtppium, or pomts ot the Partes Pctroaa: and tbe Sphenoid Bone 

T;/»A/ A S,i///,, Il( s. ntlL P, ic bUsOUvansandjios- Tab\ before/ 

ttnoi tl n nd I'loct t i loiipng the GJaudula Pittu- In a letuit *skull, each of these Holes is filled belund 

tail I lab V D lab X tig 2 / bv a thni plite ot Bone, which covers the mtenial Caro- 

A Depression, nmnmg fii-st upwards, then forwards, tid Aiter\, ind fajther forwaidf,, by i Cartiliginous Li- 

upon each side ol the postcnoi CImoid Process and *^cll^, g-ament, which lies ovei tht Fustachian Tube, both ot 

Tuicico, and termmatmg m a Pit at the root ot the an- which duip out by niaceiation Thiough this opening, 

teiiop Clinoid Process. These Depreesiong point out the also, Mucus was formerly supposed to be conve^'d from 

course of the intern^ Carotid Arteries, when they have the Glandula Pituitaria to the Nose, 
entered the Craaiiun, and previous to their perforating The Sphenoid Sinuses^ occupying the whole of the 


ol the ante 

rioi Clinoid I*ioi 



esA ficr^uenl 

Iv juts fon\iitU 


Body of the Bone, at the under and fore part of tlie into one of tlie Nostrils. In sonic Subjects, instead of 

Sella 7'urcica, answering the same purposes with the Sinuses, the Body of the Bone is composed of large Cells. 

Ethmoid and Frontal Cells. Tab. X. Fig. 1 , c. The Substance of this Bone is tlie most unequal of any 

A complete Partition between the right and left Sphe- in the Body, some parts being estreinply thin, while 

noid Sinuses. Tab. X. between r, c. otheivs are thicker than most parts of the Cranium. 

A Passage fi-ora the upper and fore part of each of the The Connection of the Bone to all the otlier Bones of 

Sphenoid Sinuses, descending, in a slanting direction, the Cranium, by the Sphenoid Suture, though others, as 

into the superior-posterior parts of the Nose. See Tab. the Transverse, Ethmoid, &c. art confounded witli it. 

with the Nervcsof the Nose. Tab.CLXXXIV. Fig. 1.0. In the Fcetus, the Temporal Wings arc sepai-ated fi-om 

The two Sinuses are fi'equently of unequal size, and the Body of the Bone by maceration^ and there are no 

- "'■ 3 there is but one laige Cavity, with au opening Sphenoid Siauses. Tab, XI. 

( so ) 


Represents the Sphenoid, Ethmoid, and Temporal Bones. 

grow to 


body of 

this bone. 

f, r, The 


ces of th 

e splicuoid sinus 


rf, rf, The 


imina laci 


e. The an 



ifriorpart of the 

■ body of the bone. 

/,/, The . 


1-na] s.,rf. 

ice ol' the tiausi 

/ersu processes. 

6, 6, The temporal plates, or processes of the bone. 

c, c. The trausverse protessea. 

(/, Tlie small ajiterioi- pi-otess, which unites with the etii. 
moid bone. 

«, The pTOcessus azygos of the sphenoid bone. e, A protuberance situated before the union of the optic 

b, b, Tlie small triangular bones, which, in old people, nerves. 

/,yi The foramina optica. 

g, g. The anterior cfinoid processes. 

A, A, Tlie postetior clinoio processes. 

/, i\ Part <il the foramina lacei-a, 

X, X, Iniprr^:ii(Kis made by the internal carotid arteries. 

A, /(, 'I'hc superior extremities of the temporal processes. ;«, /;;, 'J'he tavities of the temporal processes, which re- 
7, /, 'I'iie niiiidle of the temporal processes, wnich fotrm ceive the lateral lobes of tlie brain. 

part of the temporal fossEc. ;;, n. The foramina rotunda. 

A, X', The a.'.perities by which this bone is joined to the o, o. The foramina ovalia. 

ossa malarum. /"lA I'he foramina spinalia. 

/, /, Gutters in the os sphenoides, which lodge branches 5, 5, The ragged edge of the bone, which assists b foin 

of the fifth pair of nerves. ing the sphenoid suture. 

7H, w/. The furamiua rotunda. r, Part of the sphenoid bone, which joins the cuneifoir 
n, 11, The foramina ptervgoidea. prottss of the occipita] bone. 

0, o. The ant*-ii<ir ojieninffK, which assist in forming the 5, .», Part of the spinous processes. 

spluno-maxillary fissures. t, t. Part of the pterygoid processes, 
y), p, 'J'he foraiiiiiia ovalia. 

f', f/. The ^pin<m= processes. TIG. 3. 

■;■, J-, 1 tic ro"t-i rii the pterygoid processes. 

.«, ,s n he liui nial ., hires of' the pterygoid processes. The Outer and Vmkr Surface of t/ie Ethmoid Bom£. 
■ ' ' " a of the 

anterior extremity of the nasal plate, which fornu 
ppei- part of the septum narium. 
Inch the tendons of the circumflex muscles of the pa- b-> The posterior extremity of the nasal plate, which is 
late play. very tnin. 

jf, J, The external plates of the pterygoid pi-ocesses. c» «?» 'I'he ethmoid grooves, or chinl^ which a^arate tlie 

,y, y, 'ITie pails of the bone adapted to the ossa palati. ^"^^ p'ate from the ossa spongiosa superiora. 

*, iB, The posterior openings, common to the sphenoid <'» */» The passages for the branches of the olfaLnv 
and temporal bones, over which the internal caiotid nerves, 
arteries pass. e, e, The ossa spongiosa superiora. 

f,f^ nie cavities of the ossa spongiosa superiora. 
^^^- -■ .i,s\^. Pail of the clhmoid crllf.. 

//, /), (mf(ii;iliiif- of (In- ethmoid bone, by which 1! 

/, /, 'I 111- |)n-.N_h-iuj- t\triiiiity, which is joined to the t-pi" 
It, ff, The superior and anterior part of the sphenoid uoiil bone. 
bone, which is joined to the under and back part of l; Ic, Tlie small comua, or triangular bon^ which, u 
the frontal bone. adults, are joined to the body of the sphenoid bone. 

7:u3. JO. 



^^^- 4. )/, The glenoid cavil y for llic articulation of ihe lowc: 

The inner and upper Surface of the Ethmoid Bone. ■'.pT* , - . .- 

•' -^ 0, The glenoid fissure, to which part of the ailicubr li 
a. The anterior extremity of the bonc^ teniiiuatiiig in a giimeiit is iixed. 

small flat pi-ocess. p^ 'Hit- vaginal process. 

A, The uppLT part of the crista galli. ?> I*;"' nit lie mastoid groove. 

, The crihrilbrm plate, with the different passages of '■> '''!'< ^'vlDid prucc:,s. 

f the illunoid boiic. U Tlic l);isi-, ur upptT p:u t of the,i,l pincf.s-,. 

tyoftliL-ni.sal plate, which forms 'S Tiic iiilLnov and uiuen.^r prt of iIk- Irmp.,,,.! Ih.ii. . 
rium. -.vliicli ls joined lo tlic o^ sjilicjioiilt-,. 

■ins of ilif ethmoid bone. 'i A porlioji of tjie Eustacliian tube. 

; phiniiiii of tlie left side. Vi A portion of the pars petrosa. 
tlif triangidar bones which are 
hcspliLiioid bouc. riG. C. 


! olla 


rf, rf, 



r, Tl 

n 'r 

tJK- SI 




ft A 


t pan 

I'ith the ethmoid 
i of the triaiigidar bones with 

A View of the Li/icr Sm-face of Ihc Tempor. 
«, ff. The upper edge of the squamous process 
b, b. Depressions which correspond witli the c 

s joined I 

FTG. 5. 

A T'nw of the Outer Surface of the Temporal '. 

a. The upper and K(|uamous pail of the temporal bone. fh The uiteh which receives [he posterior and iuferio 
I; The middle of the squamous part. 

<-, The under pait, ^\'liich lodges a portion of the tempo- e, 'Ihc up] 

ral muscle. f, Tlie groove wnicn ioa'^-cs tue superior petrosal sinus, 

(/, That part of the temporal bone, which, when joined g-i Tlie fossa whicli lodges a part of llie lateral sinus. 

to the under and back part of the os pai-ietale, forms. A, The meatus audiloi'ius iniei'iuis. 

the additauientum sutui-a; fiC|uamosse. /, Tlie iiitelL which asji^ts in furriiiiig- the foramen lacc- 
c. The zygomatic process. rum. 

/, The bkse of the zygomatic process. /■, Part of tbc- fo.ssa oi' the temporal bone, which lodges 
gy The transverse, or articular process. the begiiiniii!;- of ib^' iiilci'iiii! JLLgular \ciii. 

//, h, Tlie mastoid process. /, The po.Uiior p:.rl <.f iIil bone', ubidi is joined to the 
?', i'. Several small holes which transmit vessels to the sub- occipital one. 

stance of the boue, or to the dura mater. ni, Tlie iiiiu r Mirfaci; oi iIr> foramen masioideuni. 

/.-, /■, Two holes al the root of the zygomatic process, for n, A poi'tioii ol'tbi- iiK^iold process. 

the transmission of vessels to the substance of lite bone, o, A eonsi,liT;iblc p;irl of the mastoid groove. 

or to the dura mater. yi, The slyloid process. 

/, The meatus auditorius extemus. </, The inner extreuiity of the pars pelro^^a, divided into 
HI, Inequalities at the beginning of the meatns. iivo portions. 


Views of the Fcetal Bones of the Head. 

FIG, 1. 

'A Lateral View of the Skull. 
A« The frontal bone, not yet complete in its middle and 

Tke Older Surface of the four Pieces which fortii the 

upper part. 

B, Part of the fontanella. 

C, llie coronal suture, which I 

D, I'he parietal bone, formed of radiated fibres. 

E, A poition of the left parietal bone. 

F, The sagittal suture. 

G, The occipital bone. 
H, The lainbcloid suture. 

I, Tlie fontanella posterior, seen only in some bones. 

K, The sfjuamous part of the temporal bone. 

Ii, The zygomatic process of that bone. 

M, The mastoid process. 

N, The squamous sutui'e, partly membranous. 

O, The membrana tjmpaui. 

P, The temporal plate of the sphenoid bone. 

Q, The nanal process df the superior majullary bone. 

B, 'J'he body of that bone. 

S, The orbit. 

T, The OS malx. 

U, The lower jaw. 

TIG. 2. 

A, The upper and largest portion. 

B, B, The two lateral portions, with the condyles and 
here in part membra- condyloid foramina. 

C, The poitioo wliicli forms the cuneiform process. 

The Outei 


of the 


AL Bone of the 


The squamrtjs pla 



The zygoj 

lalii: pi- 



The ai mil 

Jar cavity. 


The osseo 

us cii'clu. Id which the mcmbrajia tjmpam 





of them 

ne Bone. ■ 



» ivhici 


ate the 

inion between the 

squamous a 

d petro 

OS port 



The hssui' 
irajia tyuip 

of tlic 



n which the niem< 

A, The right, and, 

B, The left portion of the frontaj bone. 

C, C, The orbilar plates. 

The Outer Surface of the Left Parietal Bone, in which 
the radiated Appearance of the Osseous Fibres is seen } 
the under and middle part appears prominent, and more 
compact than the rest of the Bone. 

FIG. 4. 
The Outer Surface of the same Bone, 

A, The cellular texture of the bone. 

B, The part iihich forms the future mastoid process. 

C, The bottom of the tympanum, with passages belong- 
ing to the iutei'u:J organ of hearing. 

FIG. 9. 

The Lateral Portions of the Ethmoid Bone, 

FIG. 10. 

The three Pieces which fifrm the Sphenoid Bone. 
A, A, The temporal wings, &c. 


The Boiies of the Face, and tlie relative proportions 
betiveeu the Face and Cranium, vary coneiderably among 
people of difTcrcut uationSf but they likewise vary aiiioug 
the individuals of the same country, it is dil^eult, there- 
fore, to ascertain the proportions with accuracy. Aii 
Angle termed Facial^ however, is considered by some 
late Authors as being tlie simplest method of determining 

The Facial Angle is formed by drawing a line through 
the external Auditory P;issage and bottom of the Nostril, 
and another, termed Facial, from the convexity of the 
Forehead to the under and fore pait of the t'ppci' Jaw, 
80 as to intersect the former. 

lu the Grecian, as measured from the Antique Statue, 
the Facial Angle is tbmid to be about ','0°, or between 
90* and lUU" ; in the European, about 80", or betweeu 
80" and 90" ; and in the African, on account of llie 
greater prominence of the Jaws, about TO'. 

According to Dr Camper, the Soimdaries of the Fa- 
cial Angle, in the Human Subject, are 70° aud 81)". 

By a vertical longitudinal section of the Head, the 
area of the Face in the £uropean is observed to be only 
Half of that of the Cranium, but is somewhat more in the 
Negro ; or, the Face is lai-ger in the one, while the Cra- 
nium is bigger in the other. 

In the Bones of the Face we observe. 

Their Divisum into Upper and Under Jaws. 

The Upper Ja^v, or Maxilla Superior, besides the 
Teeth, composed of aewn Pair of Bones^ and one willi- 
out a fellow ; viz. 

Two Ossa Na.^ii Two Ossa Ungi/i.^; Two 0.ssa Ma, 
larum; Two Ossa MnnUaria Sif/n-riora ; Two 0.v.v« 
Fafati; Two 0.v,vn \j,ongiw(i Iiifcriora ,- Two Osm Tru. 
angtilaria ; and tlie J'oiiirr. 

The Lower Jaw, or Maxilla Inferior, consists of a 
single Bone, with the Teeth. 

The Bonea of the Upper -Taw are joined together by 
Sutures which have no lOstinct Indentations, lihe tliose 
of the Craninm ; but, like them, they me frcc|ucntly 
found obliterated in the Skidls of old [j^ple. The Bone's 

The tkick^ raggedy upper end, where it forms a strong 
connection with the Froutal Bone. Tab. XII. Fig. 3. 

Jiach narrowest a httle below the upper end, aud bcul 

The interior Extremity, thinner and broader than tlic 
rest of the Bone, and unequal where it gives altarhment 
to the Cartilaginous part of the Nose. Tab. XII. Fig. 3. 

The under half convex extenially, by nhich, «hen the 
Bone is joined to its fellow, a sIrongArch is formed, that 
is fitted for resisting injury. Tab. III. F. 

Its internal Concavihj, wliere it forjus part of the Ca- 
vity of the Nose. Tab. XII. Fi^. 1, 

The Spinous Pivcess, which joius the Nasal Lamella 
of the Etiunoid Bone, aud tliereby forms pait of the par- 
tition of the Nose. Tab. XII. Fig. 4. C. 

One or more Hoks externally, for transmitting Vessels 
into the Substance of the Bouc, or to the Membrane of 
the No^e. Tab. IV. x. 

Its Connection to the Frontal Bone by the Transverse 
Suture. Tab. III. /, aud. 

To its fellow by the anterior Nasal Sutui-e. Tab. III. 
before F. 

Li the Foetus, the Ossa Nasi ai-e proportionally short, 
but aie otherwise complete, 

Ossa Unguis, or Lacrymalia. 

d fore pai't of the Orbit, 

two depre- 

Their sanation at the im 
Tab. IV. H. 

The Dirision of each e: 
,SVr/rt<r,s Willi a liitlge between them, which forms the 
buLui.lary of tlie Orbit at the i.iincr Anyle. Tab. XII. 


- D<v»- 

; upper and fore part of the No: 

Tiicii Sitiialmi L 
Tab. III. F. 
The i/hhng Form of each, though irrcgulaily .^i 

The««(,r»/' ;j.7»v„.,. „. ,,,._ ,,. I ihe Lacn-- 

mal .Sao aud Duel, aud [ iji ..iii.ilj iiolcs, tlu'Ough 
wliieh Pibres pass, to mat^ a litm eouuection between 
the Bone and its investing Membrane. Tab. XII. Fig. 
5. A. 

In the .Anterior Depression, the perforation is made iB 
V,^ peiforaiiiu;- tlio opiraliiin lor Tiilula Laervmalis. 
ri -Jlie ;,,mr Surf,,,,, coiii| «S :, furroK aud t,m 

' i-mq«/(ui™iT. Suifaca, <orres])onJiiig ivith the ante- 
rior F.tlimoid Cells. 'Tab. XII. Fig. 11. 

The ,t„kla,icc of the Hone i, the lli,;,„rst and most 
hn-llle of any iu the Itody, iu eoii.e.|UeiKe of which it is 
frequently met with in au imperfecl stair. 

Its Cmimctwi, to the Frontal Hone bv the Tran.sverse 
Suture, and to the Os Planum by the Ethmoid Suture. 

Iiit,rm/(,^y it is connected with the Ethmoid Cells. 

Iji the Foitus, it is fully formed. 


p b undary C 

an g -m p rl 

B dJ IV 

: A id b lU h 

T m H Al k 

od pai IFF F 

fi) m p ui 

U d 





1 \ 

amen Cir umfe 


» alar P 







i in h Z 










d mm nl 


h and 

B m 




aidlt til 

m O F 




al ti 


■m a» d,l« mc 

an rp 

h Al li, and 







rt h N 



•re po dmg 


al Pro 

d tbe 

Z P 




m T 


DO ti 

B k an 


h Cimis, 

S b. 

ul 6 






La£ryn al 



tuatcd under the Oibitar Plate 

, and abo\ 

Deiites ]\rol:u-cs, destined for Hie 

Hanie luiri 

other Sinuses of the Bones of t 

he Heu'l. 

Fig. 2. f, c. Tab. Xril. rig. .3. 

L, Al,\, 

Tiie Partition bctu'ecn thi' Sli 

Teeth is coii.jnonly of con.'^i.lciM 

bl.- Ihiekiii. 

unfi-etiiicmly tlicro is onlj ;i Uiiii 

Phite iiili 


rosity, for tlic (raivsmlssion of Blood-Vessels and Nerves Its Spi/mis Pivccis at the inner edge of the Palate- 

into the Snbslame of ihc Hone and Tcetli, and into the PUite, joining the under edge of the Vomer, and contvi- 

Antrum !\ia\ilhue. Tab. 111. /. biiting to the formation of tlie Septum Nariuni. Tab. 

T-he Siiuis Maiii/at-i.-.; Jnlniin MfiitUan; or, from XII. Fig. 2. between / and )/. 

its describer, called Wghmwianiiin^ of great si/_e, oceu- Tlic Pttn/guid Proccw, of a Tnuii,i-i>hir form, witli 

pying the wliole inner part of the Body of tlie Bone, si- Fnssn- corresponding to the Pterygoid Pl;itf s of the Sjilie- 

.__._j _j .,„... ^. , . ,^, tije 1,^,.^ noid Bone. Tab. XU. Fig. H. B. 

po.cs as the The Nmal Plaft^ foniiiiij;- a portion of ijic side of tlie 

'lab. Xll. Nose, and .Vnlruin MaMllaic. TiLb. MI. I'ig. -J. /. 

(_>. A Rulgt on the inside of this Pink-, upon uhith the 

cUts of the back part of the inferior .^^pongv Bone rthl,. Tab. XIJ. 

-ss , bnt not Fig. -4. m. 

_'rp-..sed, and The Tim Orlntar Piwisscs, at t])e upper and b^itlv 

small Proiniiicn<os containijiK ihf points of the roots of part of the Nasul Plate, toni i-ibiitbi;,^ a hitle in tlie fov- 

tte Teeth. ni;iy olUn be i.b,er\ed in the iiiiihile of this ination of the Orbii, ;iiid of ihe Ktlnnoi.l and Sphenoid 

Cavity. biinises, beiiig hollow uithhi. Tib, XII. Fig. -4. k. 

The 0;jf«;"/;^ of the Sinus, large in the separated Max- The A/ihnor Orbihir I'n.-. -. \\<'- J m ■/ r 'A' tlie U> o, 

iUai'y Bone, but, in the connected state, so covered by with its upper Surlan m ■ _ "i i ■' lnnioni of t)ie 

the inferior Spongy Bone, and by the Palate-Bone and Orbit, behuid the batk j i ■ ' < ■ ri.nunn and Os 

Membranes, as to leave only one, or sometimes two A- Maxillare. 

pertures, little larger than to admit the point of a Sur- A Nolclt between I In (li I.,. ■: I'-hm ,. , ,._ foraiiiig part 

geon's Probe. The Aperture is situated at the upper part of the }'<na}iun \j'/it',i'i-i'a/ii,'>iii'i)i, for the passage of 

of the Sinus, and descends obliquely backivarcis ro terini- the lateral Na^.d \ ei.^eL ajid .\erve.:>. Tab. XU. Fig. 

nate between the Ossa Spongiosa supcrius et inferius, ia 11. F. Fig. '.'. luuUi- k. 

the Cavity of the Nose. Tab. Xlll. Fig. 1. q. The Foramvn P„latiuiim Pa-lcriiis, vel Pahita-Mai^ 

The Connection of the Os Masillare Superius to liie i/hte, at the outer cud of the Paiatc-Plate of this Bone, 

Frontal Bone, by the Transverse .Suiuie, Tab. III. be- but common to it and the Maxillary Bone, for the trans- 

tween e and p ;— to the Os Unguis, by the Lacryjual Sn- inlssion of the Palatine Vessels and Nerve. Tab. VI. 4. 

ture. Tab. III. betivcen y> and G ;— to the Os Nasi, by A. smalt Hok frnjuently ob.ser\ed behind the former i 

the Lateral Nasal Sutiu'e, Tab. IV. behind x ; — to the and commmiicating wit' ■■ ' .- t, 

Cheek-Bone, by the internal and external Orbitar Su- of tlie Palatine Nerve, 

tares. Tab. IV. 2. ;— to the Os Planum, by the Ethmoid The Foranu-n Spin: 

Suture, Tab. IV. between E and 1(1. ;— to its felloiv, by or Infermr Orbilnr /V 

the Lon^tudinal Palate Suture, Tab. VI. -i. ; — to its of the Orbit, anil com 

fellow also, between the fore part of the Nose and Mouth, Malar, and Palate Bor 

by tiie Mystachial Suture, Tab. III. w. the Eye, and transmiti 

The Substance of.this Boae is hard and dense, except Nen'cs into the (Jrbit. 

at the Alveoli, where it is remarkably spongy. The Palate-Plate of this Bone and its Pterygoid Pro- 

The Ossa Maxillaria form the greater pait of the Nose cess are iirm and strong ; but the Nasal Plate and Orbi- 

uid Roof of the Mouth, a coasiderable part of the Or- tar Process are thin and biittle. 

bits, and contain all the Teeth which belong to ihe Upper The Coiiitectum of the Os I'alati to the Palate-Plafe 

Jaw. of the MaxiUarv Bone, bv the Palate Suture, 

In the Fcetufl, there are Six Sockets for the Teeth,— Tab. VI. before /,— to the iHa\illaiv iione, at tht side 

no Tuberosity, and the Maxillai'y Sinus is only beginning of the Nose and bottom of the Oihit, In ilie P.diio- 

to form. Maxillary Sutuiv, Tab. XII. Fi-. -.'. Z;— lo ihe Pury. 
goid Process of the Sphenoid B.uie, b> the Sphenoid Su- 

OssA Palati. *i"* i—^° the Os Planum and Ethmoid Ceils, by the Eth- 
moid .Suture ; — and to its fellow, by the Longitudinal 

Their Situation in the back pai-t of the Palate. Tab. Palate Suture. Tab. VX. at the inside of/. 

VI. /. -.-.-.--.. 

The Oblang Form of the Palate-Plate of each, ivhich 
fbrms the back part of the Osseous Palate. Tab. VI. /". 

Its ^sfcrw;- curved Edge, «liere it ia connected with 
the Velum Palati ; also the point at the inner extremity 
of the Curve, for the origia of the Muscle of the I'vnla. 
Tab. VI. /. 

Its thick, strong Substance, wliere it joius its fello^v. 
Tab. XII. Fig. a. n. 

illarr, I 

,s.i.i;c ol' a Braacli 
"anrnm la/mus. 

llic Cuiic 
lall Twig 

ili'im, iSiLSuEj, 
1-at belonging to 
s of Vessels and 

In the Ftetus, tlic Pidate-Boi 
are no Cells in the Orbitar Proc 

le is complete, hut there 

Ossa SraNCiosA, vcl Tur! 


The situation of ^wieh in the 1 
the Nose. Tab. XlH. Fig. 1. 

lis lri((/i/'u/tirform nn<l spon^^ 
the Os Spontriy-^imi Superius, 

luider part of the side of 

between 9 and r. 

V appearance, resembling 

fab. XII. Fig. 9. 


Its dnve^iti/ towarfts the Septum Nasi, and Omcmjty 

outwards. Tab. Mil. Tig. >■-■ «. VoMEll. 

The imder edge placed horizontallynearthe under part 

of the Nose, ajid cniUiig in a bhai-p point behind. 1'= Siliiatum in the under pait of the Septinn Nasi, 

The two Praces.\es at the upper part of the J^one, the where it separates the Ntjstrila trom eaeh other. Tab. 

anterior ascending and forming part of the Lai;rym;d lU* ^^ 

Groove, and tlie posterior descending m form of a Hook, It is frequently bent to one side, in which case the one 

to make part of tlie side of the Maxdlary 6inus. Tab. Nostril is rendered larger than the other. 

XII. Fig. 1'. B. ^*^ Foivn compared to that oi the Plough-share, from 

The Conrieclum of this Eone to the Os Maxlllare, O. which it has its name. '1 ab. XIII. Fig. 2. H. 

Palati, and Os Unguis, by a distinct Suture in the The mfienot- m<i jioxhrior [y^t, tfnc/c lUid strong, with 

yonne Subieet j hut in the Adult, by a concretion of a fti;t)» above tx> receive I he Processus Azygos of the 

substance. Sphenoid Bone. Tab. XII. Fig. 13. A. Tab. XUI. 

Tlie Ossa Spongiosa afford a large surface for extend- Fig- 2. behind G. 

ingtheOrganof Smell, byaUowingthe Membrane of the 'The iliperwr pail, with a Grooie to receive the Na. 

Nose to be expanded, upon which the Olfactory Nerves "al Plate of the Ethmoid Bone, and Cartilage of the 

are dispereed. Nose. Tab. XIII. Fig. '-. before G. 

In the Fffitus, these Bones axe abnost complete. The inferior edge connected with the Spinous Proeess. 
es of the Palate and Maxillary Bones, by a small Ridge 

Ossa Tjiakgulaxia, vel CoRmiA SraENOiDALiA. JJ"^'™"^ J^'"" * °'"""' °^ *''' '*°°"- ■"'*• '^^- 

I between the The posterior edge unconnected with any other fione^ 

H internal Pte- and tinned to the Cavity of the Fauces. Tab. XUI. 

rygoid Process', covering the under part of the Sphenoid Fig. 2. M. Tab. VI. g. 

Sinus. Tab. X. Fig. 1 . b. The Vomer has a smooth Surface, and a dense Snh. 

Its Connection to the back part of the Fthmoid Bone, stance, and consiets of two Plates in a young persoo j 

Tab. X. Fig. 3. k. In an old person, it grows so firmly but in an old Subject, the Plates are compressed togethert 

to the Sphenoid Bone, as to be considered by some Au- .so as to render the Soae trau^aieDt. 
thors as one of i' " 

Tab. J 3.. 


^,:,.u. ^y.' 

1 \ 

( 37 ) 


Views of the different Bones of the Face, 

The Outer Sitle of the Bight Os Maxillare SuPerios, 
with a small Portion of the Os Palati. 

A, The maxillary fossa. 

B, The DaBiU process of the maxillary bone. 

(7, Inequalities by which it is joined to the os frontis. 
b. The angle which is joined to the under cud of the os 
nasi, and to tlic cartilage of the nosei 

C, '1 he orbitar plate. 

f, The edge of the orbit. 

d, A groove which belongs to the iafi'a-orbitar canal. 

*» *»/»/» 1'he malar process. 

3), D, The alveolaj- pi-ocess. 

E, The maxillary tuberosity of the bone. 

F, A smaUjiortion of the os palati. 

■£) 5"* Two of many small holes which peaetiate into the 
substance of the bone. 

G, The fore part of the nostril. ? 

A^'The nasal spine, forming part of the partition of the 

e, and points 

^ The letter is placed upon the jjalat^^; 
to the upper end of the palate-Hssiira'^ 

I, The foramen iufra-orbitarium, 

1. I. ITie dentes incisores. 

2. The dens caninus. 

3. &c. The dentes moiares. 

FIG. 2. 

A, The nasal process, or upper angle, 
o. The middle angle, at the base of the nasal process. 
iuef|ualities, where the fore part of tlie os spongiosum 

E, J<» The palate-pi-oc 
^, C, C, The alveolar pro 

e of the palate-process. 

\ Tlie suture which unites this bone to the os palati. 
, The part of this bone which forms the largest share of 

the nasal fossa. 
', The spine, which, by the union of its fellow, forms a 

small portion of the partition of the nose. 
i, e. The irregular fiurface, by which the fore part of 

this bone joins its fellow on the opposite side. 
^, H, H, The OS palati. 

> The small sinus commonly found in this bone. 
, A portion of the palate-bone, tbrming part of the fossa 

nasalis, and partition of the maxillary sinus. 
7, An eminence by which this bone is connected to the 

'i|i|)trr part of this bone. 
: which assists in forming the fora- 

. 1. The dentes ii 

. The dens caninus. 

. 3. The deutes moiares. 

FIG. 3. 
The Outer Surface of the Ossa Nasi. 

A, A, The upper part, which is joined to the firontal bone. 
£, B, Tlie lower ragged end, to which the cartilage of 

the uose is fixed. 
A^ B, A, B, Holes penetrating the hone. 

FIG. 4. 

The Inner Surface of the Ossa Nasi. 

A, A, The upper ragged end. 

B, B, The lower end, broader and thinner than the rest. 

C, C, The inner edge, thick and stix^ng, where it joins 
its fellow, and sends a spine backtvards, to be fixed to 
the partition of the nose. 

D, D, 1 he cavity %vhich forms part of the arch of th» 

FIG. 5. 
The Outer Surface of the Left Os Unguis. 

A, The lacrymal process, perforated by 

B, The orbitar process. 

C, The ridge which separates the processeBi 


FIG. 7. 

The Outer Surface of the Right Os Malje. 

A, The superior orbitar process. 

B, The interior orbilar process. 

C, The interDLi] orbitar plate. 

D, The maxillary process. 

E, The zygomatic process. 

F, The external orbitar bole. 

G, G, The under and outer edge of the orbit. 

H, Part of the inner rough sm-lace of the maxillary pro- 

I, The zygomatic nitch of the os malfc. 
FIG. 8. 
The Inner Surface of the same Os Mal^e. 

The Litemol Convex Surface of the sanx Os Spohgio^ 
SUM Inferius, which, like the External Surface^ ii 
also of a spongy texture. 

FIG. 11. 

The Posterior, and almost i 

A, The paiate-jjlate. 
E, The pterygoid pro 

C, The nasal plate. 

D, Tlie orbitar procei 

E, A small tiiims, co. 
moid bone. 

F, The Dotcb wliich, 
forms the foramen s 

G, A smaJl hole (vliicli penetrates the thickness of the 

H, Part of the groove which helps to form the fbnunei 

FIG. 12. 

■esponding with those of the ejJi,^ 

.-ith the body of the sphenoid boob' 

G, G, The rough edge which joins the os malae to the £ 
perior maxillary bone at the external orbitar suture. 

A, The under edge of the bone tui'uing outwards. 

B, The upper edge, sending down a hook-like plat 
cover a portion of the maxillary sinus. 

C, The broad anterior extremity, where the coimei 
is chiefly made with the superior maxillary bone. 

D, The posterior extremity, narrow and ii-regular ii 

E, 'ITic external surface, \ 
which mark its porosity. 

F, G, The 5Uperior edge, which joins the os UDgius to 
form a share of the lacrymal groove. 

A, The notch which assists ix 

B, The orbitar process. 
C), The palate-plate. ' 

D, Tiie nasal plate. 

E, The groove which helps 

forming the foi'ameu gu3> 

I fonn the forai 

1 gns-: 

F, The pterj'goid process. 

FIG. 13. ^' 

The Left Side of the Vomer. 

A, The hollow surface which receives the processus azy- 
gos of the sphenoid bone. 

B, The anterior and upper edge, ivhich is connected to 
the nasal plate of the ethmoid boae, and middle carti- 
lage of the nose. 

C, The inferior edge, which is connected to the palate- 
plates of the superior maxillary and palate bones. 

D, A ridge on the side of the vomer. 

t-ART I.] 


Maxilla Inferic 

The Figure of the MaxiJli Inferior, or Lower Jaw, 
compared to that of the letter U ; or U forms half of a 
long oval, with the convex middle part fonvards. 

The Divtsiont into CAiVi, AWt-i-, and Processes. 

The C&i'n, extending between the holes termed Men^ 
tatJFbramma at tlie fore part of the .Imv. Tab. IV. 

The under part of ihc Chiii inoit? iiromiiicnt than (he 
Alveolar Protess, with a triangular eminence in the 
middle of its outer Surface, whiuh, with the projecting 
luider edge, renders this part peculiar to Man. This 
projection of the Chin is less apparent in the Negro, 
where the Alveolar Border is so expanded as to increase 
theproininence of the Mouth. 

Tlie S/ihs, reaciiing from the Mental Foramina to the 
back part of the Bone. 

A Trtuisrersr l{ul,iii- on the fore pait of the Chin, with 
depressions on t-acli sidi.-, lor the Origin of Muscles of 
the Under Lip. Tab. HI. M. 

Sum// Promweiices ^"d Deprenmm on the under and 
back p;irt of the Chin, for the attachment of the Frse- 
nujn Lingua;, and of several Mnscles which belong to 
the Throat. Tab. XXX. Fig. 13. 

The Base, or lowest part, forming the under boundary 
of the Face. Tab. IV. XIX. 

The Angle of the Jaw at the back part of the Base. 
Tab. rV. XX. 

Impresifions made by tlic IMassefer Muscle, npon the 
outside of the Angle, and also on the Plate which bribes 
from it. TaK IV. XXI. 

The Plate, whitli rises from the Augle of the Jaw, on 
each side, rumiing upwards and a httle backwards, and 
temunatiDg in two Processes, termed Condyloid and Co- 
rmoi'd. Tab. XIV. Fig. 2. F. 

The Cimdyhid or Articular Process^ with an oblong 
rounded head, covered with Cartilage, and placed almost 
transversely upon a Cervix at the upper and batk part 
of the Bone; tlioiii,'li, with rcspctt to tacli otliir, the 
Condyles are some^vlmt obll.^|iie, the txtcniaJ extremity 
being ilii'ected a little fnnvaid. 

At the un.l-r lii.d fore p;ii-t of the Ciondvle, a Cavity 
for the inserlron of the PU■l■^ .-ol.leiN ExterijiK-. 

The C.,r„ioid Froct^^, iuK. ^^lllL■ll the Tfninnml Mus- 

Edge of the Bone, from the Coronoid Process of one 
Eide to that of the other ; and thickest behind, corre- 
sponding there with the increased thickness of the 

The Alveolar Process, composed of two Plates, and 
divitlfd by cross Pai-tiiioiis, wliich, a, in the Upper Jaw, 
mark the different Alveuli for llie F.uiy. ol' the Teeth. 

Tlie Posterior Part o[ the liiUmal Plate, ^lantuig in- 
wardb', and thinner than the e\tt!iiai, giving the Jaw a 
twisted appeaiante. 

Opposite the Alveoli, the External Plate swelling, aud 
giving a fluted form, wliich in observed in the whole 
extent of the Alveolar Process of the Lpper Jaw, and 
in the fore part of the Lotver Jaw. 

At the fore part of the Jaw, the Alveoli are perpen- 
dicidar, but tiun inwards behind, \*htTC Ihcy are placed 
nearer the inner than the outer part of the Jaw. 

The Sockets worn do»n by absoi-ption iu old age, in 
consequence of which the teeth drop out, the Jaw be- 
comes narrower, the face shorter, and, when the Mouth 
is shut, the Ja^v appears more prominent. 1 ab. XIV. 

Fig. r. A. 

The posterior Mamillary Foramen at the roots of the 
Condyloid and Coronoid Processes, upon the inner side 
of th$ Jaw, for the passage of the 'I'hii'd, or inferior 
Maxillary Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves, with the 
corresponding Blood- Vessels. • ab. XXX. Fig. 13. 7- 

A smali-poitited Process at the inner edge of this Hole, 
where a Ligament goes oft" to be fixed to the Temporal 
Bone. Tab. XIV. Fig. :*. at the inner side of the Bone, 
opposite E. 

Above the Hole, the Bone marked by the passage of 
the Ner\c and Vessels ; and below it, commonly a sma/l 
Fiirron; pointing out the course of a NeiTe which goes 
to a ;\Iu>cle and Gland under the Tongue. 

Between the Posterior Maxillary Foramen and the 
;inij:lc, the Bone marked by the insertion of the Internal 
Pterygoid Muscle. Tab. XXX. Fig. 13. 6. 

The . Inienm- Mavillari/ Foramen, or Mental Hole, at 

rd. ,V 

, plac 


L^h, forming a Tlidge 
is, terminating at the 

From tlie iiiiiir siik- of the Coronoid Process, another 
Ridge seen tei'itiinitiiig nearly opposite to the former. 
To these l(id-es (he Mcnibranes of the Gums andcertahi 
Mnsules belojifjing to the Mouth are fwed. 

The ttveotn,- Pr^,ct-:^, :uh1 //,r<,/, nearly Sfanilar to 
those of the Upper -law. -Jab. MV. H. 

The Alveolar Proci\---s, exientling along the Upper 


of the Eouc, between the Posterior and Anterior 
little below the roots of the Teeth, and 
the passage of small 

branches of Vessels mid Nerves wliicli supply the Jaw 
and Teeth. 

The Taldes of the .T;nv, yemarkably thlii; compact, 
and /Kird, and ^^i(hin, fiu iii.-li.d with /iiimetvus Cells, 
which surromiti the Maxilku'y I^-mvAh. 

The .irticuliition of the .la^v by its, Condyloid Pro- 
cess with the Glenoid Cavity of the Temporal Bone, 
and also with the Tubercle at tlie root of its Zygomatic 


[Pari I^ 

An mtermediate tnoveahle Carftfngc, thin iu the cen- In the Foetus, the Lower Jaw is somewhat of a semi- 

tre and thicker at the ed-^es, placed in the Articulation circular figure, and is composed of two pieces, joined to- 

of the Lo^Ter Jaw, in its gentler motion allowiiiR the getherin the middle of the Chin by the mtervention of i^ 

Condyle to remain in the Glenoid Cavity, but admitting Cartilage. Tab. XXVII. This union, termed Symp/iy^ 

it to advance upon the Tubercle or Root of the Zygoma, six, gradually osgUlcs, aud leaves ao mark of toy former, 
when the Mouth is widely opened. Tab. XXX. Fig. H " 


The Situatim of the Teeth in the Alveoli of the Jaws. 
Tab. Ul. and IV. 

Their Number^ sixteen in each Jaw. Tab. III. 

The Base, or Bodi/ of eacli Tooth, appealing without 
the Sockets. Tab. XI V, 

The Itoots, or Fangs, placed iu the Sockets, smd of a 
corneal form. Tab. XIV . 

The Cervix, or CoHer, between the Base and Roots 
of the Teeth. Tab. XIV. 

The Roots of the Teeth covered by a Vascular Mem- 
brane, reflected fi-oin the Gums, and serving as a Peri, 
osteum to the Teeth, and a lining to the Alveoli. 

The Cortex, or Enamel, covering the Base of each 
Tooth, and becoming gradually thinner towards the Cer- 

The Fibres oi the Osseous part forming LamellEe, wliich 
run accoi-ding to the length ol the Teeth. 

A Foramen at tlie point of the Root of each Tooth, 
and a Passage leading fi-oni it into a common Cavity in 
the Base of the Tooth, for lodging the Vascular and 
Nervous Substance called Pulp of the Teeth. 

Two Sncisores; — One Cuspidatus, oi" Cartinus ; — Tuo 
Bicaspidati, or Small Molares ; — and Three Large Mo- 
laren. Tab. XIV. 

The Incisores, having their Bases formed into Wedges 
$hped out behind. 

The Cuspidatus, having its Base iu fonn of a H^erfgf_^ 
like the lucisores, but pointed in the middle. 

The Bicuspidati, each with double points, one exter- 
nal, the other internal, ivliich, in the Upper Jaw, arc- 
nearly upon a level, but, in the Under Jaw, highest oa- 
the outside of the Teeth. 

The Incisores, Cuspidus, and small Molares, with 
single Boots, excepting tiie small Molares of the Upper 

the Under Jaw, with Jive, and each of the other tw» 
with four points. 

Eaoh of these three Teeth having two^ three, or some 
times /o«r roots. 

In the Upper Jaw, the first large Molaris i 
and each of the other tivo only three paints. 

In each of these three Teeth, generally ojie root more 
in those of the Upper, than in the corresponding Teeth 
of the Under Jaw. 

The last, or backmost Molsris, called Sapiens, smaller, 
and having generally J%«'e/' roots. 

' The Teeth cotiTiected to the Sockets by Gomphosisy 
and by a firm adhesion to the Gums. 

At Birth, the outer Shell only of the five temporan 
Teeth, aud of the anterior permanent Molaris, in eacb 
side of each Jaw, is tbund. 

These Teeth are situated in Capsules, within the Jaw, 
Surfaee. At tliis period thci-e are no roola 



( 41 ) 


Gives different Views of the Cavity of the Nose. 

The Lefi Portion of the Base of the Heaij divided from 
the Septum Nai'ium by a perpendicular Section^, pro- 
ceeding in a straight line from before backwards. 

A, Part of the os fiontis. 

B, The posterior lamina, called Vitrea. 

C, The frontal sinus. 

D, Pai't of the transverse suture, dividing the frontal 
irom the superior maxillary bone. 

E, Part of the &outal bone, contiguous to the os et)i. 

F, The upper part of the ethinoid bone. - 

G, The fore part of the ethmoid cells entiie. From a 
little behind G to H, the anterior, middle, and poste- 
rior ethinoid cells laid open. 

I, Openings of the etlunoid cells into the nose. 

K, 1 he last and uppermost passage of tlie nostrils. 

1j, The left anterior clinoid process of the sphenoid bone. 

M, The posteiior cliuoid process. 

K, The SeUa Turcica. 

O, The left sphenoid sinus. 

P, The part where the sinus opens iutorthe posterior and 

upper passage of the nostril. 
Q, H, A section of the back part of the sphenoid, and 

cmieiforni process of the occipital bone. 
S, The spinous process of tiie occipital bone, 
T, The internal pteiygoid plate. 
TJ, The? uncus of the sphenoid bone. 
V, The fore pai't of the meatus auditorius. 
\V, The superior condyloid foramen, for the passage of the 

r the temporal bone. 

bnitc, which forms the middle 
, which forms the bcgiuning of 

/, A svifHiii t;l 111. .ilvtiilar process. 
£^, A seclioii rrf the ohscouh palate. 
h. The mijicr part of the osseous palate. 

t'. The descending, or alveolar part of the palate. 

^, /, /n, /», The os spongiosiun superius. Between / and 
n, the part resembling a concha. 

o, ^, The middle passage of the nostril. 

5, The opening of the antrum maxillare. Between q 
and r, the os spongiosum inferius. 

r, A part of the mferior spongy bone, opposite the open- 
ing of the lacrynial duct. 

«, /, The lowest passage of the nostril. 

FIG. 2. 
The Left Surface of the Septum Narium, 

A, The OS frontis, with its plates and diploe. 

B, The frontal sinus. 

C, The crista Galli. 

D, Part of the os plaumn of the left side, having no eth- 
moid cells. 

E, The foramina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone. 

F, The nasal plate of the ethmoid bone, which forms 
part of the septum narium. 

G, Tliat part of the nasal plate of the ethmoid bon& 
where it is joined to the vomer. 

H, The vomer. 

T, The cartilaginous part of the septum narium. 

K, Fart of the upper jaw. 

]j, L, The denies iucisivi of the upper jaw. 

M, The posterior edge of the vomei:, covered with a 

N, Part of the cuneiform process of the occipital bone. 

O, The ri{;ht sphenoid sinus. 

P, Tlu- pofiU rior ( linoid process of the sphenoid bone. 

Q, TJie aiiHrior iliiioid process of the sphenoid bone, 

R, The Sella Turcica. 

S, A portion of the septmn, between the two sphenoid 

T, A paj-tition between the sphenoid sinus and tUti nostrils. 

FIG. 3. 

The Anterior and BigM Portion of the Base of the 
Head, taken off by a tiongitudinal Section separating 
it from t/te Septum, ami by a Transverse Section se- 
parating it frotn the Posterior Part. The two cut 
Surfaces of this Preparation are represented. 


side of C. 

D, The nasaJ pi-ocess of the superior maxillaiy bone. 

E, A section of the o& spongiosum supmiis. 

F The wall, or bouiidary of the middle passage of the 
'nose, by which it is sepai-ated from the superior appen- 
dix of the maxillary piocess. 

G, Cells in the superioi- raaxillarj' bone -ind its orbitar 
part, first described by The uppennost r'" 

L, M, N, O, P, The sinus, or anti-um raaxiUai'e.-O. 
Tiie parlitiou by which the antrum uiaxillare i.s se-' 

parated from the cavity of the nostril I', The fora. 

men by which the antrum cooununicate^ with its an. 

Q^ A section of the os spongiosum iiiferius. 
1{, 'I'he orifice of the laciymal gi'oove. 
Part of the palal 

these opens ii 

.to the 


ethmoid cell. 


The latei-i 

.1 dc„s incisivus. 

H, Theo 



of the 


ir maxillary 




e dens 




of tl,e 


of the 







\o aoall molares. 

pai't of 


itnrni I 


( 43 ) 


5 different Views of the Bones of the Ear ; — of the Jaws and Teeth; — and likewise aViE\? 
of the Os HvoiDES. 

PIG. 1. 

liepresents the Sockets of f fie Upper Jaw, and Osseou; 
Part of the Palate. 

A, B, C, The sockets of the dentes incisoves, dens caiii- * 'pi ^ i „j „c ,i t- , ^ , i 

' ' ' I , 11 , c ., ■ 1 . ■ 1 r , A, 1 lie body ot au incj^or, the tung not yet evolved, 

1111-^. iiiul livo Biiiiill molarES of the fiifht <;iflp_ •;iihi-1p « r... , / .. ... - ° ■' 

3 of the right Hide, sitigh 
D, I'lic sockets of the tliree large molares, each 

The body of ; 
D, 'i'iie body of ; 

E, 1 he palate-plate of the supenor DiaxiJlaj-y bone. r- r,.i i „ j i . i- .i r c i i ■ 

x- T^i ^ 1 . 1 , c .1 *^ 1 ^- -*^» ^"^ "^'^y ^"" P^"- *•' ''"^ U»gs of alarge moans. 

t. The palate-plate oi the oa palati. -c ti i j j . t- .i :■ r P i - 

r< Tk ^. -ju. 'J I » I- .1 ^ u -J L ■»'' ^''^ "'*'-^y ^" P^'""^ •** "^"^ '^"S's of * Im-^ moans, 
G, 1 he pterj%o.d plates of the spheaoid bone. ^^^..^ adv^ced tllau E. 

FIG. 2. 
A View of the Sockets of tlie Lower Jaw. 

G, A canine tooth nearly complete. 
H, I, 1 wo hicisores neaily complete. 

FIG. 6. 

A, B, C, The sockets of the incisores, caniiii, and small 

molares, single. A View of ^ , .„^.„, 

D, The sockets of the large molares, each with two ca- both Jaws, at the time of 'shedding the Milk Teeth. 

1. 1. &c. Tlie deciduous, fii'st set, or milk-teeth. 

2. 2. &c. The permanent, atlult, or second set of teeth, 
proceeding to the edge of the alveoli. 

riG. 3. 

of (he Fangs of ike Teeth in loth Jawf^ the 
zr of Fangs corresponding to that of ike .Sockets A View of the Vpper and Under Jaws of an Oid Pen 


witij of the Mouth diminished. 

FIG. 4. -^ 

Views of the different Classes of Teeth of both Jaws. ^ I G. 8. 

. T> r' 'Ti ► ■ r f ■ ■ P ,1. -^ intiipiified View of the Small Bones of the Ear, 

A, B, L, 1 he posterior suriace oi aii incisor oi the upper . • ^, ; , .,, -', ,, , Z ,^, ^, .' 

'. * 1. 1 1 i> T. ■ I, .1 I tuiildtcri wJik each other, ana covered with their . 

laiv ; — A, lis body ; — B, its cervix, where the enamel . , ■,-,,,.>,, , 

•■ 1 i-i T. , ■ u^ .- rto.-'tciiiii, imefnck (lie Si lood'vesseis appear, 

ends ; — K., Its straight tang. ^^ 

D, An incisor of the lower jaw, smaller than that of the A, The incus. 
upper one. A, B, C. B, The malleus. 

E, The po.,lenoj; surface of a canine tooth, with its C, Tlie stape.s. 

pointed body and large fang. D, The os orbiculai-e in situ. 

F, A sitiiill nioluri^i, witli i(s Htraiglit single fang. 

G, A iai'ge molaiis of ihc lUKlcr jaw, with its fangs FIG. 9. 

,_.,■'",,", -, , ,. 77cK'5 o/' /Ac .Small Bones o/" /Ae Ear. 

H, A lai-ge molans ol tlie upper jaw, with three diverg- ■" ■' 

ing fangs. The upper set gives a \n,c\v of the small bones of the i 

I, A moJaris of imcommon eiie, with an appearance of of their natui'al size, and as they are connected V 

four fangs. each other. 



The -under set shews these bones separated from each 
other, and somewhat magmfied. 

A, The incus, with its body, articular cavity, short pos- 
terior, and long inferior branch. 

B, The malleus, with its head, oeck, ca\'ity of articula- 
tion with the incus, great process or handle, middle 

An External Vietp of the Right Labyrinth, and Qm 
Inies of the Pars Petrosa of a Young Subject. 


The Temporal Bone of a Yot 
Bones of the Ear in situy 

-the tiorajneu rotuodum. 
FIG. 13. 

The Temporal Bone, with, the Membrana Tympani in B, Its 

A, The body of the os hyoides. 

situ, the Smail Bones shining throvgh it. 

C, Ita a^)endic< 


be attended to here are, 

The Hituatitm of that Bone, at the root of the Tongue 
jud top of the Larynx. 

The iS^hape, compared to that of the Greek letter v. 
Tab. XIV. Fig. 13. 

The Body of the Bone, the middle broad part convex 
before, and concave beliind. 

The concavity beliind oblif|ue, to receive the Thyroid 
Cartilage, when the Os Hyoides and Larynx are pulled 
towards each other. 

Several Impressions seen on its Body, occasioned by 
^ numerous Muscles fixed to it. 

The Cornita^ extending backwards and upwards from 
each side of the Body, with their two plain Surfaces 
slanting from above downwards and outwards, and giving 
attachment to Muscles and Ligaments of the Tongue aud 

£ach of the Comua becoming gi-adually smaller in its 
course backivai-ds, and ending in a round Tubercle, 
which is connected to tlie upper Comu of the Thyroid 

Between the Body and Cornua, frecjuently a Furrow, 
pointing out the former separation in young Subjects. 

Tlie Appendices, having the size and fonn of a gi-ain 
of decorticated Bailej', placed at tlie upper part of tlic 
Articulation between the Body and Cornua, for the at- 
tachment of Muscles. 

From each Appendix, a Ligament is sent up to the. 
Styloid Process of the Temporal Bone, to assist in con- 
necting the Os Hyoides to the Cranium. Tab. XXXI. 
Fig. 1. 2. 

The Os Hyoidea is not immediately connected to any 
other Bone, but is kept in its place by numerous Muscles 
and Lig^aments, to be aflenvai'ds mentioned. 

The Substance of this Bone is Cellular, but covered 
with a firm external Plate, \vhich adds considerably to its 

At Birth, the greater part of the Bone is in a Carti- 
laginous state, and the Appendices continue so for many 
years after the other parts are conipk-tely ossified. 

The Os Hyoidcs serves as a Lever for numerous Mus. 
cles acting upon the Tongue, Laiyux, and Fauces. 


selves to the soft parts of the Neck, Thorax, Abdomes, 
, and TAo- and Pelvis. Tab. XV. XVI. 
rax. The Spine, com^wwerf of alongupper, and a short under 

The S]^ney reaching from the Condyles of the Occipi- Pyramid, joined together by their Bases. Tab. II. k. 
tal Bone, to the lower end of the Os Coccygis. Tab. Ilie Upper Pyramid, composed of tnte Vertebrtr, or 

U. G, P. Bones, which turn upon each other. Tab. II. G N. 

The Spine appearing straight^ when viewed anteriorly The Under Pyramid, formed of false I'eiiebrte^ or 

1_, T-^L ij f~> a n which, at an early period of life, resemble the 

irtebi-ae, but which aftervs-ai-ds giow together, so 
to contribute to the motions of the Trunk of the 
Tab. II. A.— P. 

n lateral direction ; the Ciuratures accommodating them- 

Twenty-four m Number. 
Each of the true Vertebrae composed of a Body and A Ring of Bone, 

The fio(/y of a spOTJgy nature, with upper and tinder 
Surfaces placed horizraitally. Tab. XXXI, Fig. 11. a. 

The anterior convexity of the Body, and posterior con- 
cavity. Tab. XVIil. Fig. 9. 10. 

Numerous small Holes ou the anterior and lateral parts 
of the Body, for the passage of Blood-vessels into the 
Substance of the Bone, or for the attachment of Liga- 
lueetons Fibres. Tab. XVI. Fig. «. n. 

e upper and undei; edges of the 
than the rest of its substance, 

and thereby atlding to the general strength of the Bone. 

Tab. XVIII, Fig. y. b, b. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 12. r. 
The Bing of Bone forming a s-iipfrficiiil Cari/y, wiiich 

receives the Intervertebral Substance. Tab. XVIII. 


Ihc ; 

r t 1 

lb ^ M 

,1 lln \ 

"i"l ' il 


■Y\v! Inlii Laiehi.ll SiHaiK^ot -iCaitihgn-l I.aiiuit- Tlic usr< of the liucVcrkbi^ He, lo Rue an end 
OHs ff«/"'., 1 1-iLni hiMLii] the BocliL^ ol lilt \t.itebric, pnstuie to tlic Irunk t i the Lo(t\ to lUoh a suihtient 
01 hxmi, ilKii, 1 illiu, m.l allouiii, the ^puic to hi jiiJ Miii.t motion lo the ll.a.l, ^ec^., .lid J rank , uid 
noMil ui ill ilutui 1 , 1 lb I E fab X's-M lit to siin]iiiil mil piotict ihi lirmiK anil othii ^otl part- 
is » lull" lol"S i-iMciali, . n.,l re. pi„e, 

rh.Iitcniiti 1 1 ^iih tinces, cow;ios(<7of Cwicc7i//tc tomim llitiiuli , m/ ilu I iv not Inllv i ^sil, w 
r^^Hf(///, ti di t'l II eil^i^ Innih li\td to the iJoilits ot ainiiiil . i ii t 1 1 lime i ill liiiiitii 
ic \eilel)ie J . in Ai I , il . I .' I , i. 1 i ■ n |l i , ilie b^ i. 

Ihei iiiiellt 111 p Siih tnnre , foimed oi Oblique iiin, lin iii I'l ii i , I I i | u 1 I i c. 
Fibit-, uhiehdttu Ue ejeh othei, and aie \£17 com- lli \eil 1 i, ii ii ii i leuliii pteulidiiliih,rfi(i/, 

piessilile fiy mil i; H t i ( ii , «i/i( / > ii', mil /lit i^umtiai 

Iheteirfie ol thcieSilbsta.icesehMiiesRoraiomete, Lhidjii / f 'in, i i / ii/i/iu </ M< A.ii, lui- 

«/,,,, 11 /; ln«,,lh/,,n andt,*i,»/. 
f( u md /t/.w, thanlhobeol theoth. 
\\ A, A, S.C 

11^ P (i ( , ;iiQte tibhtjue than thr 
11] lig I ,,», 

^^ts, jitifniated for the passage 
lesbels, and hollcuvil ibove lor 
^pmal Nenes Tab Will 

ebia iiiiiiit G^fieie /notion^ m con 
ntsb oi their Cartdagtb, and the na 
is, but gi\e lei,\ pruUcUon behind lo 
than II, given in other parts of tht 

two Supenor Obbijuc, two Jolerior Ubliijut, twolians- Ihe fust ^e^ttbll, tailed ji///(7 , from Its supponmg 

\cise, and one Spinons the Globe ol the lie id, h i\ mg only a small Artn instend 

Ihe(oo4»^eiloi Obli<ine, or Jrluiilnting Piocette', of a Body Tab XMII 1 ig 1 n 
coieicd with Cartilage, plieed npon the oppei pirt of The npptr iiid imdtr ^iiri wes of the Arch, mnrict/bj 

the sides ol the Arch lab XA 111 1 ig > h, I, the Liganieiits which Id, . I lo the Head and second \fr- 

'ihe /,ra /»^.i 1 0//;/m, or UlHuhl,,, Pirti , t, tebra T.b Will lit; I -' 
^Uoioycrid wilht iilili , ul y I ii il 1 1 ni iht m ilei The b itk p ill ol the Ireh, lirll„ir, and cenrretf ifo 

put 111 till il 1 lilt Villi lihWIlf li ! Il l> swiir/A<ii//i/i.^., wh H I! tmiisiipon theProcessusDen 

Iht'.i S, II, ()n,,,,r ,, , It lilt \.ilili ,, iilinollhe ttrad\ciubii Tib XVIII Fig 2 o 
iitituliliJ will III i„ ;i/ ,/ , 0(i,v . cl ihi \tikbii Hit miKi pill ol Ihe sides ot lhe\enebra, between 

iiiiiiiiiliiHH b 1 II 1 b v\lll 111, . ,,„i th. siiptiioi ml mill ini Ohliiine Proi esses, moriln; 1 

1 imdlUiil- il II, lllliiii I', lo,,,/, i,»,s the L.ltid I ^ mieiits whii h go to the rnieessus 

I I llii tl 111 ihiii I 11, ill It m LiiimtiilB uis, and bi llit II iiiseeisi I ii iniint which passes beh 

1 ill C null 
XMII 111, 

ui the p 

3 /, 
, ol eae 

assagc oi 
h side of 

riit sj„„„/ 

than the it si, 
lab XMII 
The Cci 1 It I 

1 1 

1 1 

„i,li„uou. Ititebia, 
Tab XVIII Fig 

the pas- 
11) i/,i/ 

se(|uente ol liii 
lute ol then T 


tnt Spinal Mj 


-1 tebra, seie 

n innnmhci, iiz 

'~I"?; , , 

lib XMII li 

ri ,, piojtclin 
?cn the Obhqut 

llii Sj, I /,,,, , still out fiom the back part of TSpmt 

thi \i 1, lib I hup iiid pmiiua, Mies mine lib \ 

lol ' ' 1 ' XtllT r - ' 111, s,;,, , OWii/m 

11 i b \xi I I r I) 

1 \uiiinll ,1 I iiilti lilt I iitir Tnd back part of t 

11 ^ ' il 11 lei Obliipit I'liiis, liii tit pisigc of iheAtitebral \ 

eMtrniU'lilt ill itli. I , li j ih, 1 t 1, 1 , itm, ml. ill. II, ,d, iiid Itnlh Pan of Nerves o 

lhe\eitebit it |iim,d l„ i ii h otliti b\ idmililc 4i- ot it lib \XI In; ! / 
ticultlion, thill 1 iliis b,i„, immiiuJ In th. IiiKi- 11, / , , i,, , ft,,, . /,i;g,, thin in any oil 

vertebral 'ublimis ill, uU ,h ,iib,d iml thin (lb Ceriiiil \eililii, tin llie migm of sevci-al Mustl 

liiliie Processes lie so eoniKcted hi their LiiunciilB as to Tib X'MII Fig "i il, il 
allow a small degteeofmotion to all sides. The Coiratrtira of the Atlas to the Occipital Er 

Part I.] 


where the Head Iia^i ita JJezwii and extension^ but httle 
othei inotLOii 

riiL second A eitebi J, c died Denlata^ fioin thcTooth- 
hkc Piotchh oil till uppu pLit oi lU H«l\ 

Tl.e Borfv ol Ihis \uUl)n Itu^i, tlim (lit icit, ind 
ofa (o/;^(«/)ii,uu lib XS 111 1 /— / 

Thefoieput ot iht Thki us D>.iilaUi , r/-;(i(raud 
COKrerf lutli aitih^t. ulmt it tuiii-. upon the Vll ii 
It has thi Slim ipjK ii imc bthmtl, uhtic it nio\cs i po i 
theliai, ^LisL Li luit lib Will liy > { 

The Sxks vi iliis I'.oLtss, maiAid by tht uiseitioii o 
the latci il Lig-iLiitiits, ^nd its pouit by tht insertion ot 
the peipuidiculu Lit,iment, uhith is h\ed to the td^e ol 
the loiinicii Mayiuiu ot the Ottipital Bone fab 

xvin iig 4 « 

The Siipci tor Oblique Pi ocean's pi iff d he i/nntillv, 
and d little eleiitcd m the niiddlL, m 1 i I 

the holloa Iiitenoi Oblique Piottsse ol h \ 1 1 

the Held has its pi uicipal lotatoi > raou i 1 Will 
Fig 3 b,b Fig > ;«, /« 

rheSpiiiojis Piocesv, thitk and stmn i. ^neon- 
gin to the Muscles which assist 111 tliL t\i I SI n lll<i !0- 
tation of the Heid, tad turned di wa to illou thtsc mo- 
tions to be readilv pmtornicd lab X\ HI 1 ij, J g,g 
Tab VXXI tig "S tl,L 

In the Fcetus, the A crtebra Hentata comists of four 
pieces, three ot whith aie common to all the A LitLbii, 
tjie fourth is the Piocessus Dcutatus, whn-h isjumi-d by 
Cartdage to the BorI> of tht B int 

The ifKH/A CdiHo/ feiliha, approacluiig in form 
to the Doisd \citebre — The 'spinal and Trana- 
verse Processes ha%e no Bdiucition Tab XXXI 
Fig 17 

The Do; al f n It h a, oi Vutthaoftin Bad ,hori 
zontal above and below, haMng then. Bodies Ui^ei, 
sharpei before, flatter at the sidts, and moit holloa be 
hind, thin those of tht ( er* ical V eitebi-e I ab X\ III 
Fig 7 t Tib X\\r Vi^ Ui 

A Pit, Initd unh ( i 111 m It cich side of then up 
per and undti 1 d^ ul u tht Ti nisverst Pioecssts, 
for the utu Illation <1 the Heads oi the Bibs lib 
XXXI Fig 15 ^/,A\ 

The Inta lei ttlmi/ ^iib^laiices, tinii to admit only of 
little motion, and Ihinnt^t antenoih, to enlajge the 
Curvature of the Spuie, and incieasc tlie Ca\il) ot the 
Thorax Tab X\ 

The Spmal Canal is here more Circulai, but cone 
sponding with the size of the Spinal Mairow, — is smaller 
than m any of the other Vertebra 

The Obhqne Pi-occsses, having neaily a perpendicular 
direction, t!ic upper ones slanli'ng fonvards, and the 

under ones back«aida Tab XXXI 1 ig b Fi" 
10 I 

The Transteise Pioce'i'^ci, loi g, turned, obliquely 
backwards, aiid enlarged at tin ii outti t\Ciemit\, ivjieic 
they aie faced with Caitihj,c, to be iitieulited iMth th 
lubeiclesot theBibs lab Will 1 ,5 7 l-i- M f, f 

The Spinous Pi octs^e-<,\on^, thick Jl tlie lools, bin 
slender neu the extieinitics, nn 1 j ouitinf, obl]i[Uc!\ 
douimaids o\ei each othei, b^v ujiiih the '- 4iial Mai 
io» mthisput isudlpiotected lab X^ III Fifc " 
lab XXXI Iig 17 

Ihe upper Lidt^e oi tht Spinous Piocesscs of these 
'Xeitcbnc, tonned into a lfiil{,<^ uhul, m ctilain ino 
tions ol the '^pine, is iccencd h\ a Gh \c in the iimki 
part of the Spmous Piotc sol lit \ citciji i mmcdiiul) 
abo*eit lab XMII I 1 ~ •- 

The last pecuhuil\ it '■i net 1 li iht others al- 

itady mentioned, pie\eiit tilt IJ* I \t lil i t tjom ha\i i^ 

The fir&f Dojsal Uil I, a 1 nm^, il < whole ot tin. 
Pit foi the Hea^l ot the 1 11 t ImI* t. iitd in ii 

ThefuelfthDoi'^l luldia rcetummhe whole Hcid 
of the last Bib, and h imh" no Caililtpm Jiis Suiticc r i 
Its Tiaiis^eise Piocess 

The Lumbal littibiu^nl/, < <f lU L<iii,\u\\\g 
then bodies laij^ci and Ij ki ll m il t ol the otluL 
twoclis es lib X\H1 ll 11) 

The Iiitertetlebia/ Sub turn ( , the tlutkest of ini, 
and most so at then toie put, b} which the '•pine a 
rendered convex then, toi ilie '-uppoit of (iit Abdo- 
mmal Bowels Tab X\ I 

TheObhque Pirci s.s, d ip, nd phced 
upright, the ^iiptiior Obliiji e Pint 


;eing 1 

( bh 


theofipo ilediiL It lb X\\l I I / I \ I 

Ihc Tiaii li, i P << L \ I I 

out homfht Bone, J< nt 1 ) 

to admit oi lice nioti 11 1 I W I 

Ihe '■pvwv Pint If J 

phced hoii/ontdh, 1 Hi I 1 I i, 

low, uid bio d t]i 1 , .. \ r \ I dt il Lieu 

sticiiglh Ith x\lll 1 , in ^ ih XXXI li„ 
1^ U 

Ihe Spmnl Cfiunl, 1 11 ti ll 11 in llic back, for the 
passige ot thc(oid-.ot tie "-i I Mi 1 , which loim 
theC ludilquma i ib X^ III I 

In consequence of tin tl ckni s 1 il t rntei\ertebi'vl 
Substances, and the itinti n ot ilic l*i ct=st>, ot thi 
Lumbar Vertebra, tlic niotifiii of this pail of the Spine 
is extensive, though not so much &o as in tke >Vck, 

T A B L. E XV. 

An Anterior and Lateral View of the Upper Part of the Teuny of the Skeleton. 

A, &c. The bodies of the cervical vertebra, with their L, The tubercle of the first rib, joined to the transverse 
intermediate cartilages: process of the first dorsa.1 vertebra. 

B, C, The transverse processes 'of the cervical vertebrse, M, Head of the second lib, joined to the first and second 
%vith a hole in each of the processes, fonniiig a canal dorsal vertebrae, and its tubercle fixed to the transverse 
for the' vertebral blood-vessels. process of the latter of these two boues. 

D, Tlie processus dcntatus of the second vertebra of the O, The upper triangulai- piece of the stemuin. — P, The 
neck. middle or long piece. — Q, 'I'he lower piece, or enGifonn 

E, &c. The bodies of the dorsal vertebrae, with their in- cartilage. 

tennediate cartilages, forming a curve backwai-ds. R, S, T, U, V, The scapula. — R, The glenoid cavity of 

r, &c. ITie transverse processes of the dorsal vertebrae. that bone. — S, I'he acromion of the scapula — T, TJife 

G, 3tc. The outer convex surface of the ribs. coracoid process of the scapula. — C, The inferior costs 

H, &c. The cartilages of the seven upper or true ribs, of the scapula. 

by \vhich they are joined to the sternum. W, The clavicle joined to the sternum, and at X, to the 

I, &c. The cartilages of the false ribs, the three upper- scapula. 

' "" '■'-■-■ '■ ■' Y, The anterior convexity of the clavicle. 



7'Ali. If 


C *9 ) 


An Anterior and Lateral View of the Under Part of the Thujtk of the Skeleton, 

A, The body of the last dorsal vertebra. 
J8, Sec. The anterior extremitiea of the four lowest ribs 
of the left, and two lowest of the right side. 

C, &t.-. The caililages of tlie fouv lowest ribs of the left, 
and two lowest of the right side. 

D, &c. The bodies of the lumbal- vertebra, foiiuiag aa 
ai-ch fon\'aid. 

dy &c. The intervertebral cartilages. 

E, Sec. F, &c. Four lowest trauiverse processes on the 
left, and points of the three lowest on the right side. 

G, Sec. The points of the three spinous processes. 

H, The upper piece of the os sacrum, joined to the last 
Imubar Vfi'tebra. 

I, &c. The ''ve oiiginaj pieces which compose the os sa- 
crum, gro\ 11 together, but leaving traces of their for- 
mer divisions, uem- the parts where the letters are 
placed, and forming an arch backwards, whereby the 
cavity of the pelvis is considerably enlarged. 

K, &c. Slanting holes opposite the original interaticee of 
the pieces of which the os sacrum is composed. 

(f, The brhn of the pelvis. 

L, The iuaer hollow side, or venter of the «s iliom. 

6, The connection between the os sacrum and os ilium. 

— A little below 6, on tlie right side, the passage for 

tiie principal blood-vessels of the bone. 
M, N, The spine of the os iUuui. 

O, The ;interior-infef ior spinous process of the os ilium. 
P, The point of union between the os iUum and os 

Q, The ischiatic notch. 

R, Fart of the outer surface, or dorsum of the os is- 
T, The cms of the os Uchium, joining the cms of the 

TJ, Tne tuberosity, forming the lowest part of the tnmk 
of the skeleton. 

V, The upper part of the os pubis, where the flexor 
muscles and great blood-vessels of the thigh, with the 
anterior crural nerve, pass out of the abdomeu. 

W, The crest of the os pubis. 

X. The crus of that booe. 

c. The symphysis of the pubis. 

rf. The arch of the ossa pubis. 

f, The foramen thyroideum. 

( -50 ^ 


A View of the Posterior Part of the Trunk of the Skeleton. 

,4, The upper part of the first cervical vertebra. 

B, One of the oblique, ajid, 

C, Oue of the traiibversc processes of this bone. 

D, Muscular priuts on the back part of this bone. 

E, E, The spinous processes of the sLx other cervical 
vertebra, of ivluth the foui- hi-st are forked. 

F, F, The oblique processes.of these vertebra:. 

G, G, The transverse processes. 

H, H, ITie spinous processes of the three first vertebrae 

of the back. 
I, I, The spinous processes of the six middle vertebrse, 

which ai-e long, and sloping doivnwards over each 

K, K, The spinous processes of the three last dorsal ver- 

tebr<e, \\hich are short and straight. _ 

L, L, The transverse pi-ocesses of all the dorsal vertebra. ■ 
M, M, The oblique processes of all these vertebra. 

N, N, The spinous processes of ihf lumbar vertebra, 
O, O, Till 

V, One of the superior oblique processes of the i 

W, W, The holes 

in tlie back part of the 

which transmit s 

mail vessels and nerves 


X, X, The eminea 

ces and cavities at the lal 

this bone. 

Y, One of the con 

ma of the ob sacrum. 

P, P, The oblique proces 

Q, Q, Part of the bodies 

11, K, The arches of the: 

part of the spinal canal, 

es of the same vertebi'K. 

! bones, which form the back, 

. S, Thi 
T, One of the latei-al and superior tuberosities of this 

U, The superior orifice of that part of the spinal canal 
which belongs to this bone. 

Z, The interior orifice of the spinal canal. 

a. The first or uppermost piece of the os coccjgis. 

A, by The posterior extremities of the ribs. 

f, c. The necks of the ribs, 

d, (/, I'he angles of the same bones. 

f, e. The cartilages of tlie false ribs. 

/, The outer surface of the os ilium. 

gyg^ The posterior spinous processes 'i .> ■ 

A, A, The great posterior tuberosity t i i bone 

7', The spine of tlii'; bone. 

k, A portion of the anterior tuberosity of this bone. 

/, The posterior edge of the acetabulum. 

7«, The ischiatic notch. 

H, The spinous process of the os ischium. 

0, A portion of the internal surface of the superior branch 

of tne 03 pubis. 
p. The tuberosity of the os ischium. 
q, TTie internal surface of the branch of this bone, 
r, The foramen ovale. 



This Table gives a View of the Right Side of the Spine. Here the Curvatures beloi>ging to 
the Neck, Back, Loins, and Pelvis, are very conspicuous. 

A, Tlie body of the first cervical vertebra. 

B, The posterior part of the same vertebra. 

C, The body of the second cervical vertebra. 
Sf The spiuous process of the same bone. 

E; The last cervical vertebra. 

F, The spinous process of that bone. 

G, G, The oblique processes of the cervical vertebrce. 
H, H, The bodies of the dorsal vertebi-a. 

I, I, The impressions on the sides of these VErtcbjte, 

which receive the heads of the ribs. 
K, K, The notches between the same vertebi-a, for the 

passage of the spinal nerves. 
L, L, The oblique proceases of these vertebra. 
SI, M, The transverse processes of the same bones. 
-V, N, The impressions on tlie" fore part of these pro- 

(Cise'i, f<ir the ailiculation of llie riba. 

O^ O, The spinous processes of the dorsal veitebrie, ^a- 
rying in: length and obliquity in the diflcrent parts of 
the back. 

P, P, The bodies of the lumbar vcrtebi-K. 

Q, Q, 'I'lie oblique processes of these vertebrae. 

]i, li. The transvei-se processes of these bones. 

S, S, TJie lateral notches and holes of these bones. 

T, T, The spinous processes of these vertebrae. 

If, Tilt" upper and lore part of the os sacruni. 

V, Tlie uiiuei- part of this bone. 

"W, W, Tlie spinous processes of this bone, 

X, The oblong surface by which the os sacrum is united; 
with the OS ilium. 

Y, Tlic irregular surface by which it is joined to a cor- 
responding one of the os ilium. 

Zi Z, , The pieces which compose the os coccygis. 



( 51 ) 


Gives diffeieiit Views of the True Vertebh,!! 

PIG. I. /,/, The extremities of the spinous pi-ocess, ot a iorfc- 

A. View of tfie Inferior Surface of tfK AtLa.s^ or First ^.^^^ Muscular prints on the two sides of the spinous 
' A, The large vertebral hole. 

Vertebra of t/w Neck. 

c. The anterior part of the atlas. 

6, i. The inferior oblique processes. FIG, 

(', A muscular impression on the posterior part of the 

rf, d. The transverse processes, which terminate in tube- 

f, e. The inferior orifices of the obUque holes. a. The upper part of the processus dentatus. 

/, /, Inferior notclies for the passage of tlie spinal nei^es. b. The anterior and middle surface of the second vertebra. 

ff. The targe vertebral hole, which tbrms pai-t of the c. The inferior surface, somewhat convex. 

spinal canal. d, d, 'ITie anterior margin of the superior obLfjue pro- 

FIG. 2. e, f. The extremities of the transverse pre 

Bepresents the Atlas, seen from its Upper and Back f^f^ '^^^ ^^^'^l"^ ^"'^^ ^* ^■^""'^'^'J i 

^ ft .f cesses, for the passage ot the vertebral ; 

g-, ^, The inferior notches of the vertebra 

(T, The small articular cavity, which receives the odon- of the spinal nerves. 

toid process. //, A, The inlerior oblique processes. 

i, b, Tne superior oblique processes, which receive the /, i', The bifurcation of the spinous praccs! 

occipital condyles. k^ A furrow on the inner sui-liice ol the sp 

f , f , Protuberances below the superior oblique processes, /, The large vertebral hole, 
to which the transverse ligaments are fixed. 

d, rf. The posterior fossje, where the vertebral arteries FIG. 5. 

are reflected in their ascent to the cranium. 
c, e. The oblique holes at the roots of the tnuisve 

cesses, for the passage of the vertebral arteries 
/, /", Extremities of the ti-ansverse processes, each in form a Tlie eminence, or anterior print of the atlas. 

ef a tuberosity. fj^ f,^ The two superior fossae of the atlas. 

g, A muscular print on the posterior part of the bone. ^^ c^ The anterior edge of the superior oblique processes. 
//, Tlie large vertebral hole. rf^ d^ The extremities of the transverse processes. 

e, e. The anterior edge of the ulterior oblique processes. 
FIG. 3. f^f^ The inferior fossa, or hollows of the atlas. 

^, The extremity of the tooth-like process of the second 

A, The root of the toolh-Uke process. 
«, The odontoid pi-ocess of the second vertt-bia. /, A small eminence on the middle of the body of the ae- 

/', /», Tile superior oblique processes. cond vertebra. 

r, ( , The- tr.uisvei'se processes. k. A*, Prints upon the lateral parts of the body of the bone. 

(/, rf. The superior notches of this vertebra, for tlie pas- /, The convexity of the inferior part of the body. 

sage of the spinal nerves. wi, m. The anterior margin of the superior oblique pi-o- 

f^t f, A portion of the inferior oblique processes. cesses. ' 



y, /), J'liu itiltiiiirlioUows of the \-ertcbr3. 

J-IG. 0. 
The Citmecfmi nfllc itvo Fir.-t \'rF.TEBR.E uf the Ne 

i of the 


FIG. 8. 

./ View of the Tinder and Fore Part cf the Vertebra 

represented in the preceding Figure. 
«, The anterior part, of tlie bod/ of the bone, 
i, The Ulterior siu'face of the body, 
r, f. The superior notchcH for the passage of the spinal 

Ifjiie processes of the ^■< ''» The interior notches for the passage of the spinal 

A, by The ligamentous protuberances at the under and in- 
ner part of the superior oblique processes. 

(-, r, I'he posterior edge of the iufejior oblique processes 
of the atlas. 

(/, rf. The posterior fossx of the atlas, througli which the 
vertebral ai-terics and tenth ]):iir of nerves pass. 

f , e, The 

f,f^ The small articular ca\ities, which : 

bercles of the ribs. 
g^ g. The inferior oblique processes. 
A, The large vertebral hole. 
' ~ groove of the spinous process of 

r, e, Tlic holes 

of the trausverfef protcsscs of ihe atlas. 

f, /; Thcextrci processes of theatlas. 


e of the alius, in I'viriii of a .spinous proccsM, 

/•, Tiie supcrio 

• extremity of the iooth-like process of 

1 he second ^ 


7*, i, Liir:lillCllt 

ui impressions upon the superior extremity 

/, The Lit-tk (. 

lite tooth-like process. 

/, /, The poite 

ior edge of the superior oblique pi-ocesscs 

PIG. 9. 

The Inferior Surface of the Third V 

D/Wf Loins. 

in^ The iniddie of the large vertebral hole. 

n, n. The posterior oritices of the passages at tlie roots of 

the transverse proceFises of the second vertebra. 
f>, o. The esfrcimtiea of tlie transverse of that 

jp,j>, The posterior edge of the inferior oblique processes 

a, Tlie middle of the inferior surface of the thud liun^ 
bar vertebra. 

b, 6, The osseous lamina, tvliich borders die tvUirie cir< 
cmuference of the inferior surface. 

c, f. The inferior notches of this vertebra, 
rf, rf. The traiisvei-se processes. 

e, c, The inferior oblique processes^ 

/,/, The superior notches. 

5", The large vertebral hole. « 

A, A small groove on the inner side of the spinous pro* 

of the 

ad vertebra. 

the upper part of the spinous '^ '^^'^ '""^^^^ extremity of the spinous process. 

riG. r. 

A T'iarof ihe Vpper and Buck Part of one of the First 

Dorsal Viliitebr^. 

a. The superior surface of llic body of the first dui-sal 

vertebra, which is ^oiiie\vh:it triangular. 
ft, 6, The superior oblifjuc pi'nce=.ftcs. 
c, Part of the body of the bone, tvhicli assists in form- 

lag Ihe vertcbi'Lil hole. 
rf, 'Ihe thui sliaip edge of the vertebi'al hole. 
e, c, Tlie posterior part of the transverse processes. 
f,f. The under edge of the inferior oblique processes. 
g, £■, The posterior fossa: of this bone. 
A, The ridge of the spinous process. 
7^ The small extremity of the spinous 

I, b. The small < 
spongy surface. 
■, A portion of tli 

of the body of the vertebra, which is veiy 
lamina, uhich surrounds the 
f of this vertebra, wliich forms 

the vertebral hole. 

d, d. The superior fossa of this vertebra. 

e, e. The extremities of the transverse processes. 
f,f. The superior oblique processes. 

g, g. The inferior fossa; of this vertebra. 

A,//, The posterior lossK. 

7, i^ The inferior oblique processes. 

ky The hirge vertebral hole. 

/, The exterior ridge of the spinous process. 

w;, The rounded extremity of the spmous pi-occ^ 

( 5:; ) 

, compofid ot the O, *>acniiii 'Ihe po^li i in> CniU, 7 Jf ^/ jn \ me^irlai, di\ided 
Uito tivo bj a JiaiisvLi^c lii.l L loi n d In tlu imioii nt 
thcirObluiuc I'lo.L t , uitl ill ciK itunt Sub]ttt, hill 

Os Sacrum **' Lni<mi;iioii.^ J'lOw. ami tt/luh, Si b-.t(,>i«., wliicli 
ait im-ludul in tliegciiudl CapbuJdr Xiigaiiicnt, aiidwhicii 

Tlie ti iiiiiqiihn Foim ol tlic Cone, i\itli iti pouited also ab&i^t in fi\mgtlie t\io Loues to other 

under c\ttciiiiti 1 ib Xl\ The portion ot this Pioct&s toimtd by the thiee uppei- 

TheT?// ciuait auttitoi Swfuii, for cnlarting the most Iransierae Piocesbtb, iciiiiikdbl; thick and etrong. 

Ca^itj ot the I'lKis lab XIX while th <t belougm^ to the two last la much smaller, but 

Ihe liiitlii and fori jiatt touiimg a, /w;h, cilltd, li\ int^iihi bthind, iihcit it gi\LS attachment to the Liga- 

eome, theI.t■.^t/ i«^/cot tins Bone '1 ^b Mith^Stnts muit in nici Siiinj-siui lie 

ofPeI\T, J he "ip Jifju-f, PiotfH'. The three uppermost coiii- 

The lonui i>,i'r„f,„ Surface hthiiid, wUk slion^ nionh dt^nnct, but itnmUbl; */,o;f Iheie is a gi-eal 

Miibtlcs III , Mliitli IS isi in cxtcnduig the "--pun. md viuit), hov^L\tr, m the imiubci and appearance ot thi 

Thit,!. 1 lb \\\1 SpmiLis Procc se^ ,n diflti ' " 

Foil! hoii iti I pi II unci t Lin^i been aateuoil^, ludi- oi the Icug-th ot the eomple 

rating ihc Md HI n I the ( udj(-ts \\hRh oii{,malh di- labXIS. 

Tid(d the 1.(11 mliintpi.r 1 h XI\ ihe tv\o mfeuor Spmou, Proteshts commonly /"wirrf, 

iln ippLi I )i <)! Mr L iil din. hisL poi-tion of the uithout meetm^, into a Spme, but Iciiui^ bctucLn thtui 

O '-■j.cMii. Liiliitiiilil (ill Uitebit ol iheLoui:,, the opening aii-eady meatioucd, tor the under cud ot the 

T\hde the hilJi pi ilion eoin-spuiuK uilh the liibt piece ot Cauda Equma 

the Os toccig s Fuia Fair of lajge Hoki on the anhimi Sin fact o? 

Ihe Spi/itif Cam/, ol i tiiint,niir toiin, ol great s>ize the Bone, at the end ot the Lmes ahcadv df-eiihtd, nnj 

above, but bteoimng gudmih miller in lit, descent, Oiooies rnnning out ti-om the llokb, toi the pi'- at,e ot 

correspondui^ to the si^e ol the uudei end ot the hpuial the Saeidl JVerves Tab XIX 

Marrow, teimed CaiiJa Fgiiiiici, which gi>es through it Ihe Holes become bmaller as the Bone descends, cor- 

Tdb XIX ii^ -* lab XXXI Fig lb respondmg with the ^e^leb whieli pass thiough tliem 

The «/«/(; piitotthe ^pinil pa-,! ij,e, commonly open Fuui Fair of Holes on the poi/tnoi S(»/aft, not much 

behmd , the tanil bein„ eompkted, in the Subject, by smaller than those seen antenoil> , but so hlled with Ccl- 

the iddition of a sti-ong Lij^amcotous Mcinbiaue lab luiai Substance, lud ^o^e^ed with Meinbnnes m the re- 

X\ II lab XIX tent Body, is only to a(biit small >ei-\cs to pi s out to 

The 4icA at the sides and back pait of the '^pmalCa- the Muscles on the bick part of the Pchis, uid inn 

nal, muih thicki r and stiongci thin m the tiue^ eitebric. Arteries toi'''' '"^ r..-.,. 

Tab XXXI Iig la At the TO 

The Oblique Fmcc^-.e'!, e\ceptmg the tw o uppermost, ly, an iinpicssion made wiicic the list Lumbal i 

all united together, and confounded with the lians\cise pisses out Tib Xl\ i il, J I 

Processes A. XoU/i at the imdei uid -t < ith -idc of the 3oi 

TUefaosiipiiin Obhqm Piare<!-.ts btlonL,mg to this i Il> /t (ommon to it md lit Ostr c; , foi iLc 

Bone, facm„ bi kw tuk, 1» .one poml with the two m- *i^c of ihe last ^pin. 

feriorProccsstsolilR UstLuiiibii^iiUbii I ib XL\ I ht^ Si l> fcuici ot 

Ahu^tOhli I Pi <. oniuhMdioi thi Iom,t(ini Icilcbre, is ^el^ y y^v, md eo^eixd onh b\ i thm e\- 

edb) tin emitulion ef ll -.ikiuiiKol ill the oiit,m il U ujI PI ite , tins, ho»e\ei, is leuduul considei ibly 

Tnnsv 1 1*10. < 111. \l\ Mi ii^ei b i L^ iiiKntou Uembiaiie whieh adhcus toit. 

'Ihe U|i,. 1 ! I 1 I I ul . t ll B 1 .11 .11 11 with i\cMe of PtKi 

epcmi Willi rhc till sup II ! \ I i Jhe C //a/ '<! fin- Ltnr ih<.\t to lie last Lumbii 

vided II' /(, J.) ^11 I C ■ 1 Luh Md , b I ; \ulebii, m the i c innmi is the otlifi 1 tiUbm ai-e 

femltiUin ihl^t i .b \1\ 1 i^ ^ G, H c iintclcd to each oihei, uid (he ime motion lUowed is 

The II It I -ll ihe Lu ) C iiiu Ined with Citiltlcigi, to these A ertebn: — Ihc piojection toimed btlweeniliese 

which gill a ll 1 Ijoul to till Os Ihmn, and in such a two Bones anleiiorly, ob'auis the name of/* oimnl n i/ q\. 

mannetasii. i yM,\ mi n iioii G;f«fe> .iHg/f of the Os s icimn Tab X\ I X\1I 

The ( i iiU^ whi h miius these Bones to eith otlitr Ihc Os Sacium sen-es as the common Ease and sup- 
is remaikabh thm, but adheica so mtnnatclv U) the (» ])0it ol thi liunk ef the Bod\, guards the ^enes i«&u- 
Sacrmn, thai in si pai itmg that Bone fjom the llimi , ilie ii i, liiim iIr uudti likI ot the Spin J Mairow, dctends 
s TVitbit, IcaMDgthe Ihnui (juiiL iht hi V put ol il 1' I\i , ind ^n cs ougin to Mnscies 
uoui.„ the Turn] iid Ihiji 



eotthe lrue\£it€bi-K lab X\\ II 

At this tune, eurh of tlie Vertebi-^ ot the Os Si- 

crum, as «eU as ot the 1 rue \ ei-tebi-EC, consists of : 

Eodv aiiii twu lattial paits, which aje joined togethti 

by CAiCila^re 

riie Situation of tint. Bone at the under end of the 
Os Sacrum Tab XJ\ \\ 

\ia Figiue, biomi md fttt ahnc, and tapti im^ btloir, 
coniei be/tind, aod toi mu;, i Cm it Jjiuaid\, to dcttnd 
it from iDjui)' wh(.u a pcisou la in a sittmj, pobtiirt. Tab 

lab XIX 

The Bone la tonsidered by some Authors as being 
loimed of t/iite pieces , and then the Os bacrum ib aaid 

The /f/s/oi u/ipt I iiiosi piece the largest, with Should rs 
reacluug farther than the end ol the Os Saciuin Iliis 
IS regirded by some as a proper distinction between the 
Os Cocc^gis and Os Sacrum Tab XI \ 

From the back part of the (Shoulders, fwi} Cornita 
frequently aatend to join the forked Spinous Processes 
at the end of the Oa Sacrum, and form a passage for the 
" nofthelastPairofSpinalJIerves. Tab-XIX. 

The time Imiiei Bonfs of the Oa Coccjgia becomm 
gradually smallei, the fotiith tennmating m a tuuik 
poijit Tab XI \ XX 

iailila^t lb inttrpo-iLd between the different pier 
of this Bone m )oant Subject,, lab XX II , 
ing them tO),ethei, ttei tht mtuntr oi the \titL! 
allow uig motion upon uih othti ioi wards and backw 
but chiefly bttweeu thi tnst mi seeond , 
gieatei degiee ot motion iheie ui the lemde thai o 

In advanced life, but eaiiier la Men thau i i W 
the piece'!. giOw togethei o u to adi nt ol i r 
but tills takes place much I ttei btlwien the ii i 
coiid, thaii between the othci piicts 

Ihc SiO,ta/u,, like th it <i the 0-, Sauj ,i , 
but tin. Pone diiius tiom tlit - mum ui h^v , , 
sa^e toi the ^puiel Minm,u 

The Cowiictim ot thit. B 
the Os Sacnitu, by Cattlai 
luimi ol Substance 

1 he Surface ot the Bone 
gament, which addb to its sticngth , 
rise to numerous Aiuseulai 1 ibres, which, while they 
derive iheir oiigui iioni it, sene ax the same tune to 

The Os Coccygis sustains the Inteqtmum Rectum, 
contracts the Inferior Opening of the Pelvis, and assists 
in supporting the Rectuin, Bladd'.T, and I'lerus. 

In the Foitus, the Os Coccygis ia almost entirely com- 
posed of Caitilage. 

1 >ouug --ubjcei ID 
old People, by .m 

Lied by a strong Li 

Here obsen'e. 

The Pelvis, situated at the lower part of the Trunk, 
and formed by the Os Sacrum, Os Coccygis, and two 


The Sitvation of the Os Iunohihatum, in the fore part 
and side of the Pelvis, and in the under and lateral part 
of the Abdomen. Tab. XVI. ^ 

Tlie Dhiffiwi of the Bone, in Clhildren, into Ox Ilium. 
Os hc/iiam, and Os Pubv,: Tab. XXXII. Fig- 15. 
f,g. Tab. XXVII. ^ 

In the Adnit, the three Bones are ossified togethi 

Os Ilium. 
foiming the upper part of the Os In- 

, and spreading out, to assist in support 
contents of (he Abdomen. Tab. XVI. L. ' 

The Dorsum, or outer convex Surface of thc'J 
depressed, at ihe fore part, raised farther bacl^ 
concave behind. Tab. XVII. the whole giving t ' 
the Glutei Muscles, or Extensors of the Thigh. 

'J'he Spiney or upper semicircular edge of the il 
for the attachment of the Oblique and TraasvCTSe'tj 
dominal Muscles. Tab. XVI. M, N. 

In the recent Subject, the Spine is covered with ( 
TendiuouB and Cartilaginous crust, that separates in d 
cerating the Bone. 

The anterior-superior Spinous Process^ or anter^ 
tremity of the Spiije, for the attachment of the S( 
the Tenyor Vagina Femoris, and of PoDPART* 
ment, or Crural Arch. Tab. VI. N. 

The anterior 'inferior Spinous Process, a little 1 
the former, for the attachment of the Reclu! 

Part I.] 


Between the two anterior Spiuoua Processes, a Notch 
for lodging the beguuiing of the Saitorius Ulitscle. 

The tiDO posterior Spinotm I^rocesses, at the back pnjt 
of the Spine, less couslderable than the two anterior; 
partly for the origin of Muscles of tiie Back, but chicHy 
toi- the attachment of Ligaments which belong to tlie 
Joint between this Bone and the Os Sacrum. Tab. 
XXXI. Fig. 17. V, 3. The outside of tlie posterior 
Spmous Processes flat and rough, wliere part of tlie Glu- 
teus Maximus aud Pyriformis take their origin. 

The Notth of the Os Ilium under the posterior-infe- 
rior Spmous Piocesb, toi the pa sige d tlic Pyrifouu 
Mubcle, Sciatic Ncr%e, ind LUod M^sels lib XIX 

The^r«/t^uw <; ( i nS /«((■ of tht Bone, toi 
the attichuuiL cl I 1 ik\»= t>l the llii;,h, 

termed Ihacii f it i I tl support o\ a poittou 


1 the 

tlie pimcipal "\lHillii tsicl tt tlic 1 nt iJcsiks 
thesL, diflc t t loi II du itm ol le^;, coi idti itini, 
for admitlm \ *. s Is mto tht. Substance vt the <.aucelh 
Tab X\I u 1 kr 6, ut,ht side 

A Depit ) It at the inside of the anterior inferior Spi- 
nous Pi oct s, »lRie the Ikxoi Mu«les ot the Thigh 
and the auterior Ciui U \ essebs and Nerves p^as Tab 

The Xjinea Imwminata at the under part of the \en 
ter of the Bone, foimmg the latci il portion ot ^hat is 
termed Bum ot the Pelvis, and the Unc ot duii^ion be- 
tween the Pelvis ind 4bdoi tu Jab X\ I a 

Into the Iliac Poituii ot the I luca InuoniiMti, the 
Tendinous E\pjHbion contumcd li-om the Paoas Parvus is 

The inner and back part of the Bone, » ough and very 
irregular^ the posterior poition of this irrcgulaj- sur- 
face giving origin to some of the large JMuscles of the 
Back ; the middle being for the attachment of Ligaments 
which go to the Oa Sacrum, aud the anterior for the iirni 
connection which subsi^tij between this Bone and the Cai-'- 
tilage which glues it to the Os Sacnmi. 

The circumference of ttiis rough and irregular sur- 
face gives attachment to the Capsular Ligament of the 

Tlie under, fare, and outer purl of the Bone, fomiing 
die upper and back part of the Ac'.tabuluni, or Cavity for 
the articulation of the Thigh-bone. Tab. XVI. under R. 

Os Ischium. 

The Situation of the 0» Ischium in the lowest part of 
the Pelvis. Tab. XVI. g^ tl, T. 

Its Figure irregular ,■ its size next to that of the Os 

'The upper thick pari al' the Bone, forming the under 
part of the Acetabulum. Tab. XVI. g. 

The Spinous Process sent back from the upper part of 

the Booe, for the attachment of JfuBclcE, — and of tlic 
superior Sacro-sciatic Ligament, which completes the 
Notch of the Oa lUum mto an Uiac Foramen. Tab. XVI. 
U, right side. 

Tlie Ceri'i-i: placed under tlie Spinous Pi-ocess, aud 
coveied with Cartilage where the Tendon of the Obtura- 
tor Intciuiis plays, in its way from the inner side of the 
Pelvis to the Thigh-bone. Tab. XIX. Fig. 6. Q. 

The Tuherosily, or Tuber I.-t/iii, below the Cervis 
of the Bone, which is covered with Cartilage that is se- 
parated by macerating the Bone Tab XVI U, left 
Side lab \MI p 

The outer Surface of the Bone, at the Root of tho 
Spumus I'locess, hollow tor the pass igc of the P>nt((iniis 

i lie upper patt of the Tuber placed obliquely, and 
gi\ ng attachment to the Gemmus lufcnoi, to the undtL 
Si(.i ) sciatic Ligament, and to the great ik\or Muscle 
of tie Hugh J he thuuici -uid more scabious part <t 
the lubcr, «luch ha= ^cui^td ducction, is «hat uc re t 
up>n in sittmg It i^ivcb ^ttielmcnt to the (i us Pen i 
m tl e Mak, to the Crus Chtoudis m the ttmale, and to 
part ol the Adductor Muscksot the rhigh Tab MI 1 

Os Pubis 

The Sttuatwn of this Bine at the upper and fore pait 
of thcPehid Tab \\1 \, \\, \ 

Its S/ (, the kibt ol the three portions of the Os In- 

Ihe thicKeitt and itrongest part of tlie Bone, foimi 5 
the upper and fore aide ot the Atctdbulum J ib XV J 

The upper part of this portion ot the Bone formed int > 
a kmd ot ridge by its junction uitli the Os liimn 

The u/^tt part of the Boue betoir n^ nailer «here it 
is flattened above, and rendered smoolJi by the passage of 
the Flexor Muscles of the nil-h, ajid of the anterior 
Crural Vessels and Nerves. Tab- XX. N. 

The upper and inner part of the Boue increasing in 
size, and formuig the rough Crest or Angle, ivhere the 
Rectus and Pyramidalis, and- the inner end of Pou- 
PART's Ligament, are attached. Tab. XVI. AY. 

A Ridge, or Spine, extended from the outer and fore 
part of the Crest, along the upper and inner edge of the 
Bone, to form, with a similar Ridge of the Os Ilium, tho 
Linea Ili/i-pcctiuea, Brim, or upper covering of tha 
Pelvis. Tab. XVI. a. 

This Ridg* is described by some Authors as being 
sometimes so sharp, as to injure the parts which lie im- 
mediately contiguous to it. 

Another Jtidge, from the Crest, or Angle, extending 
downwards and outwards toivards the breach in the fore 
part of the Acetabulum. Tab. XVI. under V. 

A Cavity between these Ridges, for the origin of the 
Pecthieus. Tab. XVI. outside of c. 

Immediately below the undermost of the two Ridges,. 

the Bone having a twinted appearance, and a NotcU 

which is formed into a Hole in the Subject, by the 

;idditioik . 

1 tdui uof the Obtiiixloi Ligament, for tbe passage of tli 
O'ltm itoi * t ids ■ijid iN cuts lib XM uikIei \ 
Tlie iiitni end oi the Tone loui^h and umtjiial, but co 


bit IS coii3idei"e<l j 



3 so hinih lot,(.thti, ii 
|H(.\tiii tlitrntioni nio\ing othti 1 ib XM 

Uv. III! (I pait ot the Hone is bioad, and dcprc>>>- 
bcfoie, I heie it gives ongm to pait ol 
Mii,ck^ul the Thif,h lab X\ I ba\;t 

The nn r put oi thf lionc bLLomiug iiarrOMer, aiid 
rndtiig III tht t^;/, \liitli cot dounw inh to join tl c 
Cms ol th (). Kthmm, uid toim, -iloiij, «ith th it Ciu , 
out side, t the Auh.t ihcFuli Ub W I X,«/ 

The J-jiaiiun l/iyioirlcimi^ loimcd bj the 0<= Pubis. 
-md Os IbLluuiii, aiid m tht Subjett, hllcd by a Membra- 
nous Xiijnnient, exceptiug at the Notch abo%e mentiouid, 

the Notch abo%e 
largt share of the Obturator jMus- 
tles Tab X\I f 

The Icetabii/ im, or Caiiti/^ (coinpired to a '\ inegai 
ubtd b\ iht ViititQls), pi' 

[be Foi i; 

rthlth CO 


lul l(t 

; Ui. Ob Im 

1 bv ilif thite pieces 
o hlihs, the Ob U 

1 li lis, bLhuid iL IS hiv iiu liP , and at the sidtb thiee m, I 
iiid % h ill Iht l\\M-i m I vaiy from the above dinu 
ions actuidiiig to tht bi/t J,iid proportions of the Be I 
rthith iiiayditlLi aonicvvliit iii the diflerent nations, \ 
bt «l11 loimed , or it may \iiy fioin chseaat eilhei 
the Loiitu or \ Liccra, and then it is consideitd as di 

1 he 0«sa Iimonuaata, joined behiml to tht Os Satn 
bv "^ thin Ccitilagi. and bj •,tion^ Ligament'', so a 
lia\e no motion , the Joint obt uiung the name of Pw 
uoi, or Sacio-ihuc Sijwjl,, is l.tb XX A 

Ihe Coiiiiiclton ot iht t honts to eith other antei r 
ly, by a Ligiuitntous t utilise and Ligaments, whi 

. pu 

il that Cj\ 

The Cai 

behind, and 


t\o hills, m<l the Ob Pubis one liith Sijwj I / i ^ oi lnlt>n> ^yii j hy^ '. Pubis Tab XX B 

lib X\I s, Iht ^ ibbimct ot Iht lint pait ot the Oa Linomma 

turn lb ttllulii, Mith a thm txttnial Table, «hich, la 

bome old ptople, is bO much afltcted by Muscular actioa 

about Its middie, is to become trdnsparent The other 

two portion's ot the Oa Innommatiuu are celluldr^ as m 

hxed Tab otliti flat Bones, but some paits ot the external Table 

iidtrabk thiiknc-bdnd sluiigth 

Vttt ibulura \trv deep, especially 
dLipei ui the Subject, by its Brim 
ipptd \Mih 1 1 iitdigmoub Ligament 
jicf the outti td^e ot the Brim, the Bone nrngh^ 
the Capsuiji Ligament ot the Jomt . ~ - 

4 Bleach in tb inner and fore part of the Acetabu- V%i. or the Pelvis — It i 
lim, ubith, in ib '-iib|ttt, hib a stiong Linaintnt Tiuiik, and lonna '^otkf (■^ loi the I high-bones ton 
viretthtd tiom one ud ot thit ^otth to tlie other, but m Jt contiins the Bhi'dt i ot I rine ind ihe Kectuii 
leaving I Hole btliinil loi tontaining pait ot the Sub- the "Mile, and, togetbti wilh tlicsi, the Iteius ui 
stance caUtd G/ft/7 / df M( Jnnt Tab XIX FemJe It gives ouyn to the Ahi ihswlnh l^ 

TheCaty/i/ofthcA.tttahulumlincd\^ithCaitiUgcex- the Tiunk, and mstition to those ulul IhkIiIi 1 
ceptmg at its undci, mnn, and fore pait, whci-e theie is It sendb off the principal put ot ih 
a rough deprebsion tor tontauiing the greater put oi the ■' ■ ' ' ' 

Substance mentioned above lab XIX Fur f- 

The liniii, hitioilu , oi iippu Opuimg of the Caiity 
of the PehT,, appioithuit, m the Male to i tiitidai, and 
111 the Female to an o^al Ioito Tab XA I XX 

The In fit 101 Ojieiiu/g is large m tht Skeleton, but m 
ihe Snbtect in a gieit measure is hlled up by Ligaments 
od "\Iubclps, uhitb '■iipport ind protect the contamed 

liirts, and leave onlv the passages from the Bladder ot the t uity of the Pthi , it thi |iiud, is tltogtlhn 
and Ueetum m the Male, and, together with these, ferent trora that lu tlic Adult, the uuiki bim'j mdti I 
. .1 . -r.. ■ jj^^ upper part. 

the ihigh, and givi 

■^cs €!s, luu tosonieot'lht Uigtst fsuvesol the Uni 
1 1 tlie Fatii , Jie ■■ pine of the Os Ihum, and that |t 
ol the Bone v\hith belongs to the icetabulum, are ( 
tiU^mous The '^puious Piocess, the Iuberosit>, 
Cms oi the Os Ibdiium, the (.uib ol the Ob Piibj=, 
that portion ot it ivhuli toiii s the Vcrribtihini, are i 
■ this penod, m i C util n.inou tite Ihe ship 

issage from tiie Uterus ia the Female. 

( « ) 

Views of the Separate Bones of the Pelvi 

A, A, A, The three pieces of whicli the bone shewn i 
this ligTire is coinpostd. 

A, The upper part of the os sacrum, which receives the f^ ^'J"^ P"^^* ""^^'^ °^ ^^^ ^'"^^^ 
body of the last lumbar vertebra. ^' ^1 r,M°™."^' . i 

B, The osseous lamina which surrounds this surface. ^' ^' ^}'^ '**^^^ notches. 

C, C, A portioD of the oblique processes. E, E, The lateral processes. 

D, D, 'I'he superior notches, for the passage of the ^» -^"^ P*'"'*' **'" "itenor extremity. 

FIG. 5. 

I of which the bone 

twenty -fourth paii' of spinal 

E, E, I'hc large lateral 

F, F, The pi ' " 

lines which indicate the un 

n- The Internal Surface of the Left Os Innominatum. 
of A, The cavity c 

e oblique passages on each side, for the 

G, G, Thi 

these piet 
H, H, The 

mission of the sacral 
I, A portion of the surface of thL , _^ 

it is articulated nith the os ilium. F, F, The ^ ^ 

K, K, The inferior notches, where the last pair of spinal G, The surface by which the 

venter of the os ilium. 

The oriSce of the internal iliac canal. 

i. C, C, The spine or crest of this boue, 

D, The superior-anterior spinous process. 

by which ^i "^^^ inferior-anterior spinous process. 

L, The point of the bone which is joined to the 


towards the Left Side. 

H, H, An irre 

I, The anterio: 
K, The poster 

s articulated with 

igular suiface which also belongs i 
r iliac notch. 

iliac notch. 
Ij^The ischiatic, or, more properly, the great iliac notch. 
Surface of the Os Sacrum, turned a little M, The great sinuosity, where the inteiual Uiac muscle 

p^^^^ ^^j. ^j ^y^^ abdomen. 
N, The ridge of the os ilium, which forms a share of 

the brim of the pelvis. 
O, The body of the o9 ischium, 
P, The spinous process of this boue. 
Q, Part of the tuberosity of this bone. 
K, The inner part of the sinuosity wliich is between the 

spinous process and tuberosity. 
S, The notch of the os ischimu, \\'hic]i assists in forming 

the foramen ovale. 
T, The crus of tlic 

A, The upper surface of the os sacrum. 

B, B, Its superior oblique processes. 

C, C, Its superior notches. 

D, The begimiing of the spinal canal of this bone. 

E, E, The spinous processes. 

F, F, The appendices, or comua. 

G, G, The posterior foramina. 
H, The termination of the spinal canal. 

I, I, The inferior notclies. T, The cr 

K, The pomt of the bone wliich is imited with the oa U, The en 

coccygis. branch o 

Xi, L, Ligamentous and muscular impressions, rendering Y, The spi 

the back part of the bone very unequal. W, The in 

M, A portion of the articular surface, by wliich this bone X, Tlie it 

is united with the os ilium, pubi^. 

Vol, I. H 



u'ks the 
ith (he . 

1 of the superior 



Y, The inferior notch of this branch. 

Z, The inner aurface of the body of the os pubis 

a, The crus of this bone. 

b. The cartiiaginous aurface ivliich unites itself u 
OS pubis of the opposite side. 

f, The foramen ovale. 

f/, 'ITie inferior notch of the os pubis, which n? 
loi-ming the foramen ovale. 

FIG. fi. 
T/ie Extvnial Surface of the Left Os Invomin 

S, The dorsum of the os iljnm, raised in some pa 

depressed in others. 
K, B, The crest of this bono. 
< , The superior-anterior, und, 
fj, The inferior-anterior spinous process. 
I'., v., 'I'lio posterioi' spioou^ process. 
i; Thu- :uitt-rior iioltli. 
O, 'I'lic nn-tnior m,tcl,, and, 

ii. The brim of ilie scctabiilniu, tipped with cartilage. 

L, The bottom of this cavity encrusted with caitilage. 

jM, a rough surface in the acetabulum, where the sub- 
stance termed gland nf tht joint is lodged. 

Sunouiiduig the acetabulum, and upon the dorsum of the 
o3 ilium, foramina appear, which are the pa.ssages of 

N, Tlie spinous process of tlic os ischium. ^ 

O, The tuberosity of this bone. 

P, The notch between the spinous process and tuberosity 

Q, The cervix of the bone. 

K, The breach in the acetabulum, which, in the subject 
has a strong ligamenl coimected to it. 

S, The cms of the os iscliium. 

T, The notch which forms the under part of the foramen 

U, The outer end of the superior branch of the oh pubis 

V, The middle of this bone. 

W, The crest of this bone. 

X, The notch at the midcr part of the branch of this houe 

y, Tlic body of the bouc. 

'/, The cms of tliis bone. 

rf. The notch which assists iu forming the fore part of 

the foramen ovale. 
A, Tlie part ivhere the one os pubis joins the other, 
f, Tlie foramen ovale. 




( J9 ) 


A View of the Female Pelvis, from the Upper and Fore Part. 

A, Tiie conuection of the oa ilium with the os saci-um. 

B, The symphysis pubis. 

C, &c. The brim ot the pelvis. 

D, The articulation of the head of the oa femoria %vith 
the acetabulum of the os innoimnatum . 

E, The arch formed by tjie crura of the ossa pubis. 

F, The cavity of the os ilium. 

G, The spine or arch of the os ilium. 

H, The superior-anterior spinous process. 

I, Ligaments passing between the spine of the os ilium, 

to the transverse process of the last lumbar vertebra. 
K, The tuberosity of the os ischium. 
L, The crus of that bone. 
M, Tlie posterior part, fonniDg a share of the acetabuliuu. 

N, The back part of tlie os pubis, fonning a portion of 

the acetabulum. 
O, The angle, or crest. 
P, The crus of the os pubis. 
Q, The last lumbar vertebra. 
R, R, The OS sacrum ; the transverse lines marking ils 

original pieces, with the four pairs of holes for tht 

S, S, Tlie four pieces composing the os coccygis, tvith a 

pair of holes between it and the os sacrum. 
T, T, The cavity of the pehis. 
TJ, The foramen thyroideum. 
V, The cervix of the os femoris. 
\V, The trochanter major. 


The cii-cumstancea to be attended to in this part of the Tlie upper Edge of the Rib, round where the Inter- 
Skeleton are, -costales aie fixed. 

The Thorax, formed of the Stenium before, of the Tlie under Edge,, sharp whei-e the Intercostalis Exter- 

Ribs on each side, and of the Dorsal Vertebra: behind, nus is fixed. 

Tab. XV. ■ A Fossa at tlic inside of the under Edge, for lodging' 

The general Figure of the Thorax approaching that of the Inteicoslal Vessels and Nenes. The upper Edge of 

a Cone, but left open above for the passages to the Lungs ihe Fossa gives origin to tlie Intercostalis Internus. 
and Stomach, and for the great Blood-vessels. The i^osswu'fln/zH^ towards the extremities of the Ribs; 

The Lower Pari of the Thoi-ax slanting ,- the /(we the Vessels not being in contact ivith them behind, and 

part being considerably shorter ihau it is behind. too small to impress them anteriorly. 

The Under Margin on each side, tbrjning a curved An Oral Pit iu the anterior extremity of each Rife, 

line, the convex side of which is turned dounwards. for receiving the Cartilage which runs from it to the 

The under end of the Thorax, occupied, in tlie Sub- Sterumn. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 14. A. 

ject, by the Diaphragm^ which fonua a paililjon bet^vcen The Cartilages of the Ribs, placed between them and 

it and tlie Abdomen. Tab. XEVIII. Fig. 2. the Stenium, or connected to each other, or lying loose 

among the Muscles. Tab. XV. H. 

Cosj^, The Cartilages, like the Kihs^ Jlat on theii' outer and 

iimex Surfaces, and smooth where they are opposed to the 

The Situation of the Coata;, or Ribs, slanting doivn- lungs, 
ivards with respect to the Spine. Tab. XV. The Cartilage of each Rib, forming, with the Rib it- 

Tiieii- Niinibvr, hi the Ulale as «ell as in the Female, self, a Curve^ the concave part upwards.. 
commouly twelve on each side, thougli sometimes thirteen. And with the Steroum, an obtuse Angle above, and m 

and at other times only eleven ; theii- number always cor- acute o;ie .below, 
responding with that of the Dorsal Vertebi-se. The Cai'tilages yield to the motions of the Ribs, and 

Their Pigure, convex externally, by ^vliich their enable them to return to their former position, wheo the 

strength is increased ; and concave and smooth internally. Muscles cease to act. The Cartilages of the Ribs, in 

with their flat sides turned towajds the liungs, which old people, are frequently ossified. 

they protect. The Ribs ai'e connected behind to t!ie Vertebrse by a 

' The /ff(i</ of each Rib formed into a i?;i/gc and tivo double articulation, and before to the Sternum by the 

hoUoto Surfaces covered with Cartilage, to be articulated Cartilages, or by tlie Cartilages to each otlier, in such a 

with the Bodies of two Vertebi-a; and their intermediate manner as to allow motion upwards and doivnwai-ds, 

Cartilage. Tab. XXXI. I'ig. i I. a. though only a small degree in any single Rib, and that 

Round the Head, the Bone spongy, for the attach- towards its middle ; but no motion in any other diitclioii. 

meat of the Capsular Ligament of the .loint. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 17. 

The Tubercle of the Rib, at a little distance firom its The first Rib the niost crooked i from tliis downwards 

Head, with a flat Cartilaginous Surface and irregular the Ribs becoming graduaUy straighter. Tab. XV. 

Edge, to be articulated to the Transverse Process of the G, G, &c. 

undermost of the two Vertebra, to which the Head of The uppermost Ribs approaching nearer to the hori- 

Ihe Rib is joined. Tab. XXXl. Fig. 14^ t. zontal situation; theii- obliquity, with respect to the 

The Cervia of the Bib, between its Head and Tu- Spine, increasing as they descend, and their anterior er- 

bcrcle, of a rouiidinli form. Tab. XXI. Fig. 3. a. tiejuities becoming more distant from each other. Tab. 

Another wmU Tubercle in most of the Ribs, at the XV. 
outer side of the former, lor the attachment of Ligaments The Cartilages of the Ribs, like tlie Ribs themselves, 

which fix. the liibs to each other, and to the Transverse becoming gradually longer from the first to the seventii, 

Processes, Tab. XXXI. Fig. U. rf ,- and also for the but, contrary to what happens in the Ribs, spproaehing 

institioii of the outtr Slips of the Longissinnis Doi-si. nearer to each other in their descent. Tab. XV. H, H, 

Ee^ujid rhe Tubeide, the Rib rendered /«/ by the &c. 
Satio-lumbaUs. Thclevglk .>f the Ribs, increasing from the first i" 

The Angle of the Ribs (o which the Sacro-lumbalia is the seventh, ;.iul thui ,Uirt,i.-ing to the twelftli. Tab. XV 
fixed, where the Bones are about to bend, to form the ITie t/w/«/»r U-l^^ i < n (he Heads of the Ribs an.l ih- 1> 

latei-al part of the Thorax. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 14. e. Angles, increasing u> the iihitli Uib, con-espoiiding *mI'' 

The Rib becoming Aroarffr and/rtrttr at the lateral the breadth of the ya<;jx)-lumbalis which covers ihea. 

part ot the Xhwas, and the flat Surface opposed to the Tab. XLIJ. 
Lungs. "^^ Tlni 


11 of 1 c Stern m 


lie b a e 

p bu th rende ed 
t m U 


1 t IJ 

g lar fa^ui'e 

i ofU^ 
CO p ed o 1 
bu pp a 




and ta A « 



lab X\l 1 


Ihe ipe 

C / 



Tlie Ribs divided into True and Fahe. 'E e d ffe e t P eces of tl 3 Bo le aie fiequeat j found 

s fied togeil e u old people 

The Trwe Rihs^ — the seven uppermost Iiavuig tl lie bterQum tl K and b oad above^ and thii and 

Cartilages joined to the Sternum, and opposed o he a ow beloa 1 b \\ 
Heart and Lungs, fi-om which they are termed ihe F Thi, o t Su j ce flat T \\ 

Cmtodes^Qv Guards of Life. Tab. XV. Th S j e leCa 

The Fahe i?/As,— the hvc iiifeiioi- not reach g tl c y o tl f I o j 

Sternum. Tab. XV. i' /s upo c 1 p I <■ 

The CorfiVo^es of the False Kibs, i/w/cr as t!ey d C ft on end ot i e ] U 1 \\I 

scendf and more flexible tliau those ol" tlic True R b 
Tab. XV. 1,1, &c. 

The posterior Extremity oi the first Rib, arfi I t I abo e but becoming gradual 
onlywiththe first Vertebra of the Back. Tab. XV K Tal^ \\I 

A. flat Surface upon the upper part of the iii R b 
where the SubclavUin Vessels pass over it to th A 
Tab. XV. N. 

The Fossa for the Intercostal Vessels and Nerves a t 
iug at the etlge of this Rib, on accoimt of their u m 
at a distance from this part of the Bone. 

The Cartilages of the t\vo under True Ribs, and tl lec 
upper False Ribs, commonly /Vw>i€(/ to each otiier b cro 
Cartilages, or by an union of Hubstance, though one 
times this union takes place among [i smaller nunibc 1 a 
that mentioned above. Tab. XV, 

The Head of the eleventii Rib, havi/ig m T be c! 
for articulation, being only loosely joined to the Trans- tor rece v ng he ends ot tl e Col a Roue T b WI 
verse Process. Fig B B 

The twelfth Rib »(ucA,9/M)r/tfr than the rest. ICsHeal Inde theseCavtes theBo e becom gtl f i 1 
is only joined to the twelfth Vertebra of the Back It ha ^% P f upo ach s de io ecc I Car lagc 

haa no Tubercle, nor articulation with the Trans er e of 1 e h t R b lab WI I U U 

Process ; neither has it any Fossa at its under edge the Pai oi 1 e P ^ u eacl of tl e d L r of t] e 
VesselsandNervesrunningsome way below it. Tab XV f t P ecc fo he Car age oi the econd R b Tab 

" ■ • " ■■ " Tg !■ F 

e Q d p ce oi he^ n of II p t 

but lying loose among the Muscles ; hence these R bs but a 1 le bro dc belo h ! o biy 

sometimes named Floating Ribs. Tab. XV. lo ger han tl e fon e T \\] L IE 

The Substance of the Ribs, tike that of the Vertebra 1 he se ond [ e vi o d ab 1 [ e d fle 

is Cellular, and only covered with a thin external Plate 
which becomes somewhat thicker towards the \ er e 

■cles of the R b 

; tliiii Epiphj cs 
After Eirth,"the l^odies of the Kibs encioach gi du\lly 
en the Cartilages ; hence the Cartilages ot the R b ar 
proportionally shorter in ,4dults th in in Chiidicn. ±1 es ex 

The Ribs give form to the Thora\, co\er ind defe d denot g tl t 
the Heart and Lungs, and assist the latter m performm^, T b XXI 
respiration. I (^ 

1 a e 
The Situation of the Stci-num in the fore part of he F g II 

Thorax. Tab. XXIX. Fig. 10. V. lie / 

Three Pieces composing the ^itemum, in a pei o of j oung S 

middle age, and these joined together by Cartil;igc. T b te e I C / 
XV. O, P, Q. Ti Vdul 

rent Subject be ng f e (u a b o d 

bo e as b 

and bO etu es con de b j b o I I 

n ally of Ic 

am 1 ki c h ouj,l o t 

( ll t Pt upon le !(, 1 p 

for leC 

la„ oltle lird l.u 1 1 1 1 

1 p r of K b 

and par ot ]c P t lor tl o e ot he 

d and e tub 

Tab \XI 1 t F— I, 1 b -Vl 


I b 



oo , 

J 1 

n le 


n.iddle,andcfiW//«g/rtO«."t the edges. Tab. XXIX . or True E 

Fie. 10. No. 3. 4- Cartilage I 

The AVze of this piece much less than tliat of the other XV. 

Tab XV . -^ ^''^ Fatus, this Boae is composed of seven or eight 

"^Oiily out- iid/f of ihc Pit, for the Caitilagc of the se. pieces, but the number of these vai-ies in different Sub. 

venlh Kib, formt-d in caih ndt- of lliis iiitcc. Tab. I. jeets. By degrees the pieces unite, till at length they 

The J'(ii-iutuiii« of the Cartila'vo J-ljisituritiis are coiisi- form the three Bones ah'cady described. 

derable in ditfereut .Subjects ; — tor, iiibtead of the com- The Slenium gives origin to several Muscles, defends 

iDon tomi it is bomitiiiieB iiairow like ihe point of a the Heai-t and Lungs, assists m the formatiou of the 

braall bwoid, or turned obliquely to one aide, or forwards. Thorax, sustains the Mediastinum, is amediumofattacli- 

or backwajds, or forked at the point, or perforated in ment to the Ribs, and sencs as a Fulcrum or point ca 

the middle. which the Clavicles i-oU. 

The Sternum is jmied by Cartilage to tlie seven upper 

( 63 ) 


Represents the Atlas, Sternum, First Rib, Clavicle, and Scapula 

FIG. I. 

The Superior Surface of the Atlas, or First Vertebra. 

A, The spinal hole. 

B, The articular notch which ift;eives the processus den- 
tatus of the second vertebra of the neck. 

b. The direction of the ligament wliich coufuies this pra- 

C, The anterior part of the atlas. 

Dy D, The superior oblique processes. 

rf, (7, Placed behind prominences, to which the lateral 

ligaments of the head are lixed. 
1', K, The transverse processes. 
,'. !', The holes in the transverse processes for tim -verte- 

bial blood-vessels. 
r, The spinous process. 
^ fy The posterior depn 

FIG. 2. 

The External Surface of the Sfen 

B, B, Notches whicli i 

C, An . 

where tli( 

«hich I 

r ends of the cla- 
trachca pas^s into the tho- 
: the cartilages of 

D, D, The lateral parts 
the fiist pan of ribs 

E, E, The middle ind longest part of the sternum 

t £, Tian^xer t Lnts pomtmg out the luiion of tliL 
(liftiif nt pietts tf «hith tins boue is originally com- 

FIG. 3. 
T/ic Outer Surface of the Second True Rib of t/,t 

B, The tubercle. 

C, The angle. 

D, The upper and 

A Fieia of tfie Back Part, • 
A, The spine. 

D, D, The inferior spinous fossa. 
K, E, The base or posterior costa. 
I'", The back part of the posterior ( 

h,h,h. The brim of the g 
1,1, The cer^^x of these; 
K, Tlie coracoid process. 
L, The inferior angle. 


1,1, I h 

.- second ,HC 
G, H, I, K, 

L, L, li.ipic^ 

y. ihcc^iu 

lilagcs of the 

B, IhL 

C, The 

D, J lie 

FIG. 5. 

Indet Side of the (l 

. the uppei edge of the pectoralis major 

r, 1 l,c mii.c of lilt 


G, ri,il,(,m,u,lo.„ 

iiid musculai irajHeasions of the ex. 

II, The oiihccs ot b 

e^eial pis&ag«s foi xesscls. 

I, The himici .1 exli 



C 64 ) 


The Situation of the Clavicle, between the upper pai-t 
of the Sternum and top of the Scapula, and placed al- 
most horizontally. Tab. XV. Y. 

The Sternal, or internal Extremity, triangular, and 
larger than the Body, with one of the angles elongated 
backwards, where it gives origin to a Ligament extend- 
ed between the two Cla\-icles. Tab. XXI. B, C, D. 
Tab. XV. W. 

The Surface nest the Sternum, covered with Carti- 
lage, ajid irregularly holhucd, to correspond with tlie 
inter-articular Cartilage, which, with the Capsular Li- 
gament of this Joint, allows a small degi'ee of motion 
in ail directions. Tab. U. Fig. 5. B. 

The Body of the Bone next the Sternum bent for- 
wards, and that next the Scapula turned back, the whole 
resembling an Italic yi or a key used by the Ancients ; 
from which, or li-om the support, like a beam, it gives the 
Shoulder, its name is derived. Tab. XV. 

The upper part of the Clavicle next the Sternum, 
rounded, and tliat next the Scapula, thin anA JIat where 
it lies over the Joint of the Humei-us. Tab. XV, 

Over the Bone in general rough marks are observed, 
for the attachment of Muscles and Ligaments. 

The imder Surface hollow, for lodging a poilion of 
the SubclaviiLs. Tab. XXI. Fig. 5. A. 

In the under Surface, one or more small Canals, 
leading obliijuely out^vards, for the passage of the Me- 
dullary Vessels. 

The External, or Scapulnrjj Kxtreinili/, lipped with 
Caitilage, to be articulated with the Acromion of the 
Scapula. Tab. XV. Fig. H). 

Near the back part of the Scapuhiry Extremity, a 
Tubercle, for the attachment of ii strong Ligament, 
which connects this Bone to the Coracoid Process of the 

The Substance of this Bone is like that of other long 
i-ound Bones, but the external Table is of considerable 
thickness and strength. 

The Clavicle supports the Shoulder at a proper distance 
from the Tiiorax, and thcjvby renders the motions of the 
Aim more extensive. It gives origin to several Muscles, 
and defence to large Vessels and Nerves. 

In a FcEtus, the Clavicle is completely fonned. 


The Situation of the Scapula, upon the upper and 
hack part of tlie Thorax, at some distance &ora the 

Ribs, the interval being 6Iled up by a cushion of Flesli 
Tab. XVI. 

The shape of the Scapula triangular, with one of t|ie 
angles placed downwartfc. Tab. XVI. 

The Venter, or inner Surface, concave, corresponding 
with the convexity of the Kibs, and marked with Jiidgen 
and DepresmfUi by the Subscapularis. Tab. XXIU 
Fig. I. A. 

The Dorsum, or outer Surface of the Scapula, ren- 
dered convex in some parts, and concave in others, by the 
action of the Muscles which cover it. Tab. XVI. 
Tab. XIX. 

The body of the Scapula is remarkably thin, and, iu 
an old person, IraTi-'parenl. 

The three Judges of thB Bone thick and strong, and 
termed Cost(E. 

The superior or Cervical Costa the shortest of the three, 
and placed aeaily opposite to the second Rib. Tab. 
XXr. Fig. 4. F. Tab. XVI. 

A Semilunar Notch, ivliicfa is sometimes converted into 
a Foramen, near the fore part of the superior Costa, for the 
passage of the superior Scapulary Vessels and Nerve. 

The inferior or anterior Costa, extending obliquely 
doivuw^i-ds and backwards, between the third and eighth 
Ribs. Tab. II. 

The inferior Costa impressed where ix gives origin to 
the Teres Minor, the long Head of the Triceps Extensor 
Cubiti, and Subscapularis, 

The posterior Cosia, or Sase of the Bone, placed ob- 
liquely ivith respect to the Vertebrx, the upper end being 
considerably nearer them than the under. Tab. II. 

The upper part of the Base, above the large Bidge 
termed Spine, running obliquely forwards to the tipper 
angle, and giving attachment to the Levator Scapulit. 
Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. 

The portion of tlie Base under the Spine rough, for the 

insertion of the Rhomboides and SeiTatus Major Anticus. 

The inferior Angle very acute, and marked behind by 

the passage of the Latissimus Dorsi, and the origin of the 

Teres Major. Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. 

The s((penbrj^g^fe approaching to aright Angle. Tab. 
XXI. Fig. 4. c. 

The anterior Angle, forming the Cervix, which de- 
scends from the Semilunar Notch, and supports the Htoa 
of the Bone, which is considered as one ot its Processe.'^. 
Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. 1, I. 

'ITie Glenoid Cavity, placed on the fore part of tlit 
Head of the Bone, and lined with Cartilage for the ar- 
ticulation of the Os Humeri. Tab. XXL Fig. 4. H. 

The Cartilage lining this Cavity thick at the edgi-- 
but thin toward the centre, by which it is rendemd dcq'- 
cr, for receiving the Ball of-the Os Humeri. 

The sltape of that Cavity, resembling an E^ "" 
longitudinally, with the large end undermost, but so s"' - 
low as to receive only a small portion of the Ball of th' 


. Oa Humeri, llic rest oF the Ball being couL;iiiied iji the the Head, Os Hvoides, Tmik, and Arm, as lo liavc 

Capsular Ligament. Tab. XV. E. motion iipwaitls, dmviuvards, and to eiUur side, ami, 

The Spint^ or great Ridge, running across the Dorsum tlirough the nRdiuin of the Clavicle, to be rolled upon tlie 

of the Rone, (iividintr it into a small upper and large under top of the Sternum. 

Surface, and ^iviiMj; origin to pirt of the SpJnati. Tab. In the Fa;tiis, the Ba^c, Acromion, Coracoid Proccs?., 

XXI. Fig. l.^A, A. and Head of ihe Scapula, arc Cartilajsinous. The tbrec 

Thf Sjiiiu-, xiiiall at its beginning, holfowed and curved first ai'C afterwards joined as Epiphyses ; while the Hend, 

laterally by tlic action of Muscles, and becoming A 4f//(')- with the Glenoid Cavity, is gradually produced from ihc 

and /fraflf/cT in its course fonvarda. Tab. XXI. Fig. •!■. Body of the Rone. 

A triangular Space^ between the root of the Spine and 

base of the Bone, where part of the Trapezius is lixed. ARM. 

Tab. XXXI. Fig. 17. between W and the base of tire The Arm consisting of a single Bone, the 

At the side of the Spine near its base, a passage for Os Humeri. 

the principal Vessels which supply the Substance of the The Situalion of the Os Humeri at the side of the 

Rone. Thorax, and under the Scapula. Tab. I. 

The Fossa Supraspinnfa, or Cavity above the Spine, The Bn/f or Head of the Os Humeri, forming a small 

for the origin of the Supra-spinatus. Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. segment of a hti-ge Sphere, and this covered wilh Carti- 

C, C. . lage, and placed at the upper, inner, and back part of 
The Fossa lu/raspinala, or space under the Spine, the Body of the Roue, to corre.ipond with the Glenoid 

for the origin of the Infra-spinatus. Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. Cavity of the Scapula. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. a. 

D. The under part only of this space is a real Fossa, Tlie C'enix or Nec/c, surrounding the etlge of the Ball, 
the rest of the Bone here being somewhat convex. and forming a superficial Fossa, where the Capsular Li- 

The Spine becoming broad and flat, and termiaatuig gameut is ftxed. Tab, XXII. Fig. 'i. li, t>. Tab. I. c. 

in a pouit at its anterior extremity, where it is termed A- Numerous Holes round the upper end of the Bone, for 

(I'jiiiioii, or top of the Shoulder. Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. B. the insei-tion of the Fibres of the Capsular Ligament, and 

The under Surface of the Acromion, /lo/low i'^'- the loi the passage of Blood-vessels mto the Bone lab 

he upper end of the XXII lig 1 / 

A Fo^sa oi long Ciooie, Imcd with aCartdagmousand 

' the upper end of Tendmous Ciust, ui the uppti ind fore pai-t of the Bont , 

the Humerus, wliich, together with the Ligaments, con- for lodgni^, the Icndonof the longHetdot the Biceps, 

tributes to the protection of the Joint. Tab. XXXI. which descends fiom the uppej tdge of the Glenoid Ca- 

Fig. 7. i'. - ^ity ofthc Vapnh lab WII Fig 1 e 

Theanterior edge of the Acromion, /7)y)f(7/wyi CRr/7- rhe iiiia/hi 1 iduc/i, ]i\\c(.d at the nppti ind innci 

lage for its articidation with the outer end of the Clavicle, side of tht abovt nitntiontd Gioovt, i r the attachment 

Tab. XXIV. Fig. lU. A. ot the Subscipuiaiis Tab XXII Iig 1 d 

The Coracoid Process, aiising fiom the Neck of the The laimi li beich, oppobitc to the tormer, and on 

Bone, and making a curvature forwards, so as to leave a the outer side of the Gioo\c, loi the Utichment of the 

hollow at its root for the passage of the Subscapularis. Muscles which co%ei the Dorsum of the ''taputa Tab 

Tab. XXI. Fig. 4. h. Tab. XV. T, V. XXII lig 1 c 

The PoiJit of t/m Process, giving origin to the Pecto- A Bidge contmucd down lioin each Tubercle along 

raljs Minor, short Head of the Biceps, the Coraco-bra- the sides of the long Fossa, for the insertion of Muscles 

chiaiis, and to a strong Ligament which passes trans- coining fram the Tiimk of the Body, or fi-om the Scapula, 

versely from its side, to be fixed to the Acromion, for Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. g^ h. 

the protection of the Joint. Tab. XV. A Passage slanting downwards in the fore and inner 

At the upper part of the root of this Process, a small part of the Bone, near its middle height, for the Medul- 

Tubercle, which gives attaehment to a Ligament of the lary Vessels. Tab. XXII. Fig. ii. /. 

Clavicle. Tlie Bone, marked at the under end of the Groove for 

The Substance of the Bone is veiy unequal in thick- lodguig the long Head of the Biceps, by the attachment 

ness; for the Inferior Costa and Processes are thick and of the Deltoides and other .^lu^cles. Tab. XXI 1. Fig.l. 

strong, while the Body is so pressed by its own Muscles, under i. Fig. ""i. at the outer side of g. 

especially in old people, as to become in many parts trans- The Rody of the Rone, round near its upper end ; but, 

piu-ent. as it descends, appearing twisted, then _/?«/, and increas- 

The Scapida is joined to the Clavicle by Ligaments of ing in brei^th at the lower exticmity. Tab. XXII. 

^:uch strength, as only to allow between these two Bones Fig. 1. 2. 

■A small degree of motion, and that chiefly of a twisting Frara the Muscular Prints on the fore part of the Body 

nature i but the Scapula is so connected by Muscles to of the Humerus, a W«nf ii/rffff continued to the upper part 

Vol. L I of 

Of the bones of the superior extremities. 


of the Cartilaginous Surface covering tlic lower end of the 
Bone. Tab. XXU. Fig. 1. X-,*,jt. 

The under and back part of the Bone, rendered ^t 
and fmaofh., by the motion of the Triceps Extensor Cu- 
biti. Tab. XXII. rig. 2. 

A large Ridge at the under and outer, and a small 
Ridge at the under and inuer edge of the Bone, for the 
attachment of strong Tendinous Fascia, which give ori- 
gin to part of the Muscles of the Fore-arm. Tab. XXII. 
i-ig. 1. 

The Ridges ending below in two Condyles, the situa- 
tioD of which, in order to avoid confusion in the terras 
eitenial^ internal, &c. is here to be considered with a. 
jcference to the Palm of the Hand turned forwards. 

The external Condyle, placed at the under and outer 
part of the Bone, for the origin of the Extensor Muscles 
nf the Hand and Fingei-s. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. n. 

The internal Condi/le, at the under and inner part of 
ihe Bone, more pointed Lind prominent than the former, 
lor tlie orig-in of the strong Flexor Muscles of the Hand 
jiui Finpei-. 'Jab. XXII. Fig. I. ;«. 

The Siiiftice at the under end of llic Bone, between 
the Condvles, covei-ed ivith Cartilage for the articu- 
lation with the Bones of tlie Fore-arm. Tab. XXU. 

Fig. : 

'. P, 9- 

The ohliqite Situation of ihe articulating Surface, the 
iuHCr end being lower than the outer, by which the Hand 
lums more readiiv to the- Face, or the upper pai-ts of the 
Body. Tab. XXII. Fig. I. Tab. I. 

The inner Part of the articulating Sui-face, consisting 
of a large internal and small external Eminence, with a 
luiddie Cavity, or a Trochlea, upon which the Ulna moves. 
Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. p,p, q. Fig. 2. 0, o,p. 

The outer Part uf the ArliculiU' Surface, upon which 
Ihe Head of the Radius plays, of a round form, and con- 
-idei-td by some Authors as the smooth pai't of the outer 
Condyle.' Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. o. 

Jlnmid the Edge of the Articular Cavity, the Bone 
marked by the insertion of the Capsular Ligament of the 
Joint. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. 2. 

A smali Cavity at the under and fore pail of the Bone, 
above the Trochlea, for receiWng the Coronoid Process 
of the Ulna in the fle.\ion of tlie Fore-arm. Tab. XXII. 
Fig. 1. 3. 

A large Cavity at the under and back paK of the Bone, 
abo above the Trochlea, the under part of it for receiv- 
ing the Olecranon of the Ubia in the extension of the 
Fore-arm, and the npptr part for containing the Fat of 
the Joint. Tab. XXII. Fig. t.'. ,-. 

Between these Cavitits the Bcrc is pressed so thin as 
often to become transparL-nt, especially in an old person. 

The Substance and inntr Structure of the Os Humeri 
is the same as in other long i-ound Bones. The sides are 
compact, but the Caneelli are so lajgr in the middle of 
the Bone, as to give the apppjruncc of .t hollow CvHn- 

The Ball of the Os Humeri is articulated with ttie 
Glenoid Cavity of the Scapula, which, from its superfi. 
cial nature, and the long Ligaments inclosing the Joint, 
allows the Arm to move in all directions ; the Bone evea 
performing a small degree of motion TOund its own axis. 
The extent of motion of the Arm, however, is consider- 
ably increased by the rolling of the Scapula. 

In the Foetus, tlie Extremities of the Bone arc Carti- 
laginous ; and the BaU with the Tubercles, and the Troch- 
lea with the Condyles, form afterwards Epiphyses, pre- 
vious to their union with the Body of the Bone. 


Consisting of two Bones, the Ulna and Radius^ both 
of which are observed to be longer in the African than io- 
the European* 

The Situation of the Ulna at the inner pai-t of the 
Fore-arm ; the Arm being supposed to hang by the side^ 
of the Body, with the Palm of the Hand turned for- 
wards. Tab. LE. 

The Olecranon, Processus Anconeus, or ihp of the 
Cubit, placed at the upper end of the Bone, and fonn- 
ing tlie posterior prominent part of the Elbow. Tab. 
XXU. Fig. 4. o, e, e, d. 

The upper end ui ilu., Prore^s, rovgh, where the Tri- 
ceps Extensor Cubiti is fixed. 

The Coronoid or sliarp Process, at the upper and fore 
part of the Bone, but considerably lower than the Ole- 
cranon, for forming a part of the Hinge of the Joint of 
the Elbow. Tab. XXII. Fig. 4. b, c, c. 

Tlie Great Sigmoid, or Semilunar Cavity, between the 
Olecranon and Coronoid Process, lined mth Cartilage, 
and divided ijito two slanting Surfaces by a middle Ridge, 
the Cavity being adapted to the Trochlea of the Os Hu- 
meri. Tab. XXII. Fig. 4. d, e, e. 

Across the middle of tlie great Sigmoid Cavity, a little 
Pit, for lodging part of tho Fat of the Joint. 

Round the edge of the Sigmoid Cavity, the Bone 
rougk, for the attachment of the Capsular Ligament of 
the Joint. 

The Small Sigmoid, or Semilunar Cavity, Kned with 
Cartilage, at the outer side of the Coronoid Process. 
where the round liead of the Radius plays, which is con- 
fined in its place by an Annular Ligament, fixed to the 
Edges of this Cavity. Tab. XXII. Fig. 4. /. 

The Tubercle of the Ulna, or small rough spot under 
the root of the Coronoid Process, for the insertion of the 
Erachialis Internua. Tab. XXII. Fig. 4. A. 

At the upper and outer part of the Bone, a triangular 
Surface^ where the Anconeus is lodged, 

'J'lie liodi/ of the IHna, of a triangtdar form, becom- 
ing gradually smaller in its descent. T.ib. XXII. Fig, 4. 

The sharpest Angle oppo-jed to the Riidins, for the al- 


lachmeat of the lutcrosseous Ligament. Tab. XXII. with a Tossa upon c uh Mtli, ot it, \ the luidrmt 

rig. 4.5-, ff. of the Mu,l, r ,1, i „, ,, . T ,b H 

The sides forming this Angle, /fl^ and ffloi-Acd by the Tht oiit< 1 id < M I <me, fioliouid 

Mu'^cles which aiiae from them. Tab. XXIL Fig. 4. b> ilit L\u iis^ 1 ,il 1 1, i , 1 ' 1 1 

A Passage alanling upwaids, about a haud-breadth A ^innlunai ( (m / r : ,, 1 ilie undei end 

below the upjiei- end, for the MeduUaiy VesBels. Tab. of the Radius IjulJ (Mih L uul ^ 1 1 mi Muiy (he cni- 

XXII. Fig. J. l. responding extixnut; ..t ih, LIik ^ I b WIl 1 J^ j ,» 

TJie uudei' end of the Bone, forimng a small rmind lhe/o«c» End oi i!il Jiujn i(iiiiii.<l utin i Inii/t/oi 

Heat/^ which in covered with Cartilage on that side where an oral or naiiculai -jhaut, and Imtd \\\i\\ t utilise, for 

the Radius moves upon it, and also on its extremity, icceumg the two hi-st Bones ot tht C^iput. lab Ixif 

where it is opjiosed to a moveable Cartibiftt placed be- Fig 3 I 
tweeo it and the Carpus. Tab. XXII. Fig. L. ,i,p. A small Transverse Ridge, frequently fomid in the 

The SttjI.iul Process, at the nmer side of the small middle of this Cavity, which insinuates itself between the 

round Head, from wliith a stmig Ligament goes olV to be two first Bones of the Caipus. 
fixed to the Bones of the Wnsl. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. o. The under and outer part of the Radius, forming a 

The Uhia is articulated at its superior extremity with Pr'Kt.^s sonunvl.:H similar to the Styloid Process of the 
the lower end ot the Os Hmnen, the JouU at ibis pail Ulna. Tab. X\U. lig. 3. L From tliis Process a Li- 
forming a complete Hinge, which allows an extensive gament is stnt to the \^ iLst. 

degree of flexion, and as much extension as to approach The Head of the Radius is articulated witli the outer 

a straight line with the Fpper Aim ; but little or no part of the articular Surface of the Os Hmneri ; the 

rotation. Radius is besides jouicd by a double articuhition to the 

Ulna, for above, the Head of the Radius is received into 

Radius ''^^ small .Sigmoid C'avitv of the I'ina, while the under 

end of the I'hia is received into (he small Scmilimai- Ca- 

The Situation of the Radius at the outer part of the vilv of the Radius ; in consconence of which connection, 

Fore-arm. Tab. I. P. the Radius accompanies the Lbui In the ilexion and cx- 

Tlie upper t-nd of the Badt'm, covered with Cartilag*-, tension of the Fore-arm, wliile the Radius moves round 

and formedinlonttiTukn Ht;ul, "fuch i= iK.lloivedabove, its own axis above, but at the lower end, it turns upon 

forr.^<-,tM.gil.v o.u<rp:ut oi the Articular Surface of the round head of the Ulna, carrying the Hand with it. 
the Os Ihmicii. 1 at). I. The Turning of the Radius witli the Hand is termed 

Thi: iiuK'r \idf,J f/if Head H\mn\h, and also covered Supirnifiim and Piyjiiation i when the Palm is turned 

with Cartilage, wlieie it plays m the small Semilunar upwards, it is in a state of suninatioa, and in pronation 

Cavity at tlie outer side of the I'ba. Tab. XXII. Fig. 3. when in a coutrai'y direction. 

The Cervh of the Radius smaller than the Head ; in The Structure of the Radius and Ulna is the same as 

the Subject, surrounded by a circular Ligament, which that of other long Bones. 

keeps the Bone in its place, and aUows it to roll upon Ja the Fcetus, the extremities of the Bones of the 

the Llua, Tab. XXII. Iig. 3. Fore-arm ai-e Cartilaginous; they afterwards become 

Tiie Tubercle of the Radius, at the under and inner Epiphyses, before they are united to tlie Bodies of the 

part of the Cervix, (or the insertion of the Biceps Flexor Bones- 
Cubiti. Tab. XXII. Fig. 3. c. 

The Body of thf Rone larger than tliat of the Uba, HAND, 

convex on its {luitr and back part, and rouuded here by 

The posterior Surface of the Hand, i 
ives it a greater degi-ee of strength. 

The anterior Surface of the Hand, ccnci 
iug and holding Substances. 

the Hand take (iie 

Tlie amenor ,uid ,-,./.ru,r -V/zz/'iro, ten 
the Ulna, in a sfi.i .' f!nl:;t, U, wliich llie Iiil 
gameni of the l-uiv-;uii. i> lix> d. Tab. XXII. Fig. 3. rf, d. 

A Passirgc yhud'uv^ iiLnvards, on the fore part of the 
Bone, and aboiu ,1 l^.ind-brcadth below its upper end. Carpus 

fur the Mednll.iT 1 t-.rU. Tab. XXII. Fig. 3. g. 

A rough Sill/a^-. :ii the outer an4 middle part of the The Carpus is composed of eight Bones, disposed in 
Rone, for liie iuMiiion of the Pronator Radii Teres. two Rows; and each Roue being broader on its poster 

Tlie lower Efir-l of the Hadufs^ becoming gi-adnaUy rior than anterior Surface, they form an Arch convex 
larger, and flat on its fore part, where it is covered by behind, by which it gives security and strength ; and 
the Pronator Radii Quadratus. Tab. XXII. Fig. 3. t. concave before, for containing the Muscles, Vessels, and 

A Hidgi; upon the under and back pan of the Radius, Nerves, which run to the fingers. 


The cnA^ of the ArIl on the Paiin-sidc of the Wrist, 
form nrojcctiag Points, hutwcen whidi the Ligameiituni 
Carpi Amiulare is stretched, wliich coutjjifs the Muscles 
in iheu' places. Tab.XXIV. Fig.:^. Tab. XXXI. Fig.4. 

The posterior or convex Surface of tlie faipus itiark- 
cif by the uumerous Xiigameuts attached to it. * 

The anterior or holloiv Surface, also marked by Li- 

The Bones of the Carpus are articulated with each 
other, or with the neighbouimg Bones, and all theii- arti- 
i-u!ar Surfaces are covered with Caitilage, to facilitate 
i!ie motion of the Joints. 

Ill the First Row of Carpal Bones arc, 
The Scaphoides, Limare, Cuneiforme, Pwfonne. 

Ill the Second Row, 
The Trape2,iuiii^ Tiapexoides, Magmem, Vnciforme^ 

The Os ScAPHOlDEs, placed at the outer and upper 
prt of Ihc Cai-pus. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. B. 

'I'hc upper Surface, convex, and articulated with the 
Radius. Tab. XXII. Fig. 5. a. 

The vmkr and outer Surface also convex, to be arti- 
ciiLited with the Trapezium and Tiapezoides. Tab. 
XXTI. Fig. 5. d. 

Between the upper and under Cartilaginous Surfaces, 
-.1 rough FoxM for the insertion of the Capsular Liga- 
ment. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 5. c. 

Tiie iinteiior and inner Surface, having an oval Cavity, 
nliieh gives name to tlie Bone, where it is articulated 
with the Os Magnum. Tab. XXJI. Fig. 5. b. 

A Process upon the outer end of the Bone, for the 
attachment of part of the anteri9r Transverse Liiganictit 
of the Wrist. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. under B. 

The Os LtJKARE situated upon the inner side of the 
funuer Bone. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. C. 

Tlie nppcr Surface, coiiver, for its articulation with 
the Radius. Tab. XXII. Fig. 1. C. 

'I lie oufer Edge, in fbrni of a Crescent, firom »vhich 
tlie Bone is named, aj-ticulated with the Os Scaphoides. 
Tab. XXII. Fig. G.a. , 

Tiie vnder Surface, ho/lme, for its articulation ivitli 
the Os Magnum. Tab. XXII. Fig. 6. b. 

The inner Surface of the Bone, articulated ivith the 
Os Cuneiforme. Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. 

The under aad outer Surface, articulated with the Os 
Unciforme. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 

The anterim- and inner Surface, fonniDg a slight ow;- 
vexity for its articulation witli the Os Fisifoime. Tab 
XXII. Fig. 7. «, 

The three first Bones of the Carpus form an oval cod- 
vexity, by which they are articulated with the lower end" 
of the Bones of the Fore-arm ; tlie Ossa Scaphoides and 
Lunai-e being received in the Socket formed by the Ra- 
dius, while the Os Cuneiforme is opposed to the Cartila- 
ginous end of the Ulna. Tab. XXIV. Fig, I. 

By tills kind of articulation, CKtensive motion is allow, 
cd forwards and backwaids, and to each side ; and by a 
succession of these motions, the Hand is made to move ift ' 
a circle ; but iio motion is performed by the CarpuB round, ' 
its own axis, except what it has along with the Radius ia 
the Supination and Pronation of the Hand. , 

The Os PisiFORME, 'placed upon the anterior and in- 
ner Surface of the Os Cuneiforme, forming a Prominence 
which is readily felt in the Wrist, and which gives at- 
tachment to strong Tendons and Ligaments, particularly 

The Os Cuneiforme, .iluuhd on the inner side of 
liie former Bone. Tab. WIV. Fig. 1. 

The anterior Edge, tliin, in form of a uedgc. 

The upper and outer Surface, luticulated »-ith the Os 
Lunare. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 

• 7''!,%"PP^^P^''^ *'*'■"'=* '-'■ ^''S'lt Convexity, which is 
included m the Jomt of the Wrist. Here the move- 
able Cartilage already taken notice of, is iiuerposed be- 
tween this Bone and the XJlna. 

The Os Trapezium, named Er<mi the four unequal 
Edges of its posterior Surface. 

Tl)c Sifuatioti of this Bone, at the Root of the Meta- 
carpal Bone of the Tlinmb. T.b XXFV. Fig. 1. A. 

Ihe upper part of the Bouc, formiiig-a smooth Pit, 
to be articulated with the Oa Scaphoides. Tab. XXB'. 

The inner side hollow, and articulated with the Os 
Trapezoidcs. Tab. XXIV. 

'Ae under Smface, forming a Pulley, on which the 
Metacarpal Bone of the Thumb moves. Tab. XXXI. 

'I'he anterior Surface, sending out a Ptncess, which ia 
prominent in the Palm, and marked by the Transverse 
Ligament of the Wrist, by the Flexor Carpi Radialis, 
and Flexors of the Thumb. Tab. XXII. Fig. 9. h. 

The Os Trapezoides, so named from its being Gome- 
what like the former Bone, though considerably smaller. 
Tab. XXII. Fig. 10. 

'I'he Situation of the Os Trapezoides, at the umci 
side of the Os Trapezium. Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. E. 

The upper Surface, hollow where it joms the Os Sca- 
phoides. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 1. m. 

The outer Surface tWH-fi, and articulated with the 
Trapezium. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 5. m. 

The inner Surface, articulated with the Os Mapum. 
Tab. XXIV. Fig. I.E. 

The under Surfaee, formed into a sort of Pulley, tn 
be articulated with the Metacarpal Bone of the Fou- 
finger. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. E. 

The Ob Magnum, or Capitatom, or largest Bone of 
the Carpus, placed at the inner side of the former Bone, 




and consisting of four oblong sides, with a romitl head, 
and triangulai' under end. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. F. 

The Head or BaU of the Bone, received into tlie hol- 
low Surfaces of the Hcaphoides and Lunare, like bail and 
socket. Ta^b. XXIV. Fig. I. 

The wukr purl of t!ie outo- side^ joined to tiie Os 
Trapezoidcs. Tab. WH". 

The iivifv mh; to Llif Oa Unciforme. Tab. XXIV. 

The iimkr intl, opposed to the Metacarpal Bone of 
the Middle Finger. Tab. XXIV. 

The Os Unciforme, placed in the under and inner 
part of tlie Wrist. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. G. 

The t/pper and miifr Surfnce, articulated ivith the Os 
Cuneiformc. Tab. XXIV. 

The outfr Sur/act, acticukied with the Os Magnum. 
Tab. XXIV. 

The inferior Surface, opposed to the Metacarpal Bones 
of the Ring and Little Fingers. Tab. XXIV. 

The anterior Surface^ sending out the Uncifbrm Pjv- 
cess, which gives uame to the Bone. Tab. XXIV. 
Fig. I. H. 

The Unciform Process, curved for the pafisage of Uie 
Flexor Muscles of the Fingers. Tab. XXIV. 

The Articulation between the first and .second Row of 
Carpal Bones allows motion to eacli side, but chiefly for- 
wards and backwards ; the motion, however, is le^^; ex- 
tensive than between the Forp-»r.u nud "Wrist. 

The Conncctitju tietM'een the different Bones in each 
Bow, is of such a nature as not to admit of any sensible 

The Substance of the Carpal Bones is spongy, but 
strong in proportion to their size. 

The Carpus sei-ves as a Base to the Hand, protects its 
Tendons, &c. and affords free and extensive motion. 

In the Foetus, the Bones of the Carpus are in a Carti- 
laginous state. 

Metacarpal Bones of the Pfngers and Thumb. 

Their Sadies long and round, behind, forming part of 
the convexity of the Hand; before, giving holloniiess to 
the Palm. Tab. XXXIl. Fig. 5. 4. 

The extremities of these Bones, considerably larger 
than their Bodies, in consequence of which they leave 
spaces for the Interossei. Tab. XXXJI. 

The V'pper Ends or Bases^ Jiat, where they are arti- 
culated with the Bones of the Carpus. Tab. XXIV. 

Round the Edges of the Cartilaginous Surfaces, at the 
upper ends, the Depressutns wheve the Capsular Liga- 
ments are fixed. -Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. 

The sides of the upper ends flat, aud di'awu close to- 

gether, where they arc articulated with each other. Tab. 
XXIV. Fig. 1. 

Their Bodies diverging towards theii- under extremi- 
ties, by which they i-egulate the motions of the Fingers. 
Tab. XXXII. 

A jRiilgf at the U])per and back part of their Bodies, 
with a Depression on e;icli side of it, formed by the In- 
terossei. *Iab. XXXU. Fig. :•. 

'J'hc under and i>atk part of their Bodies, mude flat 
by the motion of the Tendons of the Extensoi's of tlu- 
Fingers. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 5. 

The anterior tiuilUce of their Bodies concave^ and 
rendered Jiai at the sides, by the Interossei Muscle'^- 
Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. 

The totver Ends, or Heads, formed mto Baff.t, which 
are flattened upon their sides by their motions upon each 
other. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 

At the fore part of each aide of the Heads, a little 
Froniiiience, for the attacliiiient of the Ligaments which 
fix these Bones to each other. Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. 

Round the Heads, a Depression, for the insertion of 
the Cap.sular Ligaments. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 

The Metacarpal Bones are joined by their Ba.<ies to the 
Caipus, aud to each other by nearly plain Surfaces ; in 
consequence of which, and the strength of thvir connect- 
ing Ligaments, motions here are inconsiderable. 

The Base of tlic Mtiacarpal Bene (ffhe Fore-finger^ 
oppoBcd to, and corresponding with, the Os Trapezoides, 
and partly with the Os Trapezium. Tab. XXXII. 
Fig. 5. 

The inner part of the Base, forming a Btdge, tihicli 
is ai-ticulated with the Os Magnum, and with the next 
Metacai-pal Bone. Tab. XXIV. Fig. I. 

The connection of the Base is so firm, that it has little 

The Metacarpal Bme of the Mid-finger, commonly 
the second in length. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 

The Base of the Bone generally slantmg inwards and 
downwards, opposed to the Os Magimm. Tab. XXXH. 
Fig. 5. 

The outer and back part of the Base projecting, and 
forming a sort of Process, the external Surface of which 
is connected with the Ridge of the foimer Bone. Tab, 
XXXII. Fig. 5. 

The motion of this Bone is little more than that of the 
former one. 

The Metactwptti Boneofthe Ring-finger, shorter than 
the former Bone. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 5. 

Its Base, senticircvhr where it is opposed to the Os 

The Metacarpal Bone of the Little Finger, the small- 
est of the fom-. Tab. XXlV. Fig. \. 

Tlie Base, which slants down^iards and outwarJt^, op- 
posed to the under and inner pait of the Os Uncil'orme, 
Tab. XXXII. Fig. 4. 



Tlie iimerpai-LorilieBiiieilcstiluteofasmoothBUifacc, in the fore timn in the back pai't. Tab. XXXII. Fig, 

uot being contiguous to any other Bone. 4. 5. 

From the nature of the Joint, the Iooseiicf.3 of the The Bases of the second Phalanx, with lateral Cavi. 

Ligaments, and fi-om the existence of » proper Muscle ticn and muldk liidges, corresponding with the I'uIlcyH 

here, this Bone posaesses a larger sliare of motion than of ihfc fiiat Phidanx, and admitting of flexion and extt-ii- 

any of the rest. si"" o'lly- Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. m, m. 

Tlie Metacarpal Bone of the Thrimb, having the go- The loa'er aids of this Phalanx, similar to those of (he 

neral resemblance of those of the Fingers, but JiiTering first. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. n, n. 

from them in being placed obliquely with I'espect to them, The Bases of the third Phala/n^ like those of the se- 

and in some mcasitre opposuig them. Tab. XXIV. Fig. cond, and the motions also sunilar. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1 

I. I. PyP- 

Tliis Bone thicker and stronger, but shorter than those The under ends of the thiid Phalanx roughs ivhere the 

of the Fingers. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. Pulpy, Va.scuJar, and N"cr\'0U3 Substance of the points of 

Tlie Base of this Bone articulated ivith the Pulley the FiiigeiH is .situated. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 
formed by the Trapeziimi, the Bone appearing to admit The pecuUaiities of the Bones of the Fingers consist 

of flexion and extension only ; but, from the looseness of only in their size. 

the ligaments, enjoying the same kind of motion with The Bones of the Mid-finger the largest and longest. 

Joints formed after the manner of Ball and Socket. Tab. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 
XXIV. Fig. 1 . • Those of the Bing-finger next in length. Tab. XXIV. 

The inferwr eilremt'fy of the Bone, considerably^Ta^ The Bones of the Forc-fiuger next to those of the 

ier than those of the other Jtletacarpal Bones. Tab. Bing-iinger in length, and of the Mid-finger in thickness. 


Those of the Fourth Finger the smallest. Tab. XXI\'. 
Bones of the Fingers and Thumb. xhe Thumb consisting of only two Bones. Tab. 

The lingers, composed each of three Bones ; the three XXIV. Fig. 1 . L, M. 
Rows of Bones, taken transversely, termed Phalanges. The Jrst Bone like the Bones of Uie first Fhalaoi cf 

Tab. XXIV. N, &c. O, &c. P, 8tc. the Fingers, but thwher and strottger. Tab. XXIV. 

The diiFerent Phalanges, tapering a little as they de- The Caifiy at tLe Rase of the Bone, longer from one 

Gcend, and. their Bases lai^r than their inferior extremi- side to the other, and shaUower tliou tlie Cavities of the 

ties. Tab. XXIV. corresponding Bones of the Fingers, but, like them, 

Tlie posterior Surfaces convex, and covered chiefly by forming a Socket for the Metacarpal Bone. From the 

,the Tendinous Expansions of the Extensors of the Fin- flatness of the Joint, hoivever, and strength of the late- 

gers. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 5. ral Ligaments, the motions here are confined to flexioD 

Their anterior Surfaces j?(i/, and in some parts con- and extension only. Tab. XXFV. 
cave, for lodging the Tendons of the Flexor Muscles. The fowerewd of the £rst Bone of the Thumb like that 

Tab. XXXU. Fig. 4. of theJirst of the Fingers. Tab. XXIV. 

Bidges at the sides of their anterior Surfaces, for tlie The second Bone of the Thumb like the third of the 

attachment of the retaining Ligaments of the Tendons of Fingers, but broader. Tab. XXIV. 
the Flexor Muscles. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. 'I he Ba^ve of this Bone, like that of the second and 

The first Phalanx longer than the second, and the se- third Bones of the Fingers, and like their Joints also, 

cond than the third. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. admitting of ilexion and extension only. 

The Bases of the first Phalanx formed into Sockets, to The Substance of the Bones of the Metacarpus, and 

receive the Balls of the Metacarpal Bones, and to alloxv of those of the Fingers, is the same with that of the 

motion to all sides. Tab. XXIV. Fig. 1. /, i. Long Bones. 

The lower ends of this Phalanx, consisting of lateral In the Foetus, both extremities of the Metacarpal 

"" ' lences, and middle Cavities or Pulleys, the Carti- Bones of the first and second, and upper ends of the third 

s Surfaces of which reach considei'ably farther up Plialaux, are in a state of Cai-tilage, 


( 71 ; 


Represents the Bones of the Uppek Arm, Fore Arm, and Carpus of the Left Side. 

FIG. 1. gi S^ The projecting line which aaawera to the exterjial 

Tie Fore Part of the O3 Hi;MEKi. ,,_ TparT'of the posterior surface, which is bounded b, 

», The .nlddle of the baU of the os humeri. ,. A'^o'^l.TeriTr'surfice, «hich also answer-s to the 

i, i. The cervut of the os humeri. ^^,^^^, ^^^^^ 

': ™ "' „ '."^ tuberosity. , ^ ^ ^^^^ surface, which is blended superiorly with 

rf, The smaU tuberosity. . the eitemal surface. 

e,e. The groove, or smuosity which receives the long ,_ The external condyle. 

head ol the biceps. .. , , . . , «;, Several muscular prints ou. the posterior part of this 

f,f. The orihces or several conduits, tor the maertioo ol condyle 

the libres of the capsular ligament, and for the passage ^ -^ „f.,^^ eminence of the OS humeri, which i, 

of vessels mto I lie bone. ,.,,,,, articulated with the radius. 

g. The piojectmg bne which answers to the large lube- ^^ ^^ .j,,^^ ^^^^ emkences of the os humeri, which are ar. 

. """'y- .. ,., , „ , . ticulated with the ulna. 

*, Ajiother ndge which answers to the smaU tuberosity. .p,,^ j^j^^^, ^.„„j ,^ „f ,|,^ „ |,^„„; 

;• J'"™"''^ P™!? "'"f^ ?"■" ""''"'"V" 't 1 , !iu'' r !. The aitlcuiar cavity of the os humeri, which facili. 

k, k, The long bne which occupies the whole length of ^* ^^^^ jj^^ motion of the nlna. 

the OS humeri. ,._ TT,e posterior cavity, which receives the olecranon 

/, The mtemal condyle. ..,.,. upon tie extension of the fore-arm. 

r«. The three facets, or muscular prints of this ' 

condyle. FIG. 3. 

n. Part of the external condyle. m. y , t, ,- ^ \. ^ 

0, The head, or rounded eminence, wUch is articulated TheIimcr,tmiPiirtoftheO«lcrSurfaceoftl 

with the radius. ,0, Tlie semioh'cnlar crai 

j>, p. Two other articular emmences which coiTCspond to ,„jged in the sigmoid c_ 

'he ulna. , .,, 6, The cervix of the radius. 

5, The articular cavity, which isceives the middle pro- ^^ The tuberosity of the radius, 

cess of the ulna. . d, d. The crest, or osseous line, 

r. Another aiticnlar cavity, which facilitates the motion ^ ^ The inner surface of the radius. 

of the radios. 7/ A portion of tlie anterior sm-face. . 

.., The cavity which receives the coronoid process of the g^ The small conduit which opens into the inner cavity 
uhia, upon nendmg the fore-arm. „f (i,j i,„„e. 

A, An osseous bne, or muscular print. 

^ J; 1 Lr. — ^.^ ^ small fossa at the inferior extremity of the radius. 

The PotUrlor Pat-t of the same Boni. i. The styloid process. 

„. ^ . ^ f .L , J 1. 1 , . /, The oval cavity which receives the first of the carpal 

o, 1 he postenor part of the head ot the os bumeri. bones 

i, S, The cervix of this bone. «;, Tlie' semilunar cavity, which recems the articnlar 
c c r, Ihe muscular prnits of the large tuberosity. ^,^^ „f ,|,^ „l„^^ 

a, ft, I he oruices ot diflerent conduits which open into * 

the substance of the bone. FIG. 4. 

, Tlie superficiiil ti-iaagular cavity, which (^ivcs at- The Outer and somewhat PosferK>r Surfate of th,r Vlv a. 

i M'liich coHiniiinicatcs with fl, The olecranon, a little hollow ia the middle. 
iHiKil. 6, The coroaoid process. 



f, The small sigmoid, oi- sfiiiiUin;ii- cavity. 

Wi fi'i Si ^ osseous liiie, txtendiHg tlie ^vhole leiiglli of 
the ulna. 

//, A muscular priat below tlie sigmoid cavity. 

3, /, /, Tlie inner surface of the ulna. 

/■, k. The outei- surface. 

/, A small conduit wliicli commumcates with the cavity 
of the bone. 

ill, A small fossa, or muscular print of the inferior extre- 
mity of the ulna. 

5;, A seimcircular eminence ailiculated with the under 
end of the radius. 

n, The styloid process. 

J), A portion of the cavity wliith answers to tlie car- 

Thc Convex or Ettenial Surface of the Os Scaphoides, 
viewed in a positirm most favourable for shewing its 

Navicular Cavity. 

(I, The upper part of the os scaplioides^ by wLich it is 

articulated with the os lunare. 
h. The navicular cavity, which receives the head of the 

large carpal bone, 
c. The middle rough part, to which several ligiunents are 

a. The articular facet of the os lunare, excavated in form 
of a crescent, by which it is joined to the os sca- 

h. The large lunar cavity, by which this bone is articu- 
lated with a considerable portion of the large carnal 

FIG. 7. 
The Lmer Surface of the Os Ci 

*r, The small surface, which is aiticulated with tlie t 

. , Different ligamentoas impressions. 


n, n. The two small surfaces ou the under part of iln 

6, Part of the oblique process, 
r. Part of the sinuosity. 

rf, The small surface by which it is joined with the fn^^ 
metacarpal bone. 

FIG. 10. 

The diferetU Surfaces of the Os Trapezoides. 

IT, Part of the external surface. 

J, Tlie inferior surface. 

c. The anterior sui-face, by which it is joined with tlic 

(?, Part of the superior surface^ by which it is jomcil 

mth the scaphoides. 
f. Part of the priat of this bone, which is turned to. 

wards the palm. 

The Extei-nal and somewhat interior Surface of th- 

Os Magnum. 

17, The head of this boae incrusted with a smooth rai'j 

lage, for facilitating the motions of its articulatiouwiil 

the scaphoides and lunare. 
6, The cervix of this bone. 

c, The outer surface. 

(f. Part of its anterior surface. 

«, Its under edge, by which it is joined with the sccin 
metacarpal bone. 

FIG. 12. 

Tke Posterior Part of the Os UNciroRME. 
a. The upper part, which answers to the os lunare. 
A, The inner surface, where there is a sinuo^y for 'I ' 

passage of several teudons. 
r. The uncifonn process, ou which there is a son ■ 

groove, which also facilitates the passage of teudDii- 

d, The posterior and .superior surface, by which ii ' 
joined to ihe os cnncifomie. , 

e, f. The inferior surface, divided by a small superfm;! 
line, tiic hirgcr part of which corresponds to the timtl 
and tlie other to the Iat.t metacarpal bone. 


( 73 ) 


Repre»ents the different Bones of the Extremities, excepting those of the Thumj 
and Fingers. 

A, The 

B, The 

C, The notch of the scapula^ which 

Sf D, The inferior costa. 

E, E, The base. 

F, The anterior angle, which con 

cavity of the scapula. 

H, The cen-ix of the radios. 

I, The tuberosity for the insertion of the bicepF?. 

K, Tlie triangular body of the radius. 

L, The interstice between the radius and uLia, fJleR' 
chiefly with the interosseous ligament. 

M, The inferior broad extremity of the radius, articu- 
lated ^v-ith the carpus and uba. 

i the glenoid i 

Gf The coracoid process. 

H, The posterior angle. 

I, The inferior angle. 

K, The posterior end of the clavicle, fixed to the acro- 

Tj, ThaBtcmal extremity. 

M, The ball of the os humeri, articulated with the gle- 
noid cavity of the scapula. 
N, The cervix. 

O, The inner, or small tuberosity. 
P, The round body. 
Q, The internal condyle. 
R, The trochlea. 

At The great sigmoid cavity of the ulna, which x 
the tiochlci of the os humeri. 

B, The olecranon of the ulna. 

C, The coi'onoid process. 

E, The I 

of ac 

F, The styloid pi 

G, The head of the radii 
vity of the ulna. 

iculated whh llic 

N, N, 


interior con 

cave surface of the carpus, ct 

posed of 


1 scaphoides^ 


i lunare. 


i cuneiforme. 


1 pisiforme, 


t trapezium. 


> trapezoides. 


i magnum, and' 


1 unciforme. 




bones of the thumb and fmgei 

C, The 

r majoi 

The trochai 
this view of the bone. 

E, The cuiTcd body of the bone. 

F, The external condyle. 

G, The cartilaginous surface on ^vhicli tlie tibiii 
H, The trochlea, which receives the patella. 

I, The patella. 

FIG. 4. 


C, The body of the tibia. Lt The pi-ojection of this bone forming the heei. 

D- The lower extremity, at the inner side of vrfiich is M, The os naviculare. 

the malleolus iiiternus. N^ The os cuneilorme medium, on the inner side of 

E, The head of the fibula, joined to the outer part of which is seen a small part of the 03 cuneifounp 
the tibia. laternum. 

F, The inegulaj- siuface of the body of the fibula. O, The os cuneiforme externum, and, 

G, The lower end, or malleolus extenms, joined to the P, The os cuboides. 
■ ' " ' ■" ■ ' ■ Q,&c. The metacarpal bones of the toes. 

I with R, tee. The first ph»aBx of the bonea of the small toes, 

, ,.^ S, Sec. The second phalanx. 

) P, The tarsus, composed of, T, Jkc. The thiid phalanx. 

I, The astragalus. C, Tlie first bone of the great toe. 

K, The OS calcis, W, The second boae of the great toe- 


C w ) 

Represents the Bones of the Hand and Foot. 

PIG. 1. 

A Vuu^ of the Inner or Palm Side of the 1 
Left Hand. 

B, Tlie OS scaphoidcs. 

C, The 09 luiiare. 
G, G, The od cimeiforme. 

D, The OS pisiforrae. 
A, The OS trapezium. 

E, The OS trapezoidea, or pytamidalc. 

F, The 03 magnum. 
* H, The OS uuciforme. 
H, The imcifonu process. 
I, The metacaipal bone of the thumb. 
o. The base of this bone, sending inwai-ds 


b. The inferior extremity. 
K, &c. The metacarpal bones of the fingers. 
li, k, &c. The Interstices occupied by the 

c, c, &c. The upper ends irregular, where they are join- 
ed to the carpus, and to each other. 

(7, d, The under ends, in form of balls, covered with 

L, I'he first bone of the thumb, concave, for lodging the 
flexor iongiis. 

f. The base, forming a glenoid cavity for the articulation 
with the metacarpal bone. 

f. The lower end, with two lateral protuberances, and a 
middle cavity, 

M, The second bone of the thumb. 

^, The base, with two lateral cavities, and a middle protu- 
berance corresponding to the end of the former bone. 

A, The under and inner side, rough and irregular, ivhei-e 
the soft siibBtaace at the end of the thumb is placed. 

N, N, &c. The first phahmx of the bones of the fingers^ 

flat like the surface marked L. 
2, i. The base, mth a cavity similar to c, but rounder. 
/, /, The inferior extremity, similar to/. 

0, &c. The second phalanx, hollow like tlie fiist. 
m, m. The base, similar to g. 

?j, «, The under and inner suiface, likey, 
P, 5, &c. like g, h. 

FIG. 2. 
A J'iewofthe Under Side of the Bottes of tkeLziT Pqot.. 

A, A, The astragalus. 

n. The upper and iimer surface of the astragalus. 

B, The body of the os calcis. 

C, That portion of the os calcis which forms the lower 
part of the heel. 

6, That part to which the tendo Achillis is fixed. 
r, Tto Jirgc Biimusicy of this bone, which lodges the prin- 
cipal muscles, tendons, vessels, and nerves of the sole. 

D, The OS naviculare. 

E, The OH cuneitbrme internum. 

F, The OS cuneiforme medium. 

G, The OS cuneiforme extenium. 
H, The OS cuboides. 

rf. The fossa of the os cuboides, for lodging the tendon of 
the peroneus longus. 

1, The metatarsal bone of the great toe. 
K, &C' The metatarsal bones of the small toes. 

b, &c. Interstices occupied by the interosseous muscles. 

L, The first bone of the great toe. 

M, The second bone of the great toe. 

N, &c. The bones of the first phalanx of the toes. 

O, &c. The bones of the second phalanx of the toes. 

P, &c. The booes of the third phalanx of the toes. 

( 76 ) 

©BsERVji here, 

Each of tlie Infinor Jilxf I | ( 

Thigli, Leg, and Toot. 

Tlie Thigh consisting of a u ijl Bon 

11 JJ I f he Tl qh b b n fo u d wi 

The Os Femoris, the lotigeit Bo c of he Body od HA i h L Ji I d n ddle and 

fh ickcst and strongtst of the Cylud IBn ] p l^ h ^ i b XXA Ig 

Tilt Situation of tlie Bon 1 imil and ou D Z. 4j a li gf, d B dg ou he ba k. 

pan of the Pelvis. Tab. XXI\ p IB -ndu g I 1 han bu 

Tlie ubliqve situation of 1 e 6 rfj^ of h Bone h h 1 1 ' fi ' ' p ol h Bone 

under end being considerably neai-e f llo ou 1 d g p 1 ^i" ' wh hpab 

fltbei- side tlian the upper one liu-l f ou bl t f 111 1 1 h ^1 o I «u li Th gh o the 

the passages at the bottom of he Pel is fo he j,in f L 11 \X\ 

Muscles, and for walking. TbI IhL \. \ fokdboh eilrem tie 

The Ball or Head of the Th gh b ho adm^ b h T h n Me b Ion he 

cd with Cartilage, and forming almost tiio-lhirds of a two liues into which it divides terminate in the Condyles. 

Sphere, which is j^ceived into the deep Socket formed Tab. XXV. 

by the Acetabulum of the Os Innojnlnatum. Tab. XXV. The Canal for the Medullary Vessels, slanting up- 

Tig. 1. a. Tab. XX. wards, a little below the middle height of the poEterioc 

A rough Pit at the inner part of the Ball, for the at- part of the Bone. Tab. XXV. Fig. 2. q. 

tachraent of the Ligamentum Rotundum, which is fixed The under and back part of the BoneJ^a*, where thf 

by its other end to the bottom of the Acetabulum. Tab. Popliteal Vessels and I'ierves ai-e placed. 

XXV. Fig. 1 . b. The lower Eml of the Bone becoming gradually en- 

The Cervix or Tficl-, nmi-h lniiQf>r than that of any larged, and perforated by many Holes, for the insertion 

Bther Bone, parsing obliquely downwards and outwai-ds of ilie tUpauiav l-igiimpnt of the Knee, and for the paw- 

from the Ball, to allow the free motion of the Body of sage of the Nutritious Vessels of the Bone. Tab. XXV. 

the Bone in different directions. Tab. XXV. The lower End, also marked by the insertion of sevc- 

AM/zit-raiM H<jU'S in the Cervix, for the insertion of the ra! Muscles. Tab. XXV. 

Fibi-es of the Liijamcnt rtiflected from the Capsular one. The CartHagiiujitx Trochlea^t the imder and forepart 

~ ■ ■■■ pf jjjg Hone, placed oblinuely, with its outer Surface 

placed at the outer part of larger and higher than its inner one, to be adapted to the 

1 of the Body of the Bone, for Patella, which moves upon it. Tab. XXV. 

the insertion of't"lie Extensor, Abductor, and Kotator The vittrnal and )?ittrnal Comlyhn, continued back 

Muscles of the Thigh. Tab. XXV. Fig. I.e. from the Trochlea, and also covered with Cartilage, for 

Tioo rough, Surfaces upon the upper and fore part of the motion of tlie Tibia. Tab. XXV. 

ihe large Trnclianter, for the insertion of tlie Glutei, Me- 'I he internal Condyle larger and detjier than the ei- 

Jius and i'\Iiuiuiiis. Tab. XXV. Fig. 1. f. tcmal, to compensate for the oljliquity of the Thigh, and 

KCia-il;j, placed at the inner side of the Root of the to give less obliquity to the Leg. Tab.XXV. Fig.2.i>,r. 

large Tiodiaiiter, for the insertion of the Rotator Mus- A AWcA between the back pait of the Condyles, for 

ties of the Thlgli. lodgmg the Popliteal Vebscls and Nerves. Tab. XXV. 

The Troc/ianler Mmr, at the under and inner pai't Fig. 2. «, c. 

of the C crvi\, fur the insertion of the nexor Muscles of A semilunar rough AVcA, deeper and lower than the 

the Thigh. Tab. X \V. Fig. 1. A. former one, for the attachment of the Crucial or interuid 

The Tro<h;mttr Minor is small and pointed, and in Ligaments of the Knee. Tab. XXV. Fig. ii.if. 

ihe SiilijiLt IK Ml much covered by Muscles, im to be out The 1 high-bone is articulated above with the Os Ic- 

of the reach ol (he liii;i< r. nominatum, which alloMS the free motion of the Body oi 

A rong/i Lint on the fore part of the Bone, extending the J'one in all directions. It is restrained, however, in 

obliquely bLiivteii chctwo Trochanters, for tlie insertion its n otions outwai-dK by the Ligamentum Rotundum, and 

of the Cajjsular Ligament. Tab. XXV. Fig. i- g^g- by the high Brim of the Acetabulum. 

.\. rough Line between the Trochanters, on the bach The ilcad aud Neck of the Bone caa move rour-l 

' Iht 



though its Body |i03scs3t.-s little rotatory 


J obliq 

: the 

Headaiid iVeck uk-ii the Hall roil.-,, the body of lii 
BoQe is only bivuglit torwai'ila or batk^'Jiil's. 

Li the F<£tus, ihc dllTuent Proteose, of ilie Eoiie iirc 
Cartilaginous, ;iud iit'tirv-ards Ibnn lir^e Fpijdiyses. 
Tab. XXVII. T:ib. -XXAli. Fig. I :.. 

The f"vj«t';- .vwAs/H/jtr of thi, iioiic, like tji^it of other 
long Boues, con-sisls of ;i fibrous relicul^i- substance in 
the middle, aiid kmelbted Cuncflli at tlie e.^iremitics. 
The body of the Bone lias remarkably tliiLk and strong- 
solid sides, but these, tow;)rds the ends, become aJiuobt as 
thia as a piece of paper. 

The middle .>f the posterior Surfare, ;d-u hol/r.^rd h; 
Mnseles nliich h^m.l hi .-xleiidlii- ihc Fi.ot, and m Land- 
ing liie Toes. 'I ab. XX.v!. Fi;;. 1?. No. ■•. 

A i.'/Wiii- extending obli.juely douiiwaj'ds imm {]:<■ 

ner Ani;le, and ;;muy origin to part of the^Juscles whieh 

extend the Foot ami bend the loes. 'lab. XLIII. Fip. 2. 

A /lilt Siirfact above the Bidge, indicating the situa- 

Fopliteus. Tab. XLIII. i'ig. 2. under the 




the i 

The Tibia, situated 
Tab. I. C. 

The iipjh-r End of the Tibia, forming a large Hend^ 
and that divided on iis upper ISurfaee into Iwj biipcijicml 
Cavilitis^ for receiving the Cartilaginous pai't of the Con- 
dyles of the Thigh-Boue. Tab. XXV. Fig. 3. Tab. 
XXXII. Fig. 7. 

A rough Protuberance projecting bet\veen the articu- 
lating Cavities, and received in the space between tlie 
Condyles. It is jtitttdoa its fore and back parts, for the 
insertion of the anterior and posterior Crucial Ligaments- 
Tab. XXXI. Fig. 17. No. I. 

The arijculaiing surlaces at the upper end of the Ti- 
bia, are rendered deeper in the Subject by the addition 
of two semilunar Cai-tiJages placed upon theii' edges. 
Tab. XXXII. Fig. 7. c, c. 

The cii'cumfeieuee of tlie Head of tiie Bone, rough 
■anA porous^ for the uiscrtion of the Capsular Ligament. 
Tab. XXV. Fig. 3.//, A. 

A Tubtrde at the upper and fore part of the Bone, 
for tlie insertion of the lower Tendon or Ligament of 
the Patella. Tab. XXV. Fig. 3. uppermost/. 

A Cartilaginous Surface under llie outer Edge of the 

'I'hc Cfuiaf for the Medullary A' esstls, slantmg doun 
wards at the inner and back part of the Bone, a litth 
above its middle height. Tab. II. above B. 

The under end of IJic Tibia smaller than the nppc 
one, and its inferior ^^urface liolluie^ and covered witi 
Cartilage, for tlie Articulation « ith tlic Astregahis. Tab 
XXV. Fig. ;i. 

The Miilh-o/uft In/ernus, or inner Ar.LU, produced froi, 
the inner and fore part of the under eii.l, and luveiei 
also with Cartilage where the AMra-.ilus pl.iys. 'J-ul: 
part of the Leg. XXV. Fig. 3. ;■, m. 

A Pit in the point ol " ' 

ILii;,r,,icnt, alldur.V;c<X^ 
behind, where the 'i endeu uf the libiidis iVticui' is 
placed. Tab. XX^■. Fig. 3. w. 

The semicircular Carih/, at the under nnd outer side 
of the Tibia, for receiving the under end of the Fibula. 
Tab. XXV. Fig. 3. 5. Tab. XXI 1 1. Fig. 4. G. 

Roimd the edge of tlie articulating Cavity, the Bone, 
marked by the insertion of the Capsular Lig'ament. Tab. 

xxin. v\g. 4. p. 

The Tibia has a ati-ong external Table, with a con- 
siderable quantity of spongy substance. 

The Articulation of the upper end of the Tibia willi 
the Os Femoris, is of such a nature as to allow flexion to 
a great degree, but the numerous Ligaments fixed here 
prevent it from being extended beyond a straight line 
with the 'I'high ; and then there is no rotation nor lateral 
motion, though, when the Joint is beut, the Ligamcnta 
are so much relaxed, that the Leg may be 

roll, ■ 


1 tho 

The Body of the Bone, of a triangular form ^ with the 
sharpest Angle placed anteriorly. Tab. XXV. Fig. 3. a. 

The anterior Angle, caUcd Spine or Skin, a little 
waved, iuid extending from the Tubeitle to the inner 
Ankle. Tab. XXV. Fig. 3. t, fl, b. 

The anterior and inner Surface of the Bone smooth, 
being covered with skin only. Tab. XX\', Fig. 3. r, c. 

'I'he anterior and outer Surface, hollowed by one of 
the Flexor Muscles of the Foot, and by the long Fxttn- 
j-ors of the Toes. Tab. XXV . Fig. 3. d, tl. 

The Angle at the outer and back part of tlie Bone, 
giving attachment to the Interosseous Ligament. Tab. 
LLFig. 1.2. 


The Fibida, placed at the outer side of ihe Tibia, .ind ' 
by much the smaller of the two Bones, being the most 
slender Bone, in proportion to its length, of any in the 
Body. 'I'ab. XXIX. Fig. 10. /. 

The upper end of the Fibula, formed mio a large 
Head, with a Svpu-jk-td mooth Cant}, towards its inner 
side, to be articulated with the Tibia, -where it i= tied by 
Ligaments of such strength as to allow very little motion, 
'I'ab. XXV. Fig. 4. Tab. XXIII. Fig. 4. 

'I'he Head of the Fibula, irregular and ixtugh exter- 

nallv, for the iiisertioD of the Biceps Flexor Cruius, and 



of the cxtojuil lateral Lipiment ol tlit Jviu< 
XXIIl lig 4 

IheSorfyoftheBoneltutalKlk I w il 

uaids, ^nd incfjullv tn m.^ulai, \ illi th 

th III 

, oppr 

II I lb Win 111, 1 

V I I il tl'C H lie, lantiij, ol 

1 1 I Uit itwi]iddk, toi the pas 

i„ i \ <1 1 tb II ibo\e t 

11 u k ] I \ 1r 1-ibul b,ml mi\Jat, to be 
icccncd by tin- i hui Ca\it\ tt ibc libia lab 
XMII li^ I bc\u C 

1 iic uudu tiid ol tbt Boi e for mug the Vn/Zcoft/? Ei~ 
teinu , 01 outei Ankle, which is. lower and thither back 
thaii the iniiei Ankle, the obliquity of the two Malleoli 
iiespoiiduig with the obliquity of the 

leolus K> 

, oppo. 

sed to the 

r Bide of the Aat 

galus, which moves upm. it. Tab. XXV. Fig. 4. 

The Coroitoid Pnccxf:, sent down from the Malleolus 
Externum, from whicli Ligaments go to the Bones at the 
outer side of the Foot. 

A Furrow upon the back part of the Malleolus Ex- 
tcnius, for lodging the Tendons of the Peronei. 

The Fibula being articulated with the Tibia at its su- 
perior extremity by almosl plain surfaces, unJ tied to it 
by strong and short Ugaments, only a veiy little motion 
is alloivcd. 

At the under end it is joined so firmly by strong Liga- 
' 1 appeals in the Subject 

an elastic yielding in the living Body. 

Ill old people, these two Bones are not un&equently 
joined at theii- under extremities by an union of Sub- 

The Fibula affords attachment to Muscles ; assists in 
securing the Articulation of the Foot ; adds to the form 
and strength of the Leg; and, by the head of the Bone 
being fL\ed to tliat of the Tibia, it widens the space for 
the Interosseous Ligament. 

The Substance of the Tibia and Fibula is like that in 
other long Bones. 

In the Fcetus, the extremities of the Fibula are Car- 
rilagtnou*-, and afterwards become F.pipbyses, previous to 
being united to the Body of the Bone. Tab. XXVIL 

The Patella, p/aced at the fore part of the Joint oT the 
L ^-^^"^ "* ^"•"^ respects bearing the same relation to 
■the TAfow the Olecranon doffl to the rina. Tab. I B 

I he ''/tape ol the Patella, ti lailgitlai and JJaf, or of 
tl c ii^uiL ol I He-u-t as pamted upou playing cirds, and 
hiMi^il p mt dowiiw lids lab XXVI Fig 1 

UiL a)itiii» Silt face ot the Bone, conittr, and perfo- 
rated by numerous UoUs, foi the uisertion of Tendons 
and Ligaments which co\cr It lab XXVI Fig 1 

The pobtervji Smfate, which coiTesponds with tJie 
Trochlea ol Uie On Fcmoris, smooth, covered with Caii. 
ti!tf,t, and dnidcd by a loiigitudnial promment Ridge 
I ij two uncqud sized Canities, oi which the enteinal is 
(he laiL, I, 111 e the Irochlci, to which it is adapted 
Fab XWI lig - 

Ihe Lucuiiilerencc of the articular Surface, vua-keS 
bj ijoii^h, uito which the Capsular Ligament of 
the Jomt is iLVcd Fab XX\ I Fig i a,a 

The Base, oi upper pai t ot the Bone, hon^ontaif and 
tiiai ked by the insertion ol the Tendons of the Lstensorii 
of the Leg 1 tb XX\ I Fig 1 r 

The back part ot the Ape\ rough and deprvised, foi 
the attaclnnent ol the Ligament which passes trom the 
Patella to tiie Tubercle oi the Tibia Tab XXVI 
Fig 2 rf 

llie Ligaments of the Patella allow it to be moved 
upwards and downwards ; and when the Leg is extend- 
ed, they admit of its motion to either side, or to be rolled. 

When the Leg is extended, the Patella is lodged in 
the Trochlea of the Os Femoria ; when the Lunb is 
bent, the Patella is pulled down by the Tibia, and lodg- 
ed in a hollow at the fore part of the Knee. 

Tiie Patella has a thin, though firm external Table. 
Its internal Substance is celluJai', but the Cells are small, 
and have so «i^^k flsaeous Matter emijIoyGd in their for- 
mation, as to give the Bone a considet-abie degree of 

1 he structure of this Bone, the toughness of the Li- 
gaments whiih cover it, and the free motion it is allow- 
ed, ^are found to enable it better to resist any common 
force applied to it, than if it had been a process con- 
tinued from the Tibia, as the Olecranon is from the 

The Patella defends the fore part of the Knee, increase 
es the Angle of insertion of the MukcIcb fixed to it, and 
serves as a pulley or lever, by enabling the Muscles to 
act with greater advantage in extending the Leg. 

It is entirely Cartilaginous at Birth, and is later in 
ossifying than moat of the Epiphyses. 


Composed of Taraus, Metatarsus, and Toes. 

Composed of seven Bones, viz. "Hie Astragalus, ()■• 
Cfahisy Nam'cufare, Cuboides, CuiKrforme Extertwm. 
Cuneiforme Medium, and Cuneijbrme Internum, 

The upper part of the Tarsus convex, the under pan 



In the Concaviti/^ nmiieious Miiscks^ Vessels^ actl Knob, for the i.isertion of tlie Tendo Achillis. Tab 

iset^es are lodgtH, belonging to the Hole. XXVI. Fig. 5. above i. 

The different Hones of the Tai'sus have their nugk A smmtli Convetih/ on the upper part of the Bon<!, for 
Surfaces Joi'md iogel/ter by atrong L,igaments, and theii' its ai-ticulation with the under and back part of the Af.Ua- 

parts of articulation covertd with Cartihge, in such a gains. Tab. XX^ I. Fig. H. a. 
manner as to form part of a strong and clastic Arch, for A Fossa or Sinuous C; 

supporting the weight of the Body, and lessening the ticulatiiig Surface, rnnnii 

shock it would otherwise undergo In the dificrent motions giving origin to strong Ligiiments which are inserted into 

it has to sustain. tiie coiTe&ponding Fossa of the Asti-aLralus. 'lab. XXl'I. 
Fig.8. c,c. 

The Astragalus, placed directly under the Tibia. Two ProviineiKcs at the inner and fore part of tht 

Tab. XXIII. Fig. 4. I. Bone* concave, and smooth above, with a Fit hetsveen 

The upper pait of the Astragalus, formed into a large them, for the articulation iiith the under and fore pait 
Head^ resembling a Pulley, which is smooth on its upper of the Astnigidus. Tub. XXM. Fig. S. A, b. 
part and sides, to be articulated with the under end of From the posterior Prominence tlie Cartilugiiiou-i Li- 
the Leg-bones. Tab. XXVl. Fig. 5. a, o, b. gamcnt arises, which is fixed lo tlic Os Navitulure. 

Each of the Cartilaginous Surfaces of the Head of this A large Cavfty or Arc h at the- inner side of the Bone, 

Bone depressed in its middle, to correspond mth the parts between tlie posterior of tliu l\\<i hi-.t-]iieiiiioned Processes 

of the Leg-bones with which it is articulated. and Projeeiiim of the Htel, fur lodgijig ilic Tendons of 

Round the inferior edge of the articulating Surfaces, the long Fluxors of the 'I'uo, tugt-llit-r with the Vessels 

a rough Fossa for the insertion of tlie Capsular Liga- i^nd Nerves of t!ie Sole. Tab. XX\ I. Fig. 5. under B. 
ment ; and at the sides of this Surface, the Bone mark- A Depression m the external Surface of the Bone, 

ed by the lateral Ligaments. Tab. XXVL Fig. 5. c,rf,/. uear its forepart, where the Tendon of the Peroneu'! 

The under part of the Bone, consisting of a deep Longus runs in its wny to the Sole. Tab, XXVL Fig. 

fhssay or sinuous Cavity, which divides it into an ante- 8- ./- 
nor and posterior articulating Sui'face. Tab. XXVL 'I'iie under and back 

Fig. 7. rf, c. Prominences, \vhere it gi 

The Fossa in the under Surface, narrower at the inner and to several flluscles ol' the Sole ; and befoi'e the Pro- 
part of tlie Bone, and becoming gradually wider as it oiinences, the Bone concave, \\'hcre it lodges part of tliese 
goes outwards aud forwards. Muscles. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 10, o, b. 

The posterior artivulating Surface, large and concave The anterior Kmfiice concave, and somewliat in form 

for its articulation «ith tlip nppc^ ^.^J uiiliUo part or the ofa pulley placed obliquely, for its articulation with the 

Os Calcis. Tab. XXVL Fig. 7. c. Os Cuboidcs. Tab. XXIII. Fig. 4. before K. 

The anterior articulating Surface^ irregular and con- The Os Calcis is articulated with the Astragalus b}- 

veXy where it plays upon two smooth Cavities at the ligaments of such strengtli, that this part of the Foot, 

inner and fore part of the Os Calcis, and upon a Cartila- upon which the Body rests, is rendered linn and secure, 

ginous Ligament extended between the Os Calcis and but enjoys verj' little motion, 
Os Naviculare, Tab. XXVL Fig. 7. e,f. In the Foetus, a large proportion of this Bone is ossi- 

A large oblong smooth Head, at the fore part of the fied, and the Projection forming the Heel is afterwards 

Bone, for its articulation with the Os Naviculare, Tab. an Epiphysis. 
XXVL Fig. 7. g. Fig. 5.e. 

The Joint between the Astragalus and Leg-bones forms The Os Naviculare, situated at the fore part of the 

a complete Hinge, which, together with tlie above-men- Astragalus, and inner part of tlie Foot. 'I'ab. XXVL 

tioned Ligaments, allows the Foot to bend and extend Fig. 1. C. 
upon the Leg, tut admits of no lateral nor rotatory motion. The posterior Surfa 

except in the extended state, when there is a little of that of a Boat, for re 

each. in the manner of Ball and Socket. Tab. XXVL '"F 

In the Fa?tufi, a considerable portion of this Bone is 6. c. 
ossilied. A /"/wniVitvicc at the inner side uf iIjc Bun.', fur the 

insertion of Tendons, Muscles, and strong LigaineiUs', 

The Os Calcis, the largest of the Tarsal Bones, si- particularly for the Ligament stretched between this 

tuatcd under the Astragalus, and in the back part of the Bone and the Os Calcis, for the support of the Astraga- 

Foot. Tab. XXVI. Fig. 5. B. lus. Tab. XXVL Fig. 5. n. 

A. large rough Tuberosity m' Knob, projecting behind, T\ie fore part of the Bone convex, and divided into 

to form the Heel, and to make one end of the Ai'ch of three articular Swfaces, for the articulation with the 

the Foot. Tab, XXIII. Fig. 4.L. Ossa Cuneiforuiiit. Tab. XXVL Fig, 5. p.,p,p. 

A s'/peijicinl Cavity in the upper and back part of tlus Between the Os \uvicuiarc and A^^tragaliis, the Foot 


h M pal B 


h b 








d par 

no di g 
DC T b 

h O ^ ar 
XX i s 4 K 

gi hmen 
d P lb Tb 




d pf j- 
XXX Eg 2 
an 1 






« P rt 
g an 

rt T 

b Bis 

b h B 


XX 1154 

A b 

XXX r 

J / 





rf b an, 
»1 B lb 

d h regtb 
tb b 
h p b 





p h B 

li gu h 



C d 
A h 

b acmcn 




ar rt uht 


ach id 


111 h In Muse es 

lu rds d th 
m 11 b B an 

O N 

re b Cp 

Totf b m 
h 1 >r 


d nned m 
m Th 


X X 

B f 

I! A 

r ge 


d tbU 

aidO C / 

d an ds T b XXX l g 

Tb S wb h O C d pi 

g T bro b B 


iMii^ck;, :uul fonil'. oi -■ of I'.n- poiiil. on which the EoHy The Boius oi" ili,.- T^i, ;,lluvv a iVce r.iui o:i-v i,i<jtion 

,(.~r-. HI MLimiiiiu. -l-Ah. \XX11. Imo. lU. in Children, nml ;, < (,l,lf .h-fc-c ol' ll uL., in f\„]ik- 

Thc- iJoiics of ilu- ,\litaUir-Lis, uitii those of the Tar- whose Feet havr nul 1k-i.ii (oiillii,.! in^. lu ctla-i-:. 

siis, form ;iii irregular Arth tor supporting- the Eotiv, one cspetiitlly in a(Kan<_-(.il lilt, the 'I'ois ai'o (■■(cinLiillv lomui 

end of the Arch being fornietl by the projection of the M|iiee/.ed" to-elhei, ami M,ihe <if ilie sinalksl IJone-i'of the 

Heel, the other bv the anterior extieinity of the iMelatar- 'loe>, a. ijie ti\u U^l uf Mii- litile one, have the [)ioct-~i 

sal Bones. The dillercut nieecs composing this Arth are whuli originally eoiiiposed them jonied together by an 

bound by Ligaments of such strengtii, as to give secirrity union ril' fMib>.t;uieL-. 

to the whole. The structure of the Bones of the Foot is neaily similar 

■pQj-g to that of the Bones of the Hand. 

In the Fcetus, the Boues of tlie Metatai-sus and Toes 

The Bones of the Toes, the same iu number with those are in the same condition as those of the Metacarpus and 

of the Fingers, viz. two to the Great Toe, and three to Fingei'S. 

each of tlie smaller Toes ; and the different Bones here, _ 

as in the Fingi-rs, disposed in Uanka or Phalanges. Tab. "^^^ bE3AM0f dea. 

XXXII. Fig. 10. 1-J. Their size, situation, and number, vary in different ner- 

The fuo Bones of (he Great Toe lite tliose of the sons. 

Thumb, but stronger, and phiced in the same row with They arc sometimes found at the roots of the Fingers 

the Bones of tlie smaller Toes, for the purpose of walk- and Small 'I'oes ; at the second Jouit of the Thumb and 

ing, and assisting in supporting the Body. Tab. XXXII. at tlie coiTCsponding one of the Great Toe ; between the 

Fig. 1'-. Condyles of the Os Femoris and Gastrocnemius Muscle ; 

Tlie Bonv^ of tin- SmnUer Toes, every way less than between the Tendons of the Pei-oneus Longus and Os 

those of the Fingei''^. 7^ab. XXIV. Cuboides, &e. 

Their under .Sinficc depressed, ^vhere the Tendons of Those always present are placed in pairs at the roots 

their Resor Muscles are lodged. Tab. XXSII. Fig. 10. of the Thumb and Great Toe, between the Tendons of 

The Bases of the first Phalanx, as in the Fingers, theii- Flexor Muscles and Joints. 

Formhig Sockets to receive the Balls or Heads of the They are convex on their outer .Surface, w here they 

Metatarsal Bones. . Tab. XXXII. Fig. 12. are inclosed by the Tendons and Muscles fixed to them. 

The Joints between the first and second Phalanx, and Tab. XXXII. Fig. Ti. a. 

also between the second and tliird, as in the Fingers, And cogence, and lined with Cirtilage next the Joints, 

forming Hinges, and the mnlinn siini'^'v i"^' '""nc tun- vi-here they play upon the Bones with which they are 

fineJ. T»b. xXAlt. J-ig. 11). 12. aiticulated. Tab. XXXIl. Fig. 14. a. Tab. XXVI. 

Of the small Toes, the first, or that next the Great Fig. 3. 4. 

Toe, the largest, the rest becoming smaller, the more They are considered by Anatomists as serving the same 

externally they are placed. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 10. 12. general purpose with the Patella. 

( «2 ) 


Different Views of the Os Femohis, Tibia, and Fibula. 

riG. 1. 

Anterior Surface of I he Os Femoris of the Left Side. 

(1, The head of the os femoris, covered with a smooth h h The ragged eminence, or crest, which extends from 
and poUahed caitUage. one trochanter to the other. 

b, A portion of tlie uit, or ligameBtftoB impression of this ^ The trochanter mmor, on which, as well as on the 
j,g^ trochanter major, are a number of muscular prints. 

c, The upper part of the neck of the os femoris. "'. The middle of the inner sui-face of the os femoris. 
(/, </, ^^ariouB openings or fissures, which give passage to "» Tne middle or the outer surface, 

vessels. ^i The middle of the linea aspera, wiiich, through its 
e. The iroclianter major. whale leugtli, is only a continuation of musculw im- 

/, The biunt point of this jjrocess. pressions. 

g, 5, The ridfip, or projecting line, which extends from P^ P- The division of this line into two branches, of which 

the greater to the smailcr trochanter. O"*^ go^^ *" 'Ii^ larger, and the other to the smallei 

h, Tlie troth;uilcr minor. trochanter. 

?', The ii|Hin' rfiul lunlfJic par* of the as femoris, some- ?» Orifice of the canal for the medullary vessels, in the 

X, The itiidiUc p^ui, ivhtch is convex and rounded. 

/, The interior ;ui(l iiiiihile part, moreof a triangulsir foim. 

T», n/, Mubcnla.!' Hiul ligauioiiioiis impressions upon the 

lateral and under [iLirli of tlif bone, 
11, A tiiaugiilar (,ivit\, with li-i^ures fcr the insertion of 

the capsular lig^iuitiit, and fur the passage of vessels. 
0, A cavity, or pulley, at the bottom o: the os femoris, 

covered %vith cartilage, to facilitate the motion of the 

^,/», The eminences which form the gides of the pulley. 

r/ic Pod 
w, The |i 
A, The cavity, or ligamcutous print of the head of the 

OS femoris. '. g^ The middle of the crest of the tibia. 

f, r, The unetjua! edge of the cartiJaginous substance of J, ft. The upper and under parts of the crest or ridge. 
^}^ li^-y*!- (■,(■, Tlie innt-r smooth surface. 

(/, ^llit: U]i|)CL :iimI |iii " i i.ii p^M 1 ul Uic ccnix l(.'i!iori-;, rf, r/, 'I'he outer suiface, g'Ciicrally hollow. 

j,e, I III- u]]dir^:i,r ni |!i( . . > ■. , , ^^ ,.^ The edge of (he superior cavities of the tibid. 

■■ /, Tlie (.puiii,- ;;,;;. ,.,.i , W:, iht t ran = mi., ion of /,/, The tuberosity of tins bone divided into two pan- 
vfsscU, \\\\v.\\ |.i iifi-.ii t!,! . iili'.(;uice of the Ikhic. of wJiiili the n[)])er givrs attachment to tbelijnuueiu < 

g. The bluDt point of tlie trudi;mter major, on xvliich :u-e the patella, and the otlier insertion to the 1(ikIoii> ■■ 
musculai' pnntii. muscles. 

. Til 

,r, Division ,>f tl 

w linea aspera into tw 

smaU ridges. 

which extend Irt 

im tlie middle and under pail of the 

bone as far as it' 

s condyles. 

, llie triangular c 

avity between these tw 

■a branches and 

the t<.ud\les, furl 

facilitating the passage of blood-vessels. 

,/, The fissures a. 

the Udder pail of this ( 

:avity, through 

which the vessel 


, V, 'I'he condyles 

, encrusted with a smooth cartilage. 

, J, The tubei'osit 
ments and muscl 

ies of the condyles, il 
es arc inserted. 

ito which ligj- 

', A cavity betwei 

:a the condyles. 

;, a, Ligamentous 

impressions upon the 

upper edge of 

this cavity. 

riG. 3. 

The Anterior Sm 


e Left Side. 


C, The email articular process, which answers to the fi- FIG. 4. 

^''^;. ,, , , ,. . The External Surftue of the Skv-la of the -Lt.YT^niZ, 

liy /ly Prints made by the capsular ngameut on the upper •' 

part of the tibia. o, o, a, The length of its externa! surface. 

7", i\ t\ Openings of the spongy substance, which are ori- i. Part of the posterior surface. 

fices for the transmission of vessels spread over this c, c. The ridge, or osseous line n'hich separates the pos- 

pait of the bone. terior from the outer surface. 

k, /-, A porous surface, where the tendons of muscles, (/, Part of the ridge which separates the outer from the 

with their aponeurosis, ai-e fixed. inner surface. 

/, The under and middle round part of the tibia. e. The superior process of the fibula, 

w/. The malleolus internus. /, The ai'ticular cavity wliich receives the eminence oE 
w, n. Vestiges of the union of the inferior process to the the tibia. 

body of the bone. g. The articular process of the fibula, which corresponds 
0, The eminence which answers to the fibula. to the tibia. 

jj,/». The articular cavities which correspond with the A, A, Asperities, or ligamentous and muscular prints. 

astragalus. /, The coronoid process of tlie malleolus extemus. 

t/, Pai-t of the articular ca^-ity which receives the fibula. A", A:, The asperities, or ligameatous prints of this process. 

)■, )■, Ligamentous impressions. ', /, The orifices of several conduits, for the 
of vessels. 

( «* ) 

Views of the Patella, Ossa Sesamoidea, and Bones of the Foot. 

F I G. I . b. The oblong cavity of the inner surface, by wliich it is 

joined with the malleolus iutemus. 
TheExternal Surface of (lie Patella ofi^e Left Side. ^^ 'The cen-ix of the astragalua. 
ff, A hollow in Ihe upper part of the patella, into which ^t Inequalities, ov ligamentous prints on the upper and 

the tendon of the extensorniuscles of the leg is iised. inner part. ,., . ... 

b. The middle of the bone, somewhat convex. f. The hea,l of tlie astragalus, which is received mto the 

(, r. The lateral parts, which are so many muscular ^ ^^^^''^X «* ^^'^ °^ scaphoides. , , , 

■^(g_ /, Iue(|uabties on the inner suriace, also marked with li. 

'', Fissures on the surface of tlic pateUa, with the orifices gamcntons prints. 

of the conduits; by which the ve-ssels penetrate iuto the S^ -'^ ^"'^^ eminence on the posterior part of the a.stra. 
- ■ • '^ gAlu.s, which IS articulated with the os calcis. 

i. The middle of the inner surface of the os calcis, ex- 
fonn of an oblique gutter, for the passage 

e of the OS calcis, by 
which It 1^ articulated with the astragalus. 
?', Tlie tuberosity of this bone, the upper and back pari 
of which is impressed by the insertion of the teudo 
)vered J, Tlie inner and upper surface of the os calcis, articula- 
ted witli a small surface of the astragalus. 
/, /, The sinuosity below this eminence, through which 
which separates the two cavities. the tendon of the flexor longus pollicis passes, 

(/, An irregular hollow, to which the ligament is £.xed ?«, The anterior eminence of the os calcis, by which it is 
which goes to the tibia. joined with the os cuboides. 

C, The upper and middle part of the os navicnlare, oa 
r I G. 3. which several ligamentous prints are seen. 

n r.t n in e .i 'ni i It-, fit The navicular cavitv, which receives the head of 

Om of the Sesamoid Jsones of Ihc l/iumo. \i . ■, 

■' ■' the astragalus. 

F I G " 4 "' The tubeixjsity of the os naviculare, to which the ten- 

' ' don of the tibialis noslicus is fixed. 

A Sesamoid Bone of the Great Toe. p^ p^ ^^ ti,c g„,.^\\ surfaces by which this bone is joined 

to each of the cuneiform bones. 
*^ ^ *^- 5- D, Tlie middle of the laa-ge cuueifonn bone. 

a X^osition 2' The under end of this bone, where there is a small 
surface anteriorly, to which tlie tendon of the tibialis 
anticus is fixed, — and posteriorly, a tuberosity to whicli 
A, The middle and upper part of the astragalus, where it tlie abductor pollicis is fixed. 

; u _^g^ ^j covered with cartilage. ,-, The upper part of the same bone, by which it is joiu- 

F. A 

intnitir of ll; 

r. The mFci-ior 

vciy strong 1 



• of the 

patella, iuto 


FIG. S. 

TlK T,i 

nrr Sin 


«. 0/ the . 

some Patell. 

It, c, ,1, 'I'lie li 

1, /., Tlif arlit 

n-iUi smoolli 

r, The smaU 


■e of the patella, oi- m 

inent is fixed. 

:s of the kner surface, 

ridge, or superficial 


n, a. The semicircular eminences wliich border the upper ed with the second os cuneiforme. 

pai-t of this bone. E, Xhc upper part of the second cuneiform bone. 





F, A small part of the thii-d cuneifonn bone. rf, d, Tlie bottom of this fossa, on uliicli are several liga- 

G, Tlie iiuudlc and upper part of the large metatarsal meiitoua printn. 

bone. f, A small oval aui-fiicc, which in joined wilh apart of 

*, The posterior pail of tliis bone, where it is Joiued willi the obloug ca\'ity on the eminence of the inner surface 

the fiist OS tinieiforinc, of the os calcis. 

ly 'I'he head of the same bone, which forma an artlirodial /, Anotlier small eminence, which is joined ivith another 

articidation with the tirst phaiaiix of the gi-eat toe. part of ihe same cavity of the os calcis. 

jiS (/, Eminences, or prints, on the lateral parts of this bone, g. The under part of the head of the astragalus. 
H, The middle imd upper p;u"t of the second metatai'sal 

bone. FIG. 8. 
t', The posterior and upper part of this bone, 

w, Its anterior extremity, which tei'minates in a rouudisli Shews the Vjipcr Part, and Eiknial Surface of (lit: 

head. Os Calcis. 
I, The upper and middle part of the first bone of the 

great toe. c^ The upper eminence of the mi.lcUc part of the os cal- 

X, The edge of the glenoid cavity of tliis bone. ci^* whicli is articuliued with the giTaL cavity of th-j 

^, The ajiterior extreinily, the articulation of uhich with astragalus. 

the second bcinc is a tonipietc giuglynuis. i't /', Another eminence of the inner surface of this bone, 

K, Part of tlic (irst hone of the second toe. '" ^^hicli ihtj'c is an oblong ca^-ity, wliich is articulated 

L, A portion of the lii-sE bone of the third toe. with aiii.llicr part of the astragalus. 

M, The middle part of the second bone of the gi-eat toe, <', <", Irregular hollows, into which the principal ligy- 

ivhich is conves. meuls which unite the astragalus with the os calcis aie 

K, The upper and posterior part of this bone, by which inserted. 

it is joined to the first. '^i */, fl-i The posterior part, or edge of the large tubcro- 

iSf, The anterior extremity of the second bone, on which sity of the os calcis. 

are asperities to support tlic nails, and fuinish attach- e. The edge of die large Jiollow of this bone. 

roent to tendinous fibres. /, The external sinuosily, througli iviiich the tendon of 

Jfj N, Portions of the second bones of the second and the peroneus longus passt:^. 

third toes. gi Tlie small tuberosity to wliich pnit of die Jigamcuis 

O, A very smaU portion of tlie third metatarsal bone. of the pcronci are fixed. 

FIG. 6. 

//, The 

,ltl! the 

p A large part of the upper surface of the os sca- 

des, ^vhich is very inegular, and gives attachment 

:veral ligaments. «' '^'^l "PI" 

nrfinn nFtl,P HiKpwirWv nf ihJs bnnp. on which aiP are fixed. 

FIG. t>. 
ml Older Surface of the External Os Cl'- 

6, A portion of the tuberosity of tliis boui 
ty uhit^ 

FIG. 7. 

The Under Part of the Astragalus. 

r surface of the astragalus, seen a little fore- 

ce, to which several small lig 
■tion of the anterior surFacc. 

d. The dcpir~.,;ons of llii.; siulacc, to - 

ahith strong liga- 

c. The point of the bone ivhith ans^^cr 

s to the sole. 

FIG. 10. 

The I'pper. Posterior, and Outer Siirfc. 

wes of the Middh 


*, Part of llic |io,lc 

,-, Tlic oulci- niifiuc 

the tliinl c.miilovi 

(/, The undei- part, i 

FIG. 13. 

The Superior, and somewhat External Surfae 
Os CuflOiDES. 


iculated with 

ff, n. The small surJ'nce, by which it 

the second bone of llic same name. 
li,, A povtioii of the under pait of th 

bone, which tcvmiiiatcs in a thick tuberosity, to which 

the tendon of the tibi;Llis anticus is fixcil. 
r, The anterior surface, a little hollow, for the artieu- 

lation of this with the large qietatai'sal bone, 

A partof the inner edge of this bone, which 
to tne third cuneiform bone. 

The posterior surface, on wliich there is an oblique- 
process, adapted to the os calcis, with which it is ur. 

The anterior surface, which receives tbe two la^t mc- 
tatai'sal bones, 
form (/, The upper surface, the numerous asperities of wiiit h 

( 87 ) 


Represents the Skeleton of a Fcetus at the Full Time. 


the following, among other pecu- The cartilaginous border of the os ilium. 

The cartilaginous union of the three pieces which com* 

pose the oa innoinioatum. 
Tlie ends of the long bones in general of the superiot 

extremities, in the state of epiphyses. 
A ring of bone surrounding the outer edge of the tympa- The bones of the carpus cartilaginous. 

The ends of the long bones of the inferior extremities, in 

the form of epiphyses. 
The patells in a state of cartilage. 
The bones of the tarsus partly cartilaginous, aud parll/ 

] of the foutaaella. 
\ menibranous substance, tn form of a si 
) pieces which form the frontal bm 

The symphysis of the lower jaw, formed of cartilage. 
The OS sacrum, composed of distinct vertebrae, with 

tervertebral substances. 
The different points of ossiiicatlon upou the sternum. 


The greater Part of ukich viay be observed in Tab. I. II. XXIX. XXXI. representing the Male Skeleton^ ami 
Tab. XXVni. XXX. the Female Skeleton. See olsd Tab. XV. XVI. XVII. XX. 

The Female Skeleton is obsen-ed, in general, to be 
smaller and more slender lliiougliout than that of the 

The Bone of an AdiUt Female, of the same .ize ivilh 
tliat of a Male, is usually tli&tin£;<l In iho l!ill,^c-, 
JJcprcssiony, rough S.ii-faees, aiid-olhci- liKqiKililii^, 'be- 
ing less conspicuous in the forint-r. 

The Ciivujnference of the Feniaic Skull i::; t^atd by 
Soemmering to he larger, 

Tlie Os FroiUis is found to be more frequently divided 
fay a continuation of the Sagittal future. 

The Frontal Sinuses are observed I., be nan-ower ; 

All the Bones of the Facf mmt (kiitale ; 

The Bodies of the \cvi,\„:^ Innnc-i-, -Md ihe Vertebral 
Cana'l, according to the AuiIkh- rjiic>lf(l ahovi., lai'gcr ; 

Tlie Intervertebral Sulisl^tiues deeper or tliieker; 

The Cartilages of the 'I'rue Kibs longer in proportion 
to the OshCOUb pait, and broader and flatter to support 
the Bicast. ; 

The Sternum more raised, and the whole Thorax 
shorter, deeper from before batkwaj-ds, and more dist:uit 
from the Pelvis. ; 

The length of tlie Sternum le^s, and termmating below 
on a line nearly opposite to the Plane of tlie Fourth Pair 
of Ribs, but in the Male Skeleton terminating opposite to 
that of the Fifth Pair; 

Tlie Cartilago Faisiforinis oftener perforated in the 
middle, or bifurcated ; 

The length of the Loins gTeater ; 

The Pelvis wider in all its ilimenaions ; 

The Spines ajid Proces^c^ of the Ossa Innominata far- 

joined Surfaces of the Ossa iDDominata and Os Sacrum 

'I'iie space between the Ossa Pubis shorter froni above 
doHTHvaids, but larger taken in a tl■ans^'e^se dii-ectjun 
especially in \\omen who have bom Childi'eu ; of course" 
lhe Ligamentous Cartilage of ihc Symphysis thicker; 

The Angle fonned by the Crura of the Ossa Pubis- 
with the Symphysis Pubis much larger ; that of tlip 
Male being acute, while in the Female the Angle extendi 
to »0 or 9i» degrees ; 

The Tubemsities of the Ossa Isthia flatter, and at a 
greater distance from each other ^ 

The Brim of the Pelvis wider, and of an oval form, 
corresponding with the Head of the Child, and the loui;- 
cst Diameter extending between the Ossa Iba, 

In tlie iMale, the Brim of the Pelvis observed to have 
more of a eiicular appearance, and to have the greatest 
extent between the Ossa Pubis and Os Sacrum. 

The Opening at the under part of the Pelvis, in the 
Female, much wider, and of an oval tbnn j but Ijie oval 
the reverse of that at the Brim ; 

The Foi-amina Ovalia wider. 

All the Openings at the under part of the Pelvis, being 
wider, leave a large passage for the Birth of the Child. 

; Os 

1 bi-oader, anil ttuned more backwards, 
to enlarge the Cavity of the Pelvis j 

The Oa Coccygia more slender, turned more back- 
wards, and having a greater degree of motion ; 

The Ossa Ilia flatter, and more reflected outwards, by 
which the under part of the Abdomen is rendered more 
capacious, and the impregnated Uterus better supported ; 

Tile Kotches of the Ossa Ilia wider, and the con- 

TheAcetabula faithi 
sequence of which, Women who are 
part of the Body wagjiif iihen they i 

The Ossa Femonmi more curved 
Thigh-bone forming a greater Angle 
Body of the 7'high-bone plated more 
temal Condyle larger. 

The Feet smaller ; 

The Clavicles less crooked ; 

The Scapulx smaller, placed mo 
closer to the Thorax ; of course t 
Shoulders less ; 

The Superior Extremities shorter ; 

The Hands smaller ; 

The Ossa Carpi oMTOwer i and. 

The Fingers more tapering 

very broad at this 

the Aeck of ibe 
Aith its Body; the 

obliquely ; the iii- 

'ards their Extrctni'i 

7:iB. Z9. 


< 89 ) 


Represents a well-formed Young Adult Female Skeleton, the different Paits of which may 
be understood, by comparing it with the Skeletons already described. 


C 90 ) 


Represents the General Structure of the Bones, and a Front View of the Male Skeleto 

,\, The- bra,Qi-hcs wbicli come from tlie orbit ;— tlie other 
sm;ill liiuiks of the arteries observed in several places 
:\rf ^Liit from the coininoii iotegumeuts totheperios- 

FIG. 2. FIG. f. 

,,,, n -D rr-. . l ^t x> f t j The ^iv-SoiVT of a Child, opcTied to sJicw, 

I he Parietal Bone of a Foetus^ to shew the Baamted ■' ' -^ ' 

Fibrts of a Fht Bvne, proieeding from the first ossi- A, The head of the thigh-boDe. 

fed paint A. B, The round ligament connecting it to the acetabulum. 
C, Tlie capsular ligameut of the joint, with its arteries 

FIG. 3. injected, ;ind, 

The Thigh-Bone of a Fceluny to skew the Lotigitttdinal D, 'I'I'e numerous vessels of the fatty glandular-like snb- 

Parti/ltl Fibrts of a Cylindrical Bone. stance of the joint also injected. 

FIG. 10. 

ji Fivnt View of the Male Skileton. 
F I G- 4- A, The frontal bone. 

Sation rf Part cfthr Os Femoris, ta shew the Plates \ Its superciliary hole. 

and Cancelli of Lmq Bones in general. fi. The external orbitar process. 

V, The internal orbitar process, 
separated. b, The pariii^.l bone. 

Bciuetu A and B, the coronal autm-e. 
C, The temporal bone. 
^ '^- ■'■ D, ., Tlie octipital bone. 

Transrerse Section of a Bone burnt, to shea the Cavities 1% Tin- bono of tlie nose. 
fir mntttining the Marrow and Vessels. \\ The u'^ im;<I:i . 

, (;, Tilt Mini i-iuL' iiKixillary bone. 

FIG. (!. J-l, 'n,,. |o>,M j^lVV. 

The Jppmrantc of the Marrow, viewed with a Microscope. '' ''''"' "■''!'■ 

K, The ^L\eu uriical vertebra;, with their intennedind 
FIG. 7. ca,■l,hl,^.■,. 

The Thich-Bone, ma^d I^mgiludinallj, through the ^' ''''"''' "•"'■■^^■'■^*^ processes. 

middle !•'■ I"- ^'■- ' '"' ''*''l<e dort>:d vertebi-as. 

M, 'I'Ik- llvf iui.ihiir vc'trbnt. 

B, B Tlie miimi .^ftlie with its extremities, which x, Th-ir \v■.m>.^,■^^y.■ protest':. 

f, C, TJie rt-titulai- bubhLuice. p\ Xhe os coccvgis. 


', A gi.oove for the Iciidon of the biceps. 
', The body of the os humeri 
, The trochlea. 

R, The OS pubis. 

(, The fomineu thycoideuni, 
;., The acetabulum. 
T, The seveu true ribs. 
U, The five falsi 

e joiuiug of the ribs ivith theb- cartila 

V, The steri 
,1, Its upper 


, The pha 

t, Tlie patella. 
1, The tibia. 
, The tibula. 

T, The concave surface of the scapula of the right side. 
», Tlle superior costa of the scapula, with its semUunar 

T, The coracoid process of the left side. 

■J, The acromion of the left side. 

f. The anterior-inferior costa of the scapula of the right 

X, The head of the os humeri under the acromion. 

of I he fingei 

II, The phalanges of the toes 

, The malleolus estei-nus. 

, The malleolus intenius. 

; The ball of the left thigh-bone. 

■, The great trochanter. 



Represents a Front View of the Female Skeleton, with the Bones of tlie Head. 

The Letters :idded I 
«, The coronal sutu 

c. The lambdoid sut 
f, c, I'he tr;iiisvcrse 
(/, Tlie zygOTi; 

eru;d oi-bif 

/, The lateral na«a! Huture. 
S, llie superciliary hole of the frontal boiie. 
S, Tlie orbicar practMs of the frontal bone. 
H, The OS planum of the ethmoid bone. 
r, Tlie lacrymuj groove of the os uiiyuiN. 
?r, The external orbitar hole of the maxillary bone. 
T of the maxillar)' bone. 

I. Thcch 
ti. The b« 

L-Of t 

. The mental hole. 

G Ihc hcid ol the i«lms 

.1 Ihc left bide. 
c of the scapula 

1. Il .,i I, c. 

U Ihc l^luid piOLtSb of the ulm 

Pelvis, and Inferior Extremi 
^, TTie spine of the os ilium, 
^ Its antenor-siiperio.' spinou.s process. 
V, Its antenor-mterior .spinous pi-oeesa. 
B, The joining of the os ilium and 08 pubis 

S, Thco 

s ischium. 

1. ThiB 

pinous pi'oceE 

IS of the 09 


3. Thi-j. 

lining of the 

OS sacrum t 

cith the 

3. TiK.; 

vmphjsis pubis. 

4. Tlic p 


r, '1 Ik- Ik 

ill of the thigh-bone. 

S, The t, 

■dchauter JV.a 


X -Ihc c 

iTvLxof the' 


15. The 

head of the 1 


16. The 

spine, and, 

IT. The 

inner edge nt 

■ the tibia. 

18. The 

under end of 

that bone. 

r, The ,r 

lalleolu! extei 


t, The malleoluB inter 


FIG. 2. 

Bact View 

of the F«o 

NTAl B( 

,, The fr 

ontal sinus. 

.; The s; 

iigittal sutun 

;, continued in this 

root of 

the nose. 

The other parts seen L 

u this View 

have bei 

Tab. Vm. Kg. 4. 

FIG. 4. 

A Fore View of the Occipital Bone. — See Tab. EX. 
Fig. 4. 

, Ano 

To which add here. 

5, The extremity of the cuneiform process, where ji y 

tlie sphenoid bone. 
I, The exterior surface of the cuneiform process, 
T, T, The condyles. 
«, Part of tlie hole common to the occipital bone, ;i 

right temporal bone. 
^, The hole for one of the nerves of the iiiiitb pair. 

FIG. 5. 

. Bone — *« 


To which add here, 

:h is Bomelimes observed bctwtei 
and posterior cliooid procesees. 

E ^a>^-,,._,.,^ 


FIG. 7. 
J^ilerwr View nf the Ethmoid Bone. — See Tab. X. 

Fig. 3. 

FIG. 8. 

Posterior Viewofthc ttvo Nasal Bones.— A'ee Tab. XII. 
Fig. 3. 4. 
FIG. 9. 

FIG. 10. 

Posterior Viewofthc Os Mal^.— i'ee Tab. XII. Fig. 6. 
FIG. 11. 

A View of the Lnuvr Part, and Side next the Nose^ of 
the Left Os Maxillake, inih the Palate B'me, and 
X, the Os Turbinatim hiferim.—See. 'I'ab.XIl.Fig.a. 

FIG. 1-2. 
The Left Palate Bone inverted. 

A, B, C, D, Tlie palate plate. 

The other letters refer to parts belonging to the nose and 
orbit— iff Tab. XII. Fig. II. 1'^. 

1. A section of the diin. 

2. The base of the jaw. 

3. The angle. 

4- The coroooid process. 

5. The condyle. 

6. The rough print of the internal pterygoid muscle. 

7. The orifice of the passage for tne ner\'e and bio 

FIG. 14. 

A Tooth cm* perpendicularfyy magni/ied. 

A» The fibres of the cortical part. 

B, The bony part. 

C, The entry for the vessels and u( 

D, The cavity of the tootli. 

D, D, The two tables ;ind diploc of tlie fiontal and oc- 
cipital bones. 

a, T\k coronal suture. 

x, The seiTated edges of the paiictal bouc, for formiiij; 

the sagittal suture. 
«, The lambdoid suture. 
fr. The squamous suture. 

j, The furrows made by the vessels of the dura inalti'. 
,, The frontal sinus. 

E, The crista Galti. 

F, The nasal lamella of the etlunoid bonr, 
1 . The hollow wing of the sphenoid bone. 
(J. The seUa Tui-cica. 

1!^. The sphenoid sinus. 

18. The nasal plate of the sphenoid bone. 

20. The spongy substance of llie sphenoid and occipi{;il 

|9, The hole for the passage of the nuith pair of nerves, 

c. The squamous part of the temporal bone. 

f , The ridge of the os petrasum, with tlie print of a small 

f. The internal meatus auditorins. 

A, The dcntea incisores. 

ft. The dens caninus. 

>, The deutes niolares, 

fr, Tlie foi-amen iucisiviun of the maxjllaiy bone. 

{, Tlie rougli spine of the superior maxillary bone. 

f, The joining of it to the vomer. 

5, The broad hoUow base of the vomer. 

H, The posterior edge of the vomer. 

G, The body of the vomer. 

T, The conjunction of it with the thin plate of the sphe- 
noid and ethmoid bones. 

Di, Its hollow anterior part, which receives the middle 
cartilage of the nose. 

P, The anterior edge of the nasal bone. 

FIG. 17. 

5, The tubercle of the root of the zygoma. 

J-, The concave moveable cartilage placed on that i 

/, I, Its llgimients. 

'li. The hole for the portio dura of the Ttlt pair of nerv 
."i. The bony part of the Eustachian tube. 

( S-i ) 


Represents the Larynx, the Bones of the Trunk of the Body, and a Posterior View of 
Male ' Skeleton. 

FIG. 1. W, W, The bony sides of that broad posterior part. 

^ , , . , X, The membranous back part of the trachea, 

the Figures ot pai-ticular bones in this and the preceding 
Table, arc represented only one Iialf as large as natuie. 

fl. The anterior surface of the base of the os hyoidi 
b. Its superior surface. 

;eting the os hyoides, thy 


lage, and epiglottis. ^ ^'^>^ 'if "'« ^^PF^'' ^"'"^ "/ 'fte first Vertebra of 

d, rf, The two appendices of the os hyoides. '^^ ^*^CK. 
3, The ligament sent out from the appendix of the left 

side, lo the styloid process of the left temporal bone. 
f, The union of \he base with the eonm. 

/,/, Thetwocoruua. FIG. 4. l 

M,g, Tiibei-ckh, at Ihtir extrcmiLies. { 

h, //, Ligaments fioinfi ti-oin the tubercles to the superior The Under and Back Part of t/ie sanif Vertebra. ■> 

coriiua of tiie lliyroid carlilHtre. - „„ . , ■ ,■ , p ^t '^ 

. , -I'l ,1 ' J .1 .1 ■■ 'i lie smooth deprcssnin lor tic Limenor ii^irt of tlie,H 

,,J fe. ll,e,,yvo,d™i,lage, he greater p^t „1 ' ,„„„,.likc preceL of tl.e »™J vemVa. ' 

/, Tile anterior middle part of tlie thyroid cartilaRe. i^ t ^ ^ 

/, llsriBhuide. FIG. 6. 

/, /, Two cartilaginous pieces on that side. A Side Viem of the Second Vertebra of llie Xek. 

nor cornu, connected to tlie cricoid c 

lienor part of tlie cricoid cartilage. 
lage of the trachea arteria, divided ij 

E process, 
lended t 

-, Tlie seeoiiil, third, and fourth cartilages of the trachea. ''' T''*^ p:>ssage in the transverse process, 
/, The point of the tooth-like process. 
FIG. 2. 
Hock View of the Parts represented ill Fig. 1 . 

'''k'iw,'n;'FiJ!'l^'" '™" ''■■"■"' '"''""' ""' ''■"'"=" r/,e K,»(nM\fcoW Vertebra «/«f Neck, .'■"'?"" 

/, Tile epiglottis "/ '**^ OcciriTAL BoNE, and tlie Ligaments "J "'f 

t, a. The t,.o arytenoid cartilages. ■ TooTH-LJKE Process. 

i; Tlic nihldle unossilicd part of the cricoid cartilage. n. Part of the occipital bone. 

-/(H)^ tiisP^ ^^ 

r^i iT^m 




arc Tab. XVIII, Fig. 6. 

FIG. 7. 
Vpjici- Part of tU Fiiiirtk Va-tebra of the Neck: 

FIG. 8. 
Upper Part of tie Seeellth Vei-tebm of the Neck. 

FIG. 9. 

niooth intei'iial side. 
A, Tile anterior extrciiiity. 

FIG. 1j. 
Tlie Siitll and Seeeilll, Verlchnr of He Back, leitli Pit, 

of the Seeeiilli Itil, of llie Left SM: 



Tlie Stehnum, mlli tlie Cai 
the internal Mams 

FIG. 10. 

Vnler Pari of tlie Shtli, Vertebra of tile Back 

Tab. XVm. Kg. S. 

FIG. 11. 

Siile new of the Twelft/i rertebm of the Back: 

a. The body. 

c. The transverse process. 

c, The spinous pracess. 

k. The inferior oblique process. 

f, Tlie depression for the head of the rib. 

FIG. 12. 

FIG. 13. 

Vader and Lateral Part of the Third Vertebra of the 

fl. The under patt of the body. 
A, The superior oblique process. 
c, The 

e, 1 he spninus pix)ee9s. 

gj The spinal hole. 

r. The pixicess round the body of tlie bone 

FIG. 14. 

The Seventh TrnJE RiB of Hie Lsr: 

H, Its head. 

h. Its Biiiooth aurfc 

ice, which 

process of tlie v 


c, The depression. 

il. The tubertle. 

t, I>, D, D, Tlic CHclilLtges of the lom- supciiwr 
,, The conjoined- cai'tilages of the lillli, bi>.th, ; 
vcnth ribs. 
4 F, F, The radiiited ligaments ciuinectiiig tlic 

G, The internal i 

lammary ai-terj. 
FIG. 17. 
View of the Male Skeletox 

0, The lambdoid. 

A, The frontal bone. 

£, The right parietal bone. 

C, Tlie right temporal bone. 

D, The occipital bone. 

E, The nasal bone. 

F, The OS malie. 

3. The angle of the lower jai, 

?rtebr-* oi' ihe back. 


, The posterior holes of that bone. 

, Its spinous processes. 

, The open part of the caual for the cauda equina. 

', The OS coccygis. 

, The dorsum of the os iliuni. 

, its spine. 



, Thes 

iterior spmous proce 
3, The inferior-posterior spinous proces 
i, The gi-eat notch. 

ft. The siiperior-aiiterior spinous proces 
», Tlie iiiferior-anierior process. 
*, The brim of ihe acetabulum. 
^, The spmous process of the os ischiun 
n, The tuberosity of that bone. 
S, Its branch. 
R, The OS pubis. 
=r, Its crus. 
«, The great thyroid hole. 

Right Superior Extrem 
d. The dorsiuu of the scapula. 
f^ Its posterior costa. 
g^ Its superior angle. 
p^ The anterior or inferior costa. 
5, The inferior angle. 
/, The cervbc of the bone. 

Left Superior Extremity. 

Left Inferior Extremh 
1 . The linea aspera, 
3. ^, The inner condyle, and, 

3. The outer condyle of the os femoris. 

4. The head of the tibia. 

5. The body of the bone. 
#, Its maUeolns intenius. 
15. The head of the fibola. 

r. The malleolus extemuB of that bout. 
10. The 08 calcis. 

FIG. 18. 

r, The 

\V, Tl 

<?, The 

ubich the outer end of the clavicle 

aipt-rior costa, nith the semilunar n 
J-, llic iimcr end of the clavicle joined to tl 
X, The body of the clavicle. 
a. The ulna. 
ft, The radius, 

6. The head and neck of the radius, 

7. The olecranon of the ulna. 
0. The under cud of the radius. 

Right Inferior ExTREMixy. 
/, The ball of the os femoris. 
gj The trochanter major. 
A, The ceivLt of tlic bone. 
i. The trochanter minor. 
kj The upper part of the body of the boue. 
/, Ita outer condyle. 
/, Ite inalleolns extcrnus of the fibuht. 

n. The fifth lumbar vertebra. 

h. Its superior oblique process. 

d. The bony plate extended to its spinal proceea e. 

r, f, (Sfr. I'he posterior holea of the os sacrum. . 

g. The channel for the cauda equina. 

«, ^, y, 3, f, ^, «, As in Fig. 17. 

A, The posterior sacro-iachiatic ligament, estcnited from 
the tuber of the os ischiiun to the os ilium, os sacnimj 
and OS coccygis. 

B, The anterior sacro-ischiatic ligament, proceeding from 
the spinous process of the os iachium, to the os sacrum 
and OS coccygis. 

f. The notch of the 03 ilium, for the passage of the poste. 
rior crural vessels and nen'es, and tlie pyriform aiuscle. 

E, The capsulai' ligaineut of the joiut of the thigh. 

g^ The greater, 

/, The lesser trochanter of the thigh-bone. 

( 9T ) 


Represents the Bones and some of the Principal Ligaments of the Extremities j including 
the Skeleton of Two Young Subjects. 

A Posterior VietB of Part of the Sternum and Cla- 
vicles, xeith the Ligament connecting the Clavicles 
to each other. 

c. The posterior sui-face of the sternum. 

bf i. The broken ends of the two clavicles. 

c, r, c, c. The two tubercles near the extremity of each 

rf, The ligament connecting the clavicles. 

FIG. 2. 

(I, The spiue of the scapula. 

b. The acromion. 

c. The inferior angle. 

d. The inferior costai 

e. The cervix. 

ff The glenoid cavity, covered with cartilage for the ar- 
ticulation with the 03 humeri. 

g^ gy The cut edge of the capsular ligament of the joint 
of the arm. 

A, The coiacoici process. 

i\ TTie point of that process. 

k. The broken end of the clavicle. 

/, Its extremity joined to the acromion. 

m, A ligament stretched obliquely fi?om the clavicle to 
the coracoid process, 

ti^ A ligament comuig out single from the acromion, and 
dividing into two, which are fixed to the coracoid pro- 

FIG. 3. 

FIG. 4. 

Antei-wr View of the Bones of 
, The radius. 
, Its flat anterior part. 
, Its styloid process. 
, The ulna. 

i Its flattened extremity. 
', Its styloid process. 
, TIic OS scaphoides of tlie caipus 
, The OS limare. 
J The OS pisiforme. 
, The cuneifornie. 
I The trapezium. 
i. The trapezoides. 
■, The capitatum. 

, Their baf 

LCarpal bones of the fingers. 

, Their heads. 

, The metacarpal bone of the thumb. 

, The first bone of the thumb. 

, The second bone. 

, The fii'st phalanx of the fingers. 

, Theii' second phalanx. 

, Their third phalanx. 

FIG. 5. 

Posterior View of the Bones of the 

fl. The OS humeri. 

i. Its internal condyle. 

c, f. The two prominent parts of its trochlea, appearing 
tln-ough the capsular ligament of the joint. 

d. The ulna. 
r, The radius. 

f^ That part of the ligament including the head of tlio 

the tendons of the e 



*, The annular ligament, undeu which the tendons of the 

flexor muscles pass in the cavity x. 
q — /, The metacarpal bones of the fingei-s. 
y. Their bases, with the ligaments connecting them to 

the bones, pointed out by m, n, o, in Fig. 4. 
X, 0, vy The metacarpal bone, and the two bonea of the 

thumb, with the li^ments of their ait iculat ions. 
^, The fore-fmger, with the sheath for the tendons of 

the flexor muscles entire. 
A, The ligament connecting the head of its metacarpal 

bone to that of the middle finger. 
^, Tlie middle finger, with the aheath of the tendons cut 

V, The li^^amcnts on the back part of the second joint of 

the ring and little fingers. 

FIG. ?. 
The Vpper Extrennly of the Tibia, m'tk tAe Semilunar 
tARTi],AGEsr/MekNEE-JoiNTnH(/,™ntf Ligaments. 
ff, The strong ligament wliich connects the patella to the 

i, by The parts of the extremity of the tibia, covered 
with cariiLtge, which appear within the semilunar car- 

f, r, The semilunar cartilages. 
d. Part of the crucial ligaments. 

FIG. 8. 

Posterior Fu-w of the Joint of the Right Knee. 
«, A section of the os femoris. 
*, Jts iatcin^Uondyle. 

c. Its entcniLil cniidjie, both covered with cartilage. 
(/, 'I he Ciuitv hciueen the condyles. 

f, c, 'Jhuh.K'kpui-t of the tibia. 

/, The hnpMiui' extremity of the fibula. 

g, Tiic cilgL' of ihe internal semilunar cartilage. 
A, An oblicjue ligament. 

/, A small perpendicular ligament. 
fc, A larger perpendicular ligament. 
/, The external lateral ligament, connecting tlie femur 

FIG. 9. 

Anterior View of the Joint of the Right Knee. 
b. The internal condyle. 

i, The strong llg-ament of the patella. 
/■, The back part of it, where some of the fat of the 
joint has been dissected away. 

fy The external depression. 

7W, The internal one, on the posterior surface of the pattltu. 

n, A section of the tibia. 

FIG. 10. 

A View of the Lifirtor Part of the Bones of the 
Right Foot. 
(T, The great knob of the os calcis. 
fi, A prominence on its outside. 
c, The interior thin process, bearing the print of the it-ii. 

don of the flexor poUicls longus. 
rf, The hoUow, for the tendons, nerves, and blood-vessel: 
e. The anterior extremity of the os calcis. 
/, Part of the astragalus. 
gy Its head, covered with cartilage. 
A, The internal pi-ominence of the os naviculare. 
/, Its hollow ill the sole of the toot. 
/-, The OS cuboides. 

/, Its hollow, for the tendon of the peroneus longuB. 
ffi. Its anterior extremity. 

0, 1"he mediimi, 

qi r, .V, /, '1 he metatarsal bones of the four lesser loes, 

«, Their bases. 

1', Their lieads. 

et. The metatarsal bone of the great toe. 

fiy Its fiiat, 

V, Its second bone. 

2. The depressions on the head of the metataiBal bone, 

for the two sesamoid bones. 
J, The first, 
^, Second, and, 
n, Thii-d phalanges of the foor lesser toes. 

FIG. 11. 

The Inferior Surface of the Tko Large Sesamoid Bones 

at t/ie Firi<t Joint of the Great Toe. 

FIG. 12. 
Vpper View of the Bones of the Right Foot. 
a. The posterior knob of the os calcis. 
i. Its exterior process. 
k. Its anterior extremity, 
r, The superior head of the astragalus, 
rf, A depression made by the tendon of the flexor pollicis 

/, The rough hollow part. 

g. The anterior head. 

A, The 03 naviculare. 

i'. The OB cuboides. 

/, The hollow for the peroneus longus. 

M, The internal, 

o. The middle, 

p, 71ie external cuneiform bones. 

M, r, «, ^, 7, J, E, «, The same as in Fig. 10. 



FIG. 13. 

View of the Sole of the Foot, witA its Ligament 

D, (/, As in Fig. 1 0. 

r. The sheaths of the flexores loDgl poIUcis et digitoi 

opened. -rh.- — f 

J', The strong cartilaginous ligament supporting the head "*' * p^J"'"'"^? 

of the asti-3g-.ilu 
£, h, Ttvo Jigainents which join into one, to be fixed to 

the metatarsal bone of the great toe. 
i\ I, A, /, m. Other ligameuta. 
ttfO, The ligaments of the joints of the five metatarsal 

FIG. 14. 

Front View of the Skeleton of a Boi of t 
of age. 

■kable epiphyses. 

ilium and pubis, and, 

Of the 
This Figurt 

. ischimn and pubi^, 

The Skeleton of a New-Eorn Child, afiere the 
shndea and shriieHings in the Figure represent the 
partii whicA art Cartiiagitious at Birth, and ahich are 
contracted in the Skektvn. 

a, The fontanelle. 

This Fisure is too small, even in proportion to Fig. 15. 

( 99(1 ) . 


Kespects the Stbuctuee of Bones of Childech. 

distinct from tlie Aiteriea. Sanguifct 
peai thiougli the Cartilage, and 6om 

Tlie darker pan ill' tlie Figure represents the Aiteries of 
llie l'er,a,„n,lri,i,n sliiumg tlirougli tlie tart.lage, but 
»illi(iul e.Uerii.g that subslance. The lighter nnHiiish- 
ed parts ul" the Figure shew tlie Tendons, Ligaments, 
and Membranes of the Patella, ivith Branches of the Xhe Nucleus now occupies half of the PateBa ; the Ves. 
Articular Arteries. sela are observed which carry the Osseous Juice ; 

others appear, which are injected with wax. 
FIG. 5. '^' 


The Vessels appear white, being full of Osseous Ji 
which penetrates the Cartilage. Where they termi- 
nate, they for the most part form small Nodules. The The whole is composed of Osseous Fibres, which run id 
Vessels which contained red Blood, and which are here a radiated manner. In the middle there is an Osseous 
injected with was, shine through the Cartilage, though K"te, which afterwaids forms the eitemal Table. 


FIO. 3. 

FIG. 8. 

Tie Ceanhim of a FajTus of Sii Monlha. 

The radiated 

FIG. 4. Dished, is very distinct. In thia the Author of tho 

4 jT- t ,1 r ej j-.i Ti .. ^ Figure points out the foUowine Fontanella;, viz. 

A View of the Inner Side fff the Patella of a Child, ''1 b > 

more advanced Ihaa in lie Subjects of Ot former "' Fontanclla frontalis, sen anterior. 

Figures. K occipitalis, seu posterior. 

-An Osseous Nucleus is observed in the middle of the ^f — ■ sphenoidalis. 

FIG. 5. 

FIG. 9. 

The Inlenial Surface of the Patella of a Child still 
older than t/tc former. 

The Eoue is divided into its three constitue 

sNaeleusis^owof coDsidcrablesize. The are joined by Ligaments. Eight Oss< 

te, and pear in it, of vai'ious magnitude, and ; 









hy the dark spots. Tlic rest of the Sternum is in a 
cartiU^inous state. A Fonunen is observed in the 
Ensiform Cartilage. 

FIG. 10. 

The Os Sacrum nf a Young Fcetus viewed anteriorly. 
laginous, except four Osseous 

The whole appcai 

GrsDuJa which are seen 
Vertebra. It is ooe co 
Bodies of the Vertebrae 

e distinct. 

The Left Os Femi 


•he Fori 

s almost perfect. Tbe Epi 

In the middle is the Cavity for lodging the Marrow. The 
rest of the body of the Bone is full of Reticular Sub- 
stance, The Epiphyses are cniirely in a Cartilaginous 
state, nor do any Blood-vet-sets appear there. The 
upper portion only of the Figure is tiiiishcd, tlic rest 
being ooly in outlines. 

FIG. 13. 

The uppermost Figure is from a Foetus in the bi 

of the Third Mouth In the middle, an Osseous Uia- 

nulum appears, from which the rest of the Bone after- 
wards springs by Diaphysis, All the rest of the Fe- The 

irts of the Bone appear firmer and more 
solid than tlie rest, and become thinner the nearer they 
approach the extremity. In the Epiphysis, Osseous 
Nuclei appear of different sizes. 

( 99c ) 


In this Table is represeiiteJ the Internal Substance of Bones in the Adult State 

Body, and the spongy texture of both. Iii the imdi ; 
pait of the Figure, the Cavity is seen for coutaiiiim. 
the Marrow ; the solid sides of the Bone are also e\i- 

FIG. 2. 

A Sectmn of the Right Half of the Lower Jaw. 

lu this is observed the Base and outer parts extremely 

coinpact, while the inner parts of the Buiie are spongy. 
The internal Haxillai'y Canal appeai-a throngh the great- 
VI- part of the length of the Jaw 

riG. 3. 

s iutei-nal Ohlite 

lu the Ball, the Reticular Substance appears, and (he 
coonectioo iviih the Cervix of the Bone. Farther 
down, the CaEcelli are distinctly seen, but become Icbb 
evident towards the middle of the Bone. The sohd 
fides, on the contrary, appear thinner as they approacit^ 
the upper extremity. 

A Transverse Section of the Oe Femoris of the natural^ ' 
lize, to skew its form, the solid Substance of its Sides^'^ 
and thai it is replete with Setictilar Woi'k, which, t ' 

.of the for 
FIG. 5. 

One of the Ossa Iknominata cut through the Stac and 
Pvbal Portions, to shew the Cancelli and solid Sides 
of the Bone. The Acetabulum and Os Ischium are 
left entire. 

FIG. C. 

A Bib cut length wc.i/s, to shnv the Outer and Inner 

Tableau with the inttrmtdmlr Cancelli. 

FIG. 7. 


Ill this is observed the thickness of the Bone ; its divi- 
sion into three parts ; the large proportion of Cancelli ; 
and the thiuness of the Tables uiclosing these. 

r I G. 

The Vpper Porli 
In this appears the 

between tlie Head and 

FIG. 11. 

The Patella cut longitudinally. 

Almost the whole Bone is composed of Betlcular Sub- 
stance, the Plates aud i'ibres of ■which become very 
minute towards the middle. The solid Pkte surromid- 
ing it is remaikably thin. 

FIG. 12. 
The Upper Part of t/ie Tibia, cut longitudinaliy. 
At the upper part is seen the Cavity for containing thi; 
Marrow, and this inclosed by a solid Plate, which be- 
comes gradually thinner towards the upper extremity. 
The Cancelli uppear finer, but more nanierous, at iht- 
end of the Boue Aviiich was formerly an Epiphysis j iln 
distinction of which is still discernible. 

FIG. 13. 

The Metacarpal Bone of the Thumb, cut lengthmys. 

Here the Cellular Texture, as in the larger Bones, is ob- 
vious, aud the distinction of the Epiphysis. 

r IB jy B 

m I 

.y •- 






'pHE MUSCLES serve for tlie motion of the differeDt 
^ parts of the Body, and derive their general' name 
lioni their power of contracting. 

The CeiliUar Si)het«, vmoemed in certain parts of 
die Eodj-, and giving an appearance of Mcmbrajif, for. 
raerly called Tunica Propria Minscidorum. 

The Divisiwi ai a Muscle into 

The Origin^ or Head i — or that extremity of the 
Mu9cle which arises tram the most fixed part, and to- 


The Insertion, or Termination, or that extremity 
which is implanted into the part to be moved, and which 

The Hesit/part distinguished by being soft, sensible, 
generally of a red colour, — from the great quantity of 
Blood in it, — and possessing contractility. 

The Fleshy part, composed of a coUection of some- 
what elastic semi-pellucid Fibres, of diiferent sizes, run- 
ning frequently in a parallel direction, but oflen converg- 
ing towards one of tiie extremities of the Muscle. 

The Fibres are intermixed with Blood-vessels, Lym- 
phatics, and Nerves, with some Cellular Substance and 

pity, and they become firmer and stronger by frequent ex- 

The larger Fibres may be divided into smaller, and 
these into still smaller, till at length they escape the ob- 
servation of the naked eye. 

The ultimate Fibres of Mnecles have been considered 
by some as a collection of solid Cords, by many as hollow 
Tubes, while several have described them as being com- 
posed of Li chain of little Vesicles. 

The Divisim of Muscles into Rectilineal, as in the 
Sartorim i—Simph Pcnniform, as in the Peronem 
Longw i — Complete Penniform, as in the Rectus Fe- 
moris ; — Compound Peuniform, as in the fore part of 
the Soleus ; — Radialntl, as in the Pecloralis Altijor ; — 
Jlollmo, as in tlie Heart, Intcstincy, Bladder of L'rim, 

The particular Names of Muscles are taken from 
their shape, size, situation, direction, composition, use, 
and attachment. 

The Names adopted by the Author are tliose in com- 
mon use, being in general ■d.<i expressive as any yet con- 
trived. Those of Chaossier are addc^, whicli are 
taken from the attachments of the Muscles, but, in many 
cases, a number of principal attachments are excluded; 
besides, several of his names consist of so many syllables, 
as to become burdensome to the memory. 

Muscles are supplied with Blooil-vessels, which are so 
numerous, that when a good injection is thrown into 
them, they acquire the same colour with that of the in- 
jected matter. 

They are also abundantly supplied with Absorbents, 
which, however, are rather seen in the Cellular Texture 
of their Interstices, than in their Substance ; the Valves 
preventing an injection from passing &om their Trunks 
to their small Extremities. 

The Nerves of Muscles are also very numerous j but 
although the Muscles were called by some Authors, a- 
mong others Dr Cullen, the moving Extremities of the 
Nerves, the latter bear a very small proportion to the 
former, and the Muscles appear to be quite of a difierent 
nature from the Nerves. 

The Neivcs of voluntary Muscles have been described 
by some Writers as being much larger than those of the 
involmitiiry kmd, as the Heart; but this c 
has been exaggerated. 

In vaiious parts of the Body, the Muscle; 
their Nerves from different sources, and many a 
Muscles receive Nerves finin (be same source. 

The Ti-ndo„, like- the fJ.shv y.Mt of the Muscle, is of 
a Fibrous nature, hut i> not imnly Muscle hardened by 
pressure, as wa^ formdlv b- some Authors supposed; 


[Paw n. 

for, ID many instances, Tendons have a diiTerent di- 
rection from the Muscles to which they belong. Ten- 
don is distinguished fixun the Flesh by being generally 
smaller, Jittrur, stronger ;— of a white gli^temng colour^ 
iiavijig no contractiUtyj and little or no setiaibitity in the 
sound state. From lon^ boiling, it is observed to afford 
a large portion of Jelly, or Glue. 

Tendons, like Muscles, vary considerably in their form, 
as found, Jlat^ annular, &c. 

Tendons have very fe^v Blood-vessek, and no evident 

Tendons in genera] connect Muscles to Bones. In 
some parts they unite Cartilages or Bone to each other. 
In others, they bind down and foi'tify parts over which 

they pass, and, by the smallness of tlieii- size compared 
to the Belly of the Muscle, preserve the clegai 
symmetry of the parts on which they are placed. 

Besides tlie parts of Muscles already taken notice of 
they have the iollowing Appendages, viz. 

Aponeuroses^ or Fasciae, which are the Tendons ex- 
pandcd upon a wide Surface, serving to give insertion to 
Muscular Fibres, to keep them in their pi-oper situiiiion 
and to brace them in their action. 

Annuiar Ligaments, to keep Tendons fi'oin stajtini'. 

Trockkfe, or Pulleys, to alter the direction of Tendons. 
■ Surs(e Mucosie, placed where Teudona play over hard 
Substances, serving to contain Synovia, and prevent .4- 




Occipito-FrontaliSj ^ 
Tel Occipitalis et Frontalis, vel Epicranius, S(c. 

;iiid Tendinous from the extremity of that Ridge, where 
it joins the Tt-mporal Bone.— It ai-ises after the same 
manner on the other side. From the Fleshy Origins, 
and also from between them, a Tendinous Expansion is 
extended along the upper part of the Cranium, adJiering 
(irmly to the Skin, and but loosely to the Pericranium, 
Tab. XL. Fig. 1. i,c. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. J. a.— At 
the upper part of the Forehead ii becomes Fleshy, and 
descends with straight Fibres. 

Insertion : Into the Skin and parts under it belonging 
to the Ere-broivs, and to the Frontal Bone at the iimer 
part of the Dibits. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1. A. 

Action: To move all that pm-t of llie Skin which 
<overs it, and particularly the Skin of the Brow and 

From the under and middle part of the Muscle, a Slip, 
termed by Chadssier Fronio-iia^alu, is continued dowTi 
upon the Root of the Nose, to be connected with the 
Compressor ^":lM^■, :uid Levator Labii Superioris Abeque 
Na?i. Tab. X^XM.Fi^.. 1./.. 

This Slip mavciilitr ^sM-.t t!ie Nasal Muscles connect- 
ed with it, or ;uit;igoLiie the Utcipito-iroutalis. 



Oj'igin : From the internal Angular Process of the Os 
Frontis, above t\\e joining of thai Bone with the Os 
Nasi. From thence it runs upwaids and outwards, under 
a tapermg form, m the direction of the yuprciliary 
Ridge, and behind the inferior part of the Occinito- 
frontalis. * 

Inmiion ; Into tlie inner part of the Occipito-fi-onta- 

lig and Orbicularis Palpebramm, where these two Mu' - 
cles join each other, as far out as the middle of the Su- 
pei-ciliary Ridge. Tab. XXXV. Fig. 1. A. 

Action : To assist its fellow in drawing the Eye-brows 
downwards and inwai-ds, and corrugating or wii&kliog 
the Skin between Uieui iuto lonsi.udinal folds. 

Oraiculakis Oculi, vel Orb. Palpebrardm, 
Vel Naso-palpebrali«. 

Origin : From the Orbitar Process of the Superior 
Maxillary Bone ; from the internal Angular Process of 
the Frontal Bone ; and, by a small round Tendon, from 
the Nasal Process of the superior Maxillary Bone. 

From these Origins the Muscle passes outwards, under 
the Skiu of the Eye-lids, surrounding the Orbit in a 
cii'cular manner ; extending somewhat beyond it, and 
covering the upper part of the Cheek. Tab. XXXIV. 
Fig. 1. D. 

'I'lie outer Surface of the Muscle adheres to the Skis 
of the Eye-lids ; its upper and inner Edge is intimately 
connected with the Frontal and Corrugator Muscles. 

Action: To close the Eye by brmgiug the Eye-lids 
together, to press the Ball of the Eye inwards, and act 
upon the Lacrymal Organs, so as to aasiBt them in the 
production and direction of ihe Tears. 

That part of the Orbicularis Oculi which covers the 
Cartilages of the Eye-lids, and which is remarkably tliin, 
is the Muscuhi^ Ciliaris of Boine Authors. Tab. XXXIV. 
Fig. I.e. 

A Flesbi/ Slip frequently passes down from the under 
and outer part of the Orbicularis, to join the Levator 
Labii Superioris Alsque Nasi, Tab. XXXIV. Fig. J- 
between F and G. M hen present, it may draw a little 
towards each other tiiose parts to which it is attached. 

Levator Palpebrje Superioris, 

Vel Orbito-palpebrahs. 

Origin : From the upper margin of the Foramen Op- 

Part Otl OT THE MUSCLEti. 105 

■ticuiii of the Sphenoid Bone. It tuds fonvards within Insertion : By a broad thin Tendon, into nearly the 

the Orbit over the Le\';itor Oculi, where it becomes gi-a- tvhole length of the Cartilage of the upper Eye-Ud, Tab. 

dually broader, its anterior extremity passing nnder the XXXV. Fig. 1. a. 

Orbicularis Oculi. Action: To open^the Eye by raising the upper Eye-lid. 


ATTOtLENS AuREM, part of the Zygoma ; the middle part being mixed willi 

Vel Superior Awis, vel Tempa,-o.auHcularis. InleHim-'By a narrow Tendon into the back part of 

Origin: EyabroadTendinou. Expansion, from the the beginning of the Helix Tab XXXIV Fig l.C. 

Tendon of the It goe. down over . i'^^f" ' To Stretch that part of the Ear to which u 

.u « ■ e J 'T 1 1 V ™ ■. IS fixed. 

the Aponeurosis or tlu^ lemponhs. In its passage, it 

forms a thin Fleshy Irilip, which becomes gradually nar- 

htsertion : Into the upper part of the Root of the Cai'- 
tilage of the Ear. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1. B. 

■ ^'^ •■ 7? ^'"'^ '''"''''*" *" ^^^- ^'^l "^° '''^'''^ ''' '' Muscles, from the upper and outer part of the Mastoid 

inserted^ ana, iu some persons, to raise the J:-ai'. Process 

hKM-rti^ : By smaJi Teadoos iuto the back part of the 

Anterioh Aunrs, vel Zi/goma^-awiciifari>!~ Concha. Vol. II. First Table of the Ear, Fig. 2. 

- ' Action : To stretch the Concha, and, in some personsj. 

Origin : ISiii and Membranous, near tlie posterior to diaw back the Ear. 


Compressor Naris, vel Svper-ma^viUo-nasalis. Action : To raise the Upper Lip in opening the 
Mouth, and the Ala N.asi iu dilating the Nostril. 

Origin : By a narrow beginning fi-om the Root of the Under this Muscle a fciv scattered Fibres ;ue noticed 
Ala Nasi, where it is connected with the Levator Labii by Soemmerring, and termed Miisciilm Anomalies Max- 
Superioris Alaeque Nasi. It spreads into a nmuber of thin ill(B •Superioria. 
scattered Fibres, ivhich cross the Ala Nasi, and run to- 
wards the Dorsum Nasi, where it joins its fellow. -ri „ re » xi 

r f^ T . *i, I ■ . -, f ..L -VT . Depressor Labii SuPERioRisAt^QUE Nasi. 

Insertion: Into the antenor extremity of the Nasal * 

Bones, and to the Slip which descends from the Frontal Origin : Thin and Fleshy, from the Alveoli of the 

Muscle. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1. rf. Denies Incisivi and Caninus of the Upper Jaw ; running 

Action : To press the Ala towards the Septum, as in upwards, at tlie side of the Furrow of the Lip. 

.smelling ; or if the Fibres of the Frontal Muscle, which Insertion : Into the Upper Lip, and Root of the Ala 

are connected to it, act, they pull the Ala outivards. It Nasi. 

also corrugates the Skin of the Nose, and assists in ex- Action : To draw the Upper Lip and, Ala Nasi down- 

pressmg certain passions. wardfi. Tab. XXXVI. Fig. I. E. 

Levator Labii Scperioris Al^que Nasi, Levator Anguli Oris, 

Vel Siiper-maxiUo-labialis Major et Medius. VtA Levator Labiorum Comiininis, vel Caiiinm, vel iy«- 

Origin: By two thin Fleshy Slips ; the first from the pi) -man 

external part of the Orbitar Process,— the second from Origin: Tliiu ajid Flt^liy, from ihe superior Maxilla- 

ihe upper part of the Nasal Process of the Superior ry Bone, immediately luidcr ihc Foramen lufra-orbita- 

Maxillary Bone. - rium ;— ruiming deeper down and farther out than the 

Insertion of the fiist part of the Muscle into the Up- Levator Labii Superiorly. 

per Lip, and of the second into the Upper Lip and outer Insertion : Into the Angle of tiie Mouth, and to the 

part of the Whig of the Nose. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1. Ciieek, where it joins its Antagonist. Tab. XXXV. 

I\E. ^ %. l.D. 

' OL. I. fy \ Action: 



Action ■ To icii=c llic roi-niT of the Mouth ; — as in ex- Muscle, It is situated before it, and takes tie saiiip 
pressing joy. course but is much more slender. 

ImertKin: Into the L'|iper Lip, along with the Lev t 
DiiPREssoK Ladii iNFiBioms, tor Aiigtili Oris. Tab. XXSIV . Fig. 1. G. 

ve, <i,.a.<.r,t,. &„., vei M.,„o.,at«.!«. j::::^,ji^ .^ J™; "'^mI^^i^'s.;!: 

On'gm: Broad ;nid Flfblty, from the under part of Tim Muscle is, oiicii wluuuik- 
the Lower Jaw, at the bide of the Chin ; from thence By tlit- 

it iTins oblifjuciv upwards un<l iiiwai'il^, of aii oblong Corners ol 

form, till it becomea contigiiDuw to its fellow iii tiiE formed wliith txU-nds hLiweeu thi 

middle of the Lip. Its origin is concealed by the De- Nose and Mouth, and Mlilch is so conspicuous in lid 

pressor ,4jigidi Oiis. Face of a pt-rsor) advanced in life. 

Jji.'-crtwit : Inio one half of the Edge of the Uudcr 
Lip. Tab. XXXV. Fig. I. G. BuccruATOR, 

Art mi : To assist in opening ihe i\fonth, by depress- Vg] Sefractor AnguH Ofhs, vel Bucco-labuihs. 

ing the Under Lip, aijd pulling it a little outwards. ' 

Origin: From a fiidge extending between the last 

T T T 1 r . DT .- Dens Mobris and Coronoid Process of the Lower Jaw 

Levator Labii Inferioris, vel Levator Menti. „ . ,._„. ,. „ ,,„„.. , , .. „ , _, ,^../,Vrl' 

1 the Upper Jaw, between the last Dens Molaris 
U-igin: From the Roots of the Alveoli of the Denies and Pterygoid Process of the Sphenoid Bone, from the 
sores and Dens Caninus of the Lower Jaw. extremity of which it has also part of its origin. Thence 

iisviiiim : /iifo the Under Up, and Skin of tin; Chin, going forwards with straight Fibres, it covers and adheits 
. XXX\'T. {-iy. ] . H. eloscl^ to the Membrane which lines the Cheek. 

Insertion : Iiuu tk» Cnmrr of the Mouth, along with 
-tlic Orbicularis Oris. Tab. XXXVi. rig. l. G. 

Action : To draw tlie Angle of the Mouth backwards 

and out^vards, and to contract its Cavity by prefising the 

C]ieek inwaids, by which the Food is thrust between the 

Teeth in Manducation. — It is likewise active in expelling 

Origin : Broad and Fleshy, from the under edge of Substances from the Mouth, and in blowing Wind-mstru- 

the Lower Jaw, at the side of the Chin. — It runs over ments, as a Trumpet ; from which last circuaetance ts 

the Origin of the Depressor Labii Inferioris, becoming name is derived. 

gradually nanower, 

Imerh'm : Into the Angle of the Moulh, where it in- Orbicularis Oris, 

t^rmixes^with the Levator Anguli Oris. Tab. XXXIV. Vel Sj^AiiWttr Lai>iorum, vei Labialis. 

Actim : To depress the comer of the Mouth ;— as in This is a complete Sphincter surrounding the Mouti., 

expressing Anger, and in crying. a-'id composing the principal piirt of the Lips, and is in a 

great measure formed by the Muscles which terminate in 

Zygoiuticus JLtjOR, vel Z„g„m,tclab,am Majm: "'T'^ll"" ''°""" °'' "l" *'°""'' 't ^''^"" ''"'""u, 

■' each other, so as to make it resemble two semicu-cular 

Origin. Fle-^hv from the Os Mala?, near the Zygoma- Muscles, from which it has been named by some Authors; 

tic Suture. — DLstendtng iibliqiirlv forwards. Sfni'-firhiciilaris .Siipi-rw; and Semi'Orbivtdaris InJeiHOr.,-/io>i : Intn tl,t- .Aii-k„f the Month; its Fibres Ti.b. XXWl. Fig. 1 . F. 
ititermixing willi ih.we .,f the Depirs.or Anguli Oris and ./</'">' ■ 'I'" siiu 

Orbicularis 0,i^. T:ib. XXXIV. Fig. 1. H. ' embrace any Subst 

Action : 'I'o raise ihe Angle of the Mouth, in the di- counteract the ditlerent M'uscles L 

tection of its FibitK, and to make the Cheek prominent ; 

—as m laughing. Nasalix Labii Miperioris of Albinua,— part of the for- 

mer Muscle, running up to be connected to the Septum 

Zygomaticus Minor, vel Xifgo,,iato-labiolis Mimr. S"*^'' and serving as a ^Levator of the ^PP^^^b^'^ 

n ■ . „■ , Depressor ol the under part of the rJose. 1 ab. A3-.ii » • 

ungin: Higher on the Os Mais than the former Fig. 1. above L. 


LO«]!R JAW. 







of the ■!• 
to the Z 
■ace the 

go ma 

1 iMinelc, 
and to gi 

of til 




tl Mustle 


. XLI\-. 




mil 7 

cJii, flOl 

Inserlion: Into the ojtci iiite of the .lugle of the 
Lower Jaw, aud ffoiii that u|i\variN to the outside of the 
Coroiioid Proce.5s. Tab. XXXV. Fig. 1. C. 

Aclimt : To as.sist the Temporalis iii the elevation of 
the Lower Jaw, and to pull it a little forwards or back- 

i till I'a 


I lion. 


lid ll. 

Ill I'ljte ol th. -|.1i™i)kI Lone — Ii ,i i 
liUw 1st from the Iponeniosis , oi. iin; it —turn th, 
Oiigms the Fibies descend like K i.l.i, md the Musik 
sends off a strong T.udon, wliith pt ses und.i Iht />- 

Inierhon luto tiio hIioIc ot the Coionoid Piocess ot 
tlie Lonei Jaw, wintli it incloses as ui a Slieith, and i, 
contmued to neat the liit Dens Muliiis. Tab. XXW. 
F!g. 1. B, b 

Acttoit To pull the Lower .Taw iipwanls, and a little 
backwards ag tinst the Upper Jaw 


tl %y^iiiitifo-m 

lid Flesli, TibiC' 

ivholt Icurth ot the 

liding to the dii-ei 

f the Fibres of tUe 

Vcl Miijiit, atl Pteiy^-o-iiimilltin, Mafoi 

O, , u I loni fit Fossa Pttngoidta of tilt «plienoid 
indl'iM R I, s p. I , I. ,11 iid andoutiiml, 

lull 111 , ihc mil ll .1 the ingle of the 
I 1.1 111., II I , I, 1 d 1,1 a llK Giootefoi tin 
iitciin MiMllii, \ci , Id, \\\MI Ji^ 1. innii 
sidcol G 

4(-tion Toj-uit the Jul, and diaw it obliiliielj to- 
il aids the opposite sido 

Vel Mimi, «1 Pkni^i, maullii, /. \Iimi 

Ongiii From the oiitei si,le of tin Ptciigoid Pioee»» 
of the Spheninil Bone , ti.ini the '1 nbeiosiii ot the supe- 
rior Maidlai; Bone , and lioni tlit H.i.,1 ol Hit 1 .mp.i 
lal Pi-ocess ot the Sphenoid Bont hioii, ll,. . 0,i^,tns 
it pasbts almost houiontall) oulii lid , mil a hlllt Ijick- 

In^eitmi Into the Ceiiis an.l Capsular Liginicnt iii 
theLoiiti lau lib \X\I\ 1, 1 / 

4<l,,ii lo pull .he Li.ici III, to tilt opposite side, 
and, it both Mu cic, ict, to brin, it loiw iids, so i, lo 
make the Foic tcttli pio|ect bt)ond those ot the Upp.i 
.Taw The Sluselt, lu its different motions, itts .Iso 
upon the Intel -artreular Caitilagt 



Platysma MroiDES, vhWuHwcxk 

, vcl Thoraco-fa 

Origin .- By a number of scp^i 
llie Cellular Substance, ivlikli cuv 
the Pecloral and Deltoid Aliistles 
unite to form a thin Uluscular E^p 
liquely up^vards along the fore a 

ale Fleshy Slips 
■IS the upper p 
—111 Ihtir asceii 
ausion, .vhich n 
id lateral pari 


xk, adhering to the Skin, and 
ncous Musele of Quadrupeds. Tab. XXX1\'. F 
k, M. 

Insertion : Into the side of the Lower Jaiv an* 
Depi-egspj- Anguli Oris, and into the Skin which c 

under parts of the Masseter and P.ii 

. XXXJV. Fig. 1. i. 

ctiaii: To assist In deprcssin;; ihe 

Origin •■ From the top of i 
rior end of the Clavicle, by tw 
of which is round, tendinous 

,ct Heads ; the ii 
, little fleshy ; i 


other broad and fleshy. A Utile above the Clavicle, toid Process, which it siin'ounds ; and becoimng thin- 

£ two Heads lite to form a strong Muscle, which runs ner, the Insertion extends as iar back as the Lambdoid 

obUquely upwards and outwards ; the greater P^t of it Suture. 

being covered by the PlatysmaMyoides. Tab. XXXV. .fc;o«.- To turn the Head to one side, and assist 

■remg vu J i J j^ roiling It. When both Muscles act, tiey bow the 

ismrtion : By a thick strong Tendon, into tlie Mas- Head. 



Origin .• From the Edge of the upper Bone of the 
Stemmn intemaUy, and from the adjacent parts of the 
Clavicle and Cai-tilage of the first Rib ; — ascending upon 
the fore part of the Trachea and following Muscle. 

Insertion : Into the Base of the Os Hyoides. Tab. 
XXXV. Fig. 1. I. 

Admit : To depress the Ob Hyoides. 


'irigiit : From the upper and inner part of the Ster- Cartili 
1, and partly from the Cai-tilage of the^ first Bib ; 


Origin : From the side and fore part of the Cricoid 
Cai'tilage ; rumiing obliiiuely upwaids and outwards. 

Ijisertian : By tivo porlious ; the one into the under 
part of the Wijig of Uie 'I'bvi-oid Cartilage, the othev 
into its inferior Comu. Tab. XLVII. Fig. \.m. 

Action: To depress and pull fomards the Thyroid 
Cartilage, or to raise and draw backwards the Cricoid 

running along the fore part and side of the Trachea and 
Thyi-oid Gland. 

Insertion : Into the under and lateral part of the Thy- 
roid CartUage. Tab. XXXVI. Fig. 1. K. 

Action : To depress the Liarynx. 

Thyro-Hyoideus, vel Hyo-Hiyroideus. 

Origin : From the Thyroid Caitilage, where the for- 
mer Muscle terminates, having the appearance of being 
continued &oni it. 

Insertion : Into part of the Ba£e, and almost all the 
Comu of the Os Hyoides. Tab. XX.VII. Fig. I. k. 


Origin : From the superior Costa of the Scapula, near 
the Semilunar Notch. It goes obliquely upwards and 
forwai-ds, and is of a very slender form. It is situated 
under the Stemo-mastoideus, and there it grows Tendi- 
nous. Higher than this Muscle, it again becomes Fleshy. 

Insertion : Into the Base of the Os Hyoides, at the 
side of the Sterno-hyoiddus. Tab. XXXV. Fig. U. k. 

Action : To depress the Os Hyoides, ^id pull it to one 
side ; or, when botli Muscles act, to draw it directly 


■fl jMastfjido-mentalis. 

Fleshy BeDy, 

Insertion : Into a rough Sinnosity at the under 
©f the Symphysis of the Lower Jaw. Tab. XLIX, 

Action : To open the Mouth by pulling the Low 

swallowing. AVhen the lower Jaw is fixed, this 
Muscle, accoi-ding to Soemmerring, can extend the Head, 
and thereby open the Mouth, by elevating the upper Jaw. 
'I'his he thinlui he has observed in a child sucking. 

Mylo-Hyoideus, vel MaxSlo-Hyoidem- 
Origin : Fleshy, broad, and thin, from the inside of 
the Lower Jaw, between the last Dens Molarif uid ^e 
middle of the Chin where it joins its fellow; rimning 
downwards and forwards behind the anterior bdly of the 

Part II.] 


Hyoides, and joined to ils fc-Uow by the iuterventiou of a 
white Tendiuous Line. Tab. XLJX. Fig. ti. a. 

Action: lo pull tlie Os Hyoides foiwai'ds, upwards, 
and to a eide, or when that Boue i^ lixed, to assist in 
the depresaioa of the Jaw. 


Origin : From a Tubercle on the under and inner part 
of the Symphysis of the Lower Jaw, by a slender begin. 
niug, from which the Muscle goes obliquely doivnwai'ds 

XLIX. Fig. 3. 

Action : To draw tin 
when the Jaws are sin 
Hyoides, when the latt 
come from the Sternum, 

Os Hyoides towaids the Chin, 
; or the Chin towards the Os 
r is fixed by the Aluacles which 

glossus ; and running along its side, il is insensibly lost 
uear the Apex. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 2. d. 

Action : To draiv the Tongue backwards, and to move 

it laterally. 


Origin ; From the under half of the Slyloirl Process. 
It goes downwards and fonx-ards, splitting for the passage 
of the DigasU'icus. 

Insertion : Into the Os Hyoides, at the junction of the 
Base and Comu. Tab. XUX. Fig. I. d. 

Actmi : I'o pull the Os Hyoides to one side, and a 
little upwards. 

Stylo-Hyoideus Alter. 


Wlien present, i 
former, but, like i 
tion, and Action. 

: Tubei-cle with the former 

Origin: Fi-om 
Muscle ; its Fibres spreading out like a Fan. 

Lixertion : Into tlic xvholc length of the Tonffue, and 
into the Ease of (he Os tlyoUloc Tab. LXVHI. No. 57. 

Action : According to the direction of its Fibres, — to 
draw the Tongue fonvards or backwards, — to pull it 
downwards, and render its Dorsum concave, — and when 
the Jaws are shut, to make the Os Hyoides advance to- 
wards the Chin. 

Origin: From the root of the Styloid Process ; it 

goes downwards and forwards. 

Inatrtiou: Into the side of the Phaiynx, along which 
it expands. — It is also fixed to the back part of the Thy- 
roid Cartilage. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 8. g, A, /, k, L 

Action : To dilate and raise the Pharjiix, and thereby 
prepare it to receive the Morsel from the Mouth. It at 
the same time elevates the Thyi'oid C'aitilage. 

Vel Tensor Palati^ vel Pterygo-palattnus. 
Origin: Fi'om the Spinous Process of the Sphenoid 
Bone, fi-om the Osseous and Cartilaginous parts of the 
Eustachian Tube, and from the root of the intei-nal , 
Pterygoid Process. It runs along tlie Pteiygoideus In- 
temus, passes over the Hook of the Internal Plate of the 
Pterygoid Process j and playing on it by a round Ten- 
don, as on a PuJley, it spi-eads out into a bi-oad Meiu- 

Insertion .- Into the Yelum Palati, and semilunar edge 
of the Os Palati, extending as far as the Suture which 
joins the two Bones. Generally some of its posterior 
Fibres join the Constnctor Pharyngis Superior and Pa- 
lato-pharyngeus. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 14. A, c. 

Action : To depi-ess and stretch the Velum laterally. 

Stylo-Glossus. Levator Palati. 

n ■ ■ vr .1, c* 1 J » r .u rr . Vel Levat.->r Palati M<jUi.s, vel Pctro-palafimis. 

Origin: Jbrom the Styloid Frocess of the Temporal 

Bone, and from the Ligament which connects that Process Origin: From the point of the Pars Petrasa of tlie 

to the Angle of the Lower Jaw. It goes downwards and Temporal Bone, and also from the Membranous Poitiou 

forwards, and is of a slender form. of the Eustachian Tube. From these parts it descends. 

Imertion i Into the root of the Tongue, near the Hyo- Insertion : By a broad Expansion, into the Velum Psi- 

InseHton : Into the aide of the Tongue, near the Stylo- 
glossus. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 3. e. 

Action : To depress the edge of the Tongue, and tliere- 
by render its upper Surface convex. 


Origin : From the root of the Tongue, laterally. It 
advances between the Genio-hyo-glossus and Hyo-glos- 
sus, with the Fibres of both of which it intei-mixes. 

Insertion: Into the tip of the Tongue. Tab. XLVII. 
Fig. 4. k. 

Action : To i-aise the point of the Tongue ; to contract 
its substance, and bring it backwai'ds. 

no or TIIF, MUSCLES. [Part U 

d unit- to ihe upper and lateral part of the Phwj-nr, where the\ 
spread, and mix wllii those of the fetylo-Pharyngeua. 

.-. allow- Imertinn: Into the edge of the upper aud back .pail 

inji'ajid preveut the food or drink from passing into the of the Tiiyroiil Cartilage ; some of its Fibres being Ju,i 

Nose, bv pressing the Velum against the back part of the belween llie Mcmbnint- and inferior Constrictors of ihf 

NoEtrils. Pli;iryii\. 'I';il)- M.VII. Fig. 11. c, c. 

Aiiioii: T" di\m !he Velum aud Uvula downu-arjK I 

CoKSTRicToii IsTHMi Faucium, tiic l.;nMix iin.l I'li^i.vnM beinfpit the same time ToiMd! 

Vel Ghm.palatir,u.. ■■'^"'." "''I' "" ''"''^"■i*''<"' Superior midTbnffue, t. a^. 

■^ M-t 111 ;.lii:liin,i; (lie passage into the Nostrils, and. In 

Origin .- From the side of the i-oot of the Tongue. _ It i-niiHinvli)?;, lu .imvcy the food fi-om the Fauces into tht- 

fonsists of a few thin Fibres which run in the floubling ['iinynv. 

of the Skin, that foi-ms the anterior Arch of the Palate. 'I'lic SAi-rrvf-.o-PiiARYNGEUsof Alhinus, ia composed 

Imerlion .- Into the middle of the Velum Palati, at of :i .-^miill |ir,i'i ion of llie I'oinitr Muscle, which arises- 

the root of the Uvula, where it is coimected with its fel- fmm tlit- 

Origin : From the posterior extremity of the loiigidr- 

Palato-Pbarvngeus, vel Pharyi,gn-pahtim,s. f'f l"^'^''f ^"'"'T" ^\ ^'T^ '" f'^ niid<Ue of the Velun, 

' ^ a r Pulati, and ,L;()ds thnmgh the whole length of the {jvuV.'^ 

Origin: From the middle of tlie Velum P:dati, at the i.Kl,.sL-d in llie .\lcnil)raiic covering that Body, and a<i- 

iTiolof the Vv.ilui and from the insertion of the Con- lu-if.-., iii it- |..— s- i.i lh.> Cirtumllexi. 

stricter Isthmi Taucinm and Circunillexus Palati. The In-vrtion : Into the point of the UvUa, Tuli.XLVH 

Muscle consists of a thm Stratum of Fibres, which Fig. U). iu ^ 

■proceed within the posterior Arch of the Palate, and run Actiu/i : To shorten the Uvula. 


CoxsTfiiciOR Pharymgel's Inferior, tal Boue, before the Foramen Magnum, and to its fi.1- 

■\'el Laryn^o-p/tarynffci,.s. '«"' «" '^e opposite side by a Tendinous Line, in a simi- 

^^ ^ -^ '^ lar manner to the fonner Muscle. Tab. XLVII. Fig. T. 

Ori}ii)i ; From the sides of the Thymid and Cricoid a^ b. 

Cartihges. The superior Fibres, i-unning obliquely up- Action : To tunipvess the middle aad upper pait of iln 

wards, cover the under part of the following Muscle, and Pharynx, 
terminate in a point ; ihe inferior Fibres run more ti-ans- 

versely, and cover the begimiing of the CEsophagus. Constrtctor Pharvngis Superior, 

Insertion .- Into its fellow, by the medimn of a longi- y , c,',,/u,h uharum-em 

tndinal Temhnous line in the middle of the back pai/of '' ' 'P''"'-^-P''"-!/"&"<^- 

the Pharynx. Tab. XLVII. Fig. 6. a, 6. Origin .■ \\-wn thi; CunL-iforni Process of the Occipi- 

-Jc/;bn; To compress the lower part of the Pharynx, tal Bone, befure the Foramen Magnum ; horn the Ptery- 

und to draw it and the Larynx a little upwards, goid Proces:. of liie .'sphenoid Bone, and fi-om both Jaws, 

near the last Ueiites Molares : It is likewise connected 

Constrictor Pharyngeus Medius, with the Buccinator, and (vith the root of the Tongue 

Vc! Hj/o.p/,nrr,nget,s. =*"'' Palate. From these origms, it runs almost hori- 

Orif^'n From the Appendix and Cornu of (he Os Hy- Insertion : Into its fellow, by the- intervention of .i 

oifles, und iilso n-om the Ligament whicli connects the Tendinous line, as in the former Muscle. Tab. XLVlt. 

Cornu to (he Thyroid Cartilage. In it. passage il .spread;. Fig. 8. «, rf. 

out, and terminates m a point both above and below ; the Acfiou : To compress the upper part of the Pharynx, 

upper part covering the following Muscle. and, with the assistance of tlie other Conslrittors, to 

InwUon : Into the Cunt iloi m Pro. --s "f I he Ocripi- thrust- the food into the CEsophagus. 




Origin : Broad and Flesliy, from the back part of the 
Cricoid Cartilage. 

Insertion -• By a naiTOw exti-cmity, into the back part 
of the Base of the Arytenoid Cartilage. Tab. Xi.\ II. 
Fig. II. y. 

Action: To pull back the Arytenoid Cartil;*gc, by 
Avhich the Ligament of the Glottis is made, and 
the Glottis ilsclf longer, as iu forming acute boundid. 

Crico-Arytenoideus Lateralis. 

Origin : From ihc side of the Cricoid Cartilage, 
where it is covered by the Thyroid. 

Insertion : Into tlie side of the base of the Arytenoid 
Cartilage. Tab. XLVII. Fig. IG. b. 

Action : 'I'o open tlie Glottis, by separating the Ary- 
lid Cattiiagts, and, with them, the Ligaments of 

the Glottis, ; 

1 foriE 

ng gi-a 

1 the r 


vel Miw 

)id Cai 

crossing its ftllow obliquely. 
■tiim : Near tite point of the other Arytenoid Car- 
'lab. XLVII. Fig. U. n. 

;( : To di'aiv the Arytenoid Cartilages towardit 
UT, and asbibt in closing the Aperture of the Glot- 


iijiig a 

of the oblique Arytenoid Muscles i 


Arttekoideus Trans versus, vel Major. 
Origin : From almost the iilioie length of the bad- 
part of one of the Arytenoid CavtiUges, running trans 

oid Cartilages and the 

Origin : From the under and back part of the middle 

of the Thyroid Cartilage, from wliicb it runs back- 

\sards and a little upwards, in a double order of Fibres, 

■ upon the side of the Glottis and Ventricle of the La- 

hisertmn : Into the fore pai't of the Arytenoid Car- 
tilage. Tab. XLIX. Fig. ?. k. 

Action : To pull the Aiytenoid Cartilage outwards and 
fonvai'ds, and tliercby to widen the Glottis, and shorten 
and relax its Ligaments. It therefore assists the former 
Muscle in forming grave sounds. It may also affect the 
Ventricle of the Larynx. 

A small Slip, termed by Albinus Thyreo-Arytenui- 
<fr«s Alter Minor, arises from the upper and back part 
of the middle of the Thyroid Cai-tilage, and is inserted 
mto the Arytenoid Cartilage, above the uiscrtion of the 
Crico-Arytenoldeua Lateralis. Use : To assist the for- 
mer in shortening and relaxing the Ligaments of the 


Origin : By a few scattered Fibres from the Thyitiid 

hif-ertian : Into the side of the Epiglottis. Tab. 
XLVII. Fig. 16- f,e,/. 

Action : 'i'o assist its fellow, in diaiving the Epiglottis 
towai'ds the Glottis. 


Origin : By a number of small Fibres from the Ary- 
tenoid Cartilage. It runs along the outer side of the ex- 
ternal Opening of the Glottis. 

Int.ertioii : Into the Epiglottis, along with the former 

Action: To assist its fellow, in drawing the Epiglottis 
immediately down upon the Glottis. 

It is counteracted by the elasticity of the Epiglottis. 

'Ihe two last-mentioned Muscles are obscui'cly seen, 
excepting in robust bodies. 


.EVious to thcdescriptionof the Abdominal Muscles, 
ji-oper to take notice of certain Expansions or Fasciie 
■ing the hrst of these, 
er tlio lendcm of the Muscle called External Ob- 

It adheres to the whole length of (he Crural Arch. Part 
of it is fixed to Ligaments about the root of the Penis and 
Clitoris. ■ It sends also a sheath along tlic Spermatic Cord 
as far as tlie Scrotmn, the rest of it spreads over the In- 

eil Snperficiai guinal Glands, 



[Part li. 

tlie infiameii state, liowcver, it sometimes becomes re- 
markably thick. It forms the Outer, or Supei-ficial Fas- 
cia, in Inguinal and Cniral Hemise. 

Under the Superficial Fascia, on the Thigh, there is a 
thick and strong Apoiu'urosis, ^vliicli arises from the fore 
part of the Spine of the Ilium, from the whole under edge 
Os Pubis. 

Hwm, (to be aftenvards taken notice of), which incloses 
tjie Muscles upon the Tliigh. 

The portion arising from the Ilium and Crural Arch is 
termed llial^ and that from the Pubis, Pitbal portion of 
the Fascia Lata. The Ilia! and Pubal portions are unit- 
ed behind the upper end of the Yeiia S:iphena Major, and 
form a considtnible Angle at the iimcr side of the Femoral 
Ves^cli^, and bctneeii tjie Muscles ou the fore aud those 
on ihc inner side nf the Thigh. 

The upper aud inner part of the Ilial Portion, forms a 
,\t»ii/initir Eif^i-, which is concave towards the inner 
pLirt of the Thii;h, and is described by Mr Burns, in 
[he Ldlnbiirgh Medicil aud Surgical Journal for 1806, 
mider the name of l-'alcifnrm Process. This lea^'es a 
large O/ic'"':'^, 11 here tJic Jnia Sapltena Major, 

; Pubal Portion of the Fa 

1 the Ft 

, Lata, I 

At the edge of the Falcifonn Process, there is some 
Fat and Cellular Substance; here also a Gland is com- 
monly placed, and sometimes two, through which part of 
the Superficial Lymphatics of the Thigh pass in their 
course towards the Abdomen. At this part of the Thigh, 
the portion of the Bowels passing through the Crural Ring, 
protrudes iu Femoral Hernia. 

I'rcquently the Semilunar Edge of the Fascia is indis- 
tinct, the Ilial aud Pubal Portions being then confusedly 
imited by an intermixture of Tendinous and Cellular Sub- 
Behind the Great Vessels of the Thigh, part of the 
Pubal Portion of the Fascia is continued down, to be 
fixed to the Os Femoris, as far as the place where the 
Femoi-al Ai'tery perforates the Triceps Muscle. 

Obliquiis Descenders Externus, 
Vel Ohliquus Extemvs Abdominis^ vel Costo-Abdomi- 

Origin : In a serrated manner, from the lower edge of 
Ihe ci.^ht inferior Hibs, near iheir Cartilages. The SciTa; 
intermix with tlie Indentations of the Scrratus Major An- 
iuid the Muscle is commonly connected wiih the 

Pecloraifs Major, Intel 

Ihc edge of a portion of it, ex- 
ifth Hib to the Spine of the Os Ilium, 

f of whicli it ha, ;a«o part of its ori. 

From these attachments the Fibres of the Muscle nm 
obliquely dowmvards and fonvai-ds, and terminate (some- 
times by distmct Indentations) in a broad Tendon, orA- 
poncui'osis, which, near its margin, is firmly comiected 
wilh the Tendon of the two following Muscles, Tab. 
XXXIV. Fig. 1. G, G. where at forme* curved liacj 
tailed Liiica St'inihmarin. From this the Tendinous 
Fibres are cool uuied in tlie same dii-ectioa with die Fleshy 
FJbres, to the middle of the Abdomen, 

Jiistrtion : Into its fellow of the opposite side, by tic 
medium of a Tendinous Line, Tab. XXXFV. Fig. ]. 
■E,, E. -whicli extends &om the CaFtilago Ensitonoia to 
the Pubis, and is known by tiie name of Littea Alba. 

The Lmea Alba is formed by the meeting of the Ten- 
dons of t)ie Oblique and Transverse Musclee of the Ab- 
doinen, and is perforated iu the middle hy the UmbilicoB— 
originally a passage for the Umbilical Oord, and now 
formed into a Cicatrix. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1. F. 

The Tendon of this Muscle is strengthened by other 
Tendons of a more delicate nature, lying upon its outer 
surface. These decussate it, in a curved direction, up- 
wards and inwards, aod are intimately connected ivith, 
or take their origin from, the under end of the Tendon ol 
the Muscle. 

The under part of the Tendon, iliitkcr an.) atrongei 
than the rest of it, extends fi-om the superior-anteriw 
Spinous Process of tlie Oa Ilium, over the Flexor Muscles 
and great Vessels aad Kerves of the Thigh, to tlie upper 
part of theOa Pubis, to which it is fixed. Tab. XXX1\'. 
Fig. 1. q. 

This part of the Tendon, which was foimeily known 
by the name of Poupart's, or Fallophjs's, aTlvguinal 
L,/'gniiiiriit, forms a curve behind, but more especially 
over the Blood-vcKM;ls, aud therefrn-e is now knows by 
the name of Crura/ Arcfi. 

SoracwIiaT higher, and failhcr out, than the Symphy- 
sis Pubis, or about an inch aud a half ui a fiUl-sized A- 
duh, Poufart's Lig-.iiiKnt divides into au upper ajid 
under colunui. 

The upper coluum is fixed to the ligament of the Sym- 
pliysis PubiH, and to the Ob Pubis of the opposite side. 
Tlie under one is tivisted or doubled in, and inserted into 
the upper part of tlie Os Pubis, and Piibal portion of the 
Linea Uio-peetinea, from the Femoral Vessds, as fai' as 
the Crest or Tuberosity of the Sonc, and forms a firai 
hiiarp line towards the Abdomen, ^vhich constitutes the 
])Obtcrior edge of the Crm-al Areli, or forms the Crural 
Rmg of GiMBERNAT, of latc so frequently 

'I'lie posterior edge of the Crural Aitjh is quite tense, 
■when ihe Limb is extended ; but when the Thigh is much 
bent, the edge of the Arch becomes quite lax, so "s *" 
favour the return of the Bowels in the reduction of 
Creral Hernia. 

The under column is looser and more slender in the 

Female than in the Malej and the space between the 


PARxn.] or THE MUSCLES. n;j 

Femoral Vessels and the insertion of tlils part of the Li- anterior Layer, uiili tlie gicatcr part of ilie infeiior wor- 

gament is larger ; in cousequeuce of wliich. Protrusions tion of the pONtcrior Layer, joins the Tendon of the Jix_ 

of the Bowels happen here more frequently in Women. ternal Oblique, and goes over the Kectus, to be inserted 

Where the columns separate, a space is left, of an oval into the whole length of the Linea Alba. The posterior 

fornif or rather like the barrel of a Quill cut obliquely, Layer joins the 'I'endon of the 'I'ransvtrsalis, and goes 

witli the large end of the opening outermost. It ia about behind the Xtectiis ; and this union ia continued down, 

an inch iu length in the Male, but less in the Female, the till it i-eathea about half way bttwten tlie Umbilicus and 

direction running upwards and outwai-ds, oi- eomewhat in Os Pubis. Lower than tlii;^, only a lew .s(.:illticil Fibre?; 

aline betwctn the Pubis and Spine of the Ilium. This of the posterior Layer :iic to Ijv fuuml bililiul rhu Iter- 

is the Ring of the Eittnial Oblique Musch-, or Vnda- tus ; the principal part of il jiassiuLi Inlur. i li.u .^iustic. 

Abdominal, or Spermatic, or Supra-pubial Bing. Tab. to be inserted into the LiiiLa Alliu. 

XXXIV. Fig. I. I, for the transmission of the Sperma- Lusertim : Into the Caitilag.s of all ilic FaNc Ribs ; 

tic Cord in the Male, and the round Lig'ament of the U- into the Carlilago Fnaifuiniis, ;ukI ivlmle iL-niflb of the 

terus in the Female, and where the Bowels protrude in Linea Alba, 'lab, XXXV. Fi;;. 1, Timik,/^ /', k, /. 

Inguinal Hernia. Actum: To a&sist the loniicr Muscle. It" bends the 

Surrounding the exit of the CorJ, or the round Liga- Body, however, ui the ^lame diitttion with the Obli<juiw 
ment, from the King, there is a quantity of Cellular Sub- Externus of the opposite aide. 
stance, and some Tendinous Fibres, which assist in fill- 
ing that opening, and in preveitting any conunuoicatiou Traksversalis, 
between the outer and hiner parts. Vel Abdominis, vel Limbo-abdominalis. 

The place where the columns separate to form the Ring 

vai-iee hi different Subjects. In some, the separation i« Orfgin : Fleshy from the inner Suiface of the Carti- 

considerably farther out than the p;.i-t ^— dy described, I^ges of the sis or seven Lower Ribs, where it intermixes 

though raopB g^Ttcraily the division is dii-ectly at the outer ""h the Digitatioiis of the Diaphragm, and with the In- 

part of the Ring. At this end of the Umg, the Colunms tercostal Muscles ; fi-om the 'I'ransverse Pi-ocesses of the 

arc joined by Tendmous Fibres, which arise from the Os twelfth Dorsal and foursupeiiorLmnbar Veitebrs ; from 

Ilium, and fiom Podpart's Ligament ; and are part of the whole inner edge of the Spine of the Os Ilium ; and 

the Fibres mentioned above, as decussatuig the fendon anterior to this, it is connected to the under edge of the 

of the External Oblique Muscle. Obliquus Externus. At the Linea Semilunaris, the Mus- 

Through the Abdominal Ring, there is no direct open- cle changes into Tendon, which is continued aci-oss, 

ing into the Cavity of the Abdomen ; the passage being adhering to the Obliquus Internus ui the manner ab^ady 

shut by the Obliquus Inteinus and Transversalis Abdo- mentioned. 

minis, and by a Tendinous Expansion termed Fascia Insertion: Into the Cartilago Ensiformis and Linea 

Transversalil Alba. Tab. XXXVL Fig. 1. Trunk, C, D, E. 

Actvm of the Obliquus Externus : To support and com- Action : To support, and immediately to compress, the 

press the Peritoneum and Boiveis of the Abdomen ; to Abdominal Bowels. 

assist in the evacuation of the Freces and Urine, and in From the inside of the Crural Aicli, and from the 

the exclusion of the Ftbtus; to thrust the Diaphragm up- Spine of the Ilium, a Tendinous Aponeurosis, termed 

wards, and draw down the Ribs in Expiration ; to bend Viae Fa.scin, is sent oil", which is relkcted over the Iha- 

theBody obliquely to one side when a single Muscle acts, ens Internus, and Psoas Ma-nus, which it braces and 

and directly fonvards when both act ; and to raise the protects. If dcscemU afl* rwardi between the Psoas and 

Pelvis when the Thomx is fixed. External Iliac \'essci3, to give a iming to .he Rones, Mus- 
cles, and Ligaments, at the inner side or the Pelvis. It 

OELinuus AscENDENS Interkus, is firmly attached to the Linea Ilio-pectinea, and behind 

,.,,.,,. ," ,, , , ,, . ,, ... the Orighi of the Crural Vessels, is mcorporated with the 

V d OM,,»«s humm, Abdomnm, vel llu,.ahi«m,mhs. 'j,^,^^, ^^^ ^j. ^^^^ j,^^^;^ j_^,^^ ';„ ^^^^ \ „,^„^,.^ ,,,„ 

Origin : Flora tlie back part of the Os Sacriim ;— the one maj in a gieat measure be cODsidcreil as a con- 

fiwii tlic ^ pinous Proeeaaes of ibe tiiree lowest 1/Umbar tmuation of the other. 

Vei-tebiw, by a Teiiilon common to it and the Serratus From the Crural Arch, from the Iliac Portion of the 

Posticus Inferior and LaissimusDorsij— from the whole Linea Ilio-pectinea, and rcBected also from the under 

length of the .'^pine of the Os lUumi—and from the in- part of the Expansion covering the lliacns Internus, 

side of PoupART'a Ligament, it the middle of which it another Aponemx)tic Expansion, of a thin and delicate 

sends oft the Cremaster. From these Origins the Fibres nature, the Filscia Tiamvenali^ of Mr Cooper, is sent 

aie disposed in a radiated manner ; but the greater part upwards, which lines the under part of the inner side ol 

of them run in a slantmg direction upwaitls. the Transversalis, lies between it and the Pentonenm, 

At the Linea Seuiilonaris, the Muscle becomes Ten- and vanishes in its ascent ui the Abdomen, 

dinons, and adheres firmly to the Tendon of ijie Obliouus The Angle of reflection bitw-een these two t,%mn- 

EjtcrnuB. Here its Tendon divides into tivoXayert • the sions being formed of strong Tendinous i ibres, the Ab. 

Vol. I. P ■'''"'" 




JlH Iliac lil nod- vessels. 

JjLsidcs thcr-e txpan^ions, otl 
:ite Authors, as bcin^ sent dowi 
pai-t f-f tlie 

ilie Cavity of the Pel\'is, is formed auteriorly by the Fas- 
( ia Transversalis, Criira.1 Arch, and Cellular Substance 
blended together, posteriorly by the oonjoined Fasciii 
Iliaca, Pubiil part of the Fascia Xiata, and Cellular Sub- 
^taacc. The anterior and posterior portions of the Fas- 
ria uniling t(.getli<:r :it the sides of the Blood-vessels, 
form the literal parts of (he Sheatii. 

LoM'cr than llie Cniral Arch, and extending as far as 
the rerforalion in tlic Tendon of the Great Adductor 
Muscle of the Thigh, tlic Artery is covered before by the 
I^tsciy Lai a, behind by tlie deep p^rl, or Pubal portion 
;rally by tlic two Fascia conjoined 

V Ccilul 

; Siiba 

upper p: 

s also at t 

i Sheath and V'csacU it incloses, at the up 
i'the Thigh, u-ith the External lUac 
iner pail of (he Pelvis, arc strengthened by some Ten- 
inoiis slip.s, wliich run between, and also at the sides of 
he Vessels ; uniting tliem together, to the Crural Arch 
efore, and to the Bones behind, over which they pa-ss, 

^Vithiii the Fasciae the A'esscls are closely connected 
ngether, as the Great Vessels in tlie Neck are, by a Va- 
ina of Cellular Siib^tauee eontlensed, aud which may 
e considered as ihv piopir Sfnut/i of the Gi-cat Vessels 
itiiatcd in the Thigh. 

Between the iimiv |,,i!-l ..r iW Exlcrual Iliac Vein, 
nd the insertion . ■ '■. :,,'., . ■■■ ,.,n nf Poupart's Li- 
anicnt into tht (i '■ ' , ' ' .:,.; (lit Os PiibiH be- 

ansiderable in the 
Female than in the Male, on account of the greater width 
of the Pelvis, Through tliis' Foramen the Bowek pro- 
trude in Femoral Hernia. In the Male the opening is 
more filled up, in conseauence of the greater thickness of 
the Flexor Muscles of the Thigh, and the breadth of the 
suiToundiog Ligaments. 

The Crural Foramen is at the beginning of tlie Crural 
Sheath, and situated within it, and is commonly occupied 
by Absorbent Glands ; or sometimes by tlie Trunks of 
the Absorbents themselves, coming from the Tliigh ; or 
now and then by a cross Stratum of Ligamentous Matter ; 
in consequence of wliich, when the parts arc prepared, 
)r a Cribriform appcar- 
1 the Ci-ural Ring. In 
tlus last case, the Absorbents are found to creep along 
the Coats of the Blood-vessels, in tlieir course to the 

Half way between the Spine of the Ilium and Sym- 
pliysiB Pubis, tliD Expansion termed Fascia Transver- 

salis leaves au.opcnbg for tlie passage of the Spermatii 
Cord, or for the roimd Ligament of the Uterus ; the be- 
ginning of v\'liicli passage may be considered as the Inter- 
nal or Superior Abdmnt'nal Ring. 

The under pait of this opening is formed by Poupart's 
LiganLcnt, the upper by the Transverse and Interaal Ob- 
lique iMuatlc. 

From this opening there is no direct passage outwaids- 
the part being shut, by the Tendon of tlie Obliijuus Ex- 

The inner Ring is of the same foim and size with the 
outer Bing, and is dii-ected in the same manner with it. 

Between tiie Internal and External Abdominal Bings, 
the passage is obUqne, like the Bings themselves,. and is 
about an inch in length. It has also a quantity of Cellu. 
lai' Substance, which is considered by some Authors as 
forming a distinct Canal, under the name of Abdominel 
or Liginnal. The Cellular Substance surrounds the 
Cord, or the round Ligament, and assists these in com* 
pletely fillmg the whole of this passage. 

Bectus, vel Piibiv-sfernalis, vel Siemo-pvbiahs. 

Origin: Tendmous r,om tho fin-e.and upper part of 
the Symphysis Pubis. It soon becomes Fleshy, and runs 
upivards in form of a flat Band, tlie whole length of, and 
parallel to, the Linea Alba. Between its upper Extre- 
mity and the Umbilicus, it is di^dded into three nearly 
equal portions, by as many transverse Tendinous Inter- 
sections, and there is gener.TJly a half intersection below 
the Umbilicus, These seldom peueti-atc through the 
whole thickness of its Substance. 'I'hey adiiere firmly to 
the anterior part of the Sheath which incloses the Mus- 
cle, so as to render its sepai-ation diificult, but slightly to 
the posterior Layer. 

Insertion : Into tiie Cartilages of the three inferior 
True Kibs and extremity of the Sternum. It fiequently 
intermixes with the under edge of the Pectoralis Major. 
Tab. XXXV, Fig, I. D, D. 

Aclioti : To compress the fore part of the Abdomen ; 
to draw douii the Kibs m Expiration ; and to bend the 
Body forwards, or to niise the Peh-is. By me.-uis of its 
Sheath and Tendinous Intersections, it is kept in its place> 
and allowed to act more equally. 

Pyramidalis, vel Piii^o-siib-i/mbilicalij,: 

Origin : By a broad Ease, from the upper part of the 
Symphysis Pubis. It runs upwards wjlhin the same 
Sheath with the Rectus, tapering to a p<jint in its ascent. 

Insertion : Into the Linea Alba aud inner e.lgc of the 
Rectus, near half-way between the Pubis and Umbilicus. 
Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1.^. 

Acti^m : To assist the under part of tJie Rectus in 
di-aiviug doixTi the Ribs, or to compress the undei- part 
of the Abdomen. 

It is frequently wanting in both sides, and tlien the un- 
der end of iJie Rectus is laj-ger, tlius in HOme measure 
supplying its place. 



' Cremaster, vel Muscuius Testis, 

Origin : From the under Edge of tlie Obliijuns Intcr- 
nus Abdominis. Passing tlirough the Rin;; of the Obli- 

thc Testicle, Mieic the Fibres separate and expand. 

Imrrliai, .- Into tlic Tunica V'agmalis Testis, and Cel- 
iulai- Substance of tlie Scrotum. Tab. XXXIV. Fie. 

Action : To contract the Scrotum, to suspend a 
vate, aod to compress and evacuate tbe Testicle. 


Vel hckio-a 

, vel Ischiosub-peniah'^. 

Origin: Tendinous from the inner side of the Tubero- 
sity of the Os Ischium.— It runs upwards, Fleshy, in- 
creasiug m breadth, and ciiibrating the whole inner part 
of the Cms Penis. 

Insertion ■ Hy * i-l''" Tendon into the clastic Mem- 
brane which covers the Corpora Cavernosa Penis, as far 
as the union of the Crm-a. Tab. XLVIH. Fig. 6. rf. 

Action : To compress the Cms Penis, by which means 
fhe Blood is pushea from it into the fore part of the Cor- 
pora Cavernosa, and the Peitis thereby more completely 

Accelerator Urin.^;, 
A-'el Ejaculalar Seminii/, vel Bulbo-urtthvalis. 

Origin : Fleshy from the Sphmcter Ani, and Mem- 
btanous part of the TJi-ethra j and Tendinous fi-om the 
Crus and beginning of the Corpus Cavemosum Penis. — 
In its course it forms a thin Fleshy Layer, the inferioi' 
Fibres of \vhich run more transversely than the superior, 
which descend in an oblique dii-ection ; the Muscles on 
the opposite sides completely inclosing the Eulb of the 

Insertion : Into its fellow by a Tendinous line running 
longitudiuaJly on the middle of the Bulb. 'I ab. XXVIII. 
Fig. 6. «. 

Action : To propel the Urine or Semen forvvai^, and 
iiipressing the Bulb, to push the Blood into, and 

Action : To dilate the Bulb of tlie Vretlini for i1r 
reception of the Semeu or trine ; ;ind to assist the Le- 
vator Am in retracting the Anus, after the discharge of 
the Freces. 

There is frequently another fliusilc, termed Trnnsver- 
salifi Ptrinci J/ter, I'unning along ivith the former, and 
havmg nearly the same Origin, Insertion, and Action, 
but goiug more obliquely iip\\;u'ds. 

Sphincter Am. 

Origiji : By a Ligamentous Substance, from the ex- 
tremity of the Os Cotcygis, running forwards within the 
Skin and Fat which cover the verge of the AniiN, and in 
its passage forming a broad, flat, o\al Muscle, which 
Eurromids the extremity of the Intcstinum Kectum. 

Imt-rtirm : liy a narrow pouit, into the Acceleratores 
ITjiiitc ;ind 'iransversi Peri " '" 

iction : To shut the j 
contents of the Rectum, and also to pull down tlie Eulb 
of the Uretlua, by which it assists in ejecting the rrinc 
and Semen. It is assisted by the Sphincter hiternua of 
some Authoi-s, which is merely the circidar Muscidar 
Coat of the end of the Rectum. 


^ Ani, vel Sub-pubii 

Vel Tra 

Transversus Perinei, 
ersalis Vrethrte^ vel Ischio-perinealis. 

Origin : Fromtlie inside of the Tuberosity of the Os 
Ischium, close to the Ei-ector Penis ; running transverse- 
ly, though sometimes in an oblique direction upwaixls. 

Ijisertion : Into the back part of the Accelerator I'ri- 
ox, and adjoinuig part of the Sphiocter Ani. Tab. 
\LV1II. Fig. 6. b. 

Origin : By a semich-cular Edge, from the Os Pubis, 
within the Pelvis, at the upper edge of the Foi-amen 
Thyroideum, the fore part coming oft' near the under end 
of the Sync hondj-o sis ; from the Aponeurosis \\'hich coveis 
the Obturator Intemus and Coccygeus ; and from the 
Spinous Process of the Os Ischium. From these Origins 
it is continued down, occupying the under and inner por- 
tion of the Pelvis. Its Fibres descend like Radii from a 
circumference, to meet those of its fellow, and with it to 
form a kind of inverted Funnel. 

Insertion : Into the Spliintter Ani, Accelerator Urinae, 
and under and fore part of the Os Coccvgis. — It sm-- 
roimds the extremity of the Rcclum, Neck of the Blad- 
der, Membranona Parlion of liie Trctlira, Prostate 
Gland, and part of tlic \ esiculx Semiuak's. Tab. 
XLVIII. Fig. [}. b. 

Action : To support the contents of the Pelvis ; to 
retract the end of the Kect\im, after the evacuation of 
the Faces ; aud to assist in the evacuation of the Rec- 
tum, Bladder, Vesiculx Semmaks, aud Prostate Gland. 
— It is likewise considered by sonit- as a principal agent 
in the distension of the Penis, by pr^s^^iIlg upon its 

Part of the Lev.-itor Ani, which arises from the Os 
Pubis, between the lower pail of th< Symphjsi 
upper part 

of the F 

te GhuKi, is ci.lkd b; 
pressor Prosttita: 



lie OF THE MUSCLES. [Pabt II. 

Between the Membranous part of the Urethra, and distinct Mutjcukr Fibre)?, closely sun-ouadiug this Canal 

that portion of the Muscle wliith arises from the inner which has been described by Mr Wilson, ia the Medico-' 

side of the Symphysis Pubis, there is a reddish. Cellular, ChirurgicaJ Transactions of Loudon for 160P, as a di?, 

and very Vascular tjubiftance, but apparently vithoiit any tinct Compresm' Urethra. 


Erector Clitoridis, vel IsckiQ-sub-ditoi-ideus, 

Origin .- As in the Erector Penis in the Male, but the 
Muscle smaller. 

hisertion : Into the Cms and Body of the Clitoris. 
Tab. CIV. N. 

Action : To draw the Clitoris downwards and back- 
wards ; and- by pushing the Blood into it Irom its Cms, 
if may reader the Body of the CUtoriB more tense. 

Sphincter Vaginje, vel Perinea-cIHoridcus. 

On'sJu : From the Sphincter Ani, and, near the Peri- 
neum, li'om the posterior side uf the Vagina, It passes 
■Amv^ the outer eud of the Vagina, covers the Corpus 
tavemosum Vaginse ; going behind the Nymphse. 

Insertion: Into the union of tbe Crura Clitoridis. Tab. 
CIV. M. See Lateral View of Female Parts of Generation. 

Aclirm : To contract the external Orifice of the Va- 
;;ina, by cojnpressijig its Corpus Cavernosum, from which 
it likewise pushes the Blood into the Nymphse and Cli- 

Transversus Perinei. 

the adjacent pai-ts of the Sphincter Vaginae, and into a 
tough white Substance in the Perineum. Tab. CIV. L. 

Action : Upon the Perineum and Anus, as in the 

When a Transversus Feiinei Alter is present, it ha< 
tlie same relation to the former Muscle -as in the Male. 

Sphikcter Ani. 

Origin and com-se as in the Male, 

Insertion : Into the Sphincter Vagina, and tough 
wliite Substance ia the Penneum.. Tab. CIV. K. 

Action .- To shut the Anus, and, by pulling doAi] the 
rcrini^nm, to assist in contracting the ciLteraal On£ce of 

Levator Aki. 

Origin : As in the Male. In its descent, it embrace)^ 
the inferior pai'ta of the Vagina, Urethra, and Rectum. 

Insertion : Into the Perineum, Sphincter Ani, extre- 
mity of the Vagina, and Rectum. Tab. CIV. H. 

Action : Upon the Bladder, Urethra, and Rectum, as 
in the Male. — It also assists in supporting and contract- 
ing the Vagina, and may, by pressing upon tbe Veins, 
conti-ibute to the distension of the Cells of the Clitori-- 
and Coipus Cavemosimi Vaginz. 


CoccYCEUs, vel Isvhio-CQCcugeus. 

Curvator CoccYGiS, vel SacrO'COfiygfii.'i. 
Origin : By a narrow point, from the Spinous Pi-ocess 
of the Os Ischium. — In its passage, it gradually expands. Origin : From Uie under and fore part of the Ofl Sa- 
and covers the inside of the posterior Sacro-lscliiatic IA- crum. 
gament. Insertion : Into the fore and under part of the O^ 

: the Coccygeua in bending the Os 

Insertion : Into the whole length of the side of the Coccygis. 

Os Coccygis. Tab. XLVTII. Fig. 3. Action ; To i 

Action : To move the Os Coccygis forwards, by whicli Coccygis. 

it assists the Levator Ani in supporting or raising the The Curvator Coccygis was formerly considered ; 

end of the Rectum. part of the Coccygeus. 


DiArHRAGMA. *'^^t of the Tliorax, and is perforated by several Holes, 

for the passage of Vessels and Nerves which go into, or 

The Diaphragm forms a Fleshy and Tendinous Parti- come out from the Abdomen. It is concave below, and 

ion, which separates the Cavity of tlic Abdomen from convex above ; the middle of it reaching as high within 

Part U.] 


the Thorax as the fourth pair of Ribs. Above, it is co- 
vemi by the Pleura, aud below, by the Peritoneum • aud 
IS commonly divided iulo two portions, called Superior or 
Larger, aud Inferior or Smaller, Muscles of the Dia- 

StiPEHioR, or Crealer Muscle of Ue Diaphragm. 

Origin : By Fleshy Indentations, from the Caitila.-o 

tnsilormis, and fiom the Cai-lilagcs of the seventh, aSd 

of all the inferior Bibs on both sides. From these diflfe. 

rent Origins, the Fibres run in a radiated manner 

Asertro/i .■ Into a tordiform Tendon, placed 'm the 
ttuddle ol the Diaphiagin, in which the Fibres of 

■J "PP"""' '""^ »"= interlaced ^Towards the ri»ht 

aide, the Tendon is perforated by a triangular Hole for 
the passage ol the Vena Cava Inferior ; and to the upper 
eonveii part of it, tie Pericardium and Mediastinum are 

InFMroR, or Lesser Muscie, or AjipcnJii: of Hie 

Origin: B; f^™. r^ «r Heaas, of which one Pair in 
the middJe commonly called its Long, or Tendinous 
Crura, is the longest. Ihc long Crura arise from the 
tore part of the fourth Lumbar Vertebra, and adhere to 
the Bodies of all the Vertebrae of the Loins above this 
by the mlerveution of the Ligamentum Commune Ante- 

» covcrmg these Bones. In their ascent, they leave 


posterior half of the Spme of the 0» Ilium, and &„„, , 
Ligamen extended betuecn it and the TralisveJX 
cess ot the last Lumbar Vertebra. 

hserttm: Into the Transverse Processes of all the 
Lumbar Vertebra, ; mto the last Bib, near the Spine 
and, by a sniall lendon, into the side of the last Dorsal 
lertcbra. Tab. XXXVII. Trmik, D. 

Action : To move the T-nlnc f« n^n ^-.jt^ ^ ., , 


Psoas Parvus, vel Prclumbo-pvhiali,. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the side of (he last Vertebra „1 
the Back, and from that of one or two of the nppe, 
Vertebr* of the Loms. It scuds off a slendei- TenSon, 
winch runs down by the inner side of the Paias Magnus, 
MuscL °""''"'" "'"''' "*f ""'''' "I"° ""= ueighbouiint 

Ifrtion : Into the Brim of the Pelvis, at the joining 
of the lUu,. md PM.. Tnl,. XXXVII. Fig. 1. t, S. 

Actm,: 1 assist in bending the Spine upon the Pel- 
vis, and, m particular positions, in raising the Pelvis 

'llus Muscle is frequently wanting. 

Psoas Magnus, vel Prdumbo-ti-achantineus. 

- — -"^ ""■^' licaua arise from the third, and 

ako from the second Lumbar Vertebra, and are placed 
ferther out. From the diiferent Heads the Muscular 
1 ibres run upwards, and form, in the middle, til o Heshy 
tolunms, or Crura, which decussate, and leave an open- 
ing for the passage of the Esophagus. ^ 

Edge of the Cordiform, or middle Tendon. Tab. XLVIII 
J!lg. ^. 

Action : To enlarge the Cavity of the Thorax m In- 
lyiration, by its Fleshy pait contracting, and bringinir 

Abdommal Muscles at the same thne yieldiig, but the 
Tendmons pait of the Diaphragm remaining nearly in 
«nla'T l"fl"r-,. '" Jf-Pi-'i™. "■= Difphragi^ i, 
replaced, chiefly by the action of the Abdommal Muscles. 
It IS the Antagonut of the Abdominal Muscles in Insni 
Wing!' "'= "■ '°°'" ™"' "■'" ^ D"J«"°" -'' - 


Origin : Ei.oad, Tendinous, and Fleshy, fro 

0,,g,n : From the side of the Bodies, and fi-om the 
Transverae Processes of the last Dorsal, and of all tin- 
Lumbar Vertebra:, by an equal number of Fleshy Slips, 
which miitmg, form a thick strong Muscle, that boundJ 
the upper part of the side of the Pelvis ; passiig down 
over the Os Pubis belmidPo»,ARi's LigLenl 

imerhm : Icndmous and Fleshy, into the Trochantn- 
"f"™:-,,?'''* P"' °f 'he Body of the Os Femoris. Tab 
-^-^-^» 11. I'lg. 1. A. 

Action ! To bend the Thigh, and luin it a little out- 
wards, or, when the Inferior Extremity is fixed, to assist 
m bending the Body. 

Iliacus I.v 

vel HiO'ti-ochantii 

Ongm: Fleshy, from the Transverse Process of the 
last Lunibar Vertebra ; from all the hiuer Edge of the 
Spme of the Os Ihnm ; from the Edge of that Bone,, 
between its antcrior-supcnor Spinous Process and the A- 
eetabulnm ; Irom most of the hullowpart of the Os Ilium, 
and alsofiom the Aponeurosis terme,f/;,>,cJi,«,V,, which 
covers llie Muscle. It joins the Psoas Magnus, where 
It bcgms to become Tendinous on the Os Pubis. 

x^S'Fig!'!:'!."*"' ■"" '''°'' ^''^■-- ■^"''■ 

Action : To as.isl the Psoas in bending the Thigh. 




ars as two distinct Mnscks. 

Pectoralis Mihor, 

Tel Serratus Minor Anli'cus^ vel Costo-coracoidalts. 

Origin : Tendinous and Flesliy, in a serrated manner, 
from tiie third, fourth, and fifth Ribs, near their Carti- 
Inges. Passiiif; obli juely outwai-ds, it becomes gcaduall/ 

Action : To bring the Scapula downwards ajid fo. - 
aids, or, in laborious Respiiation, to raise the Ribs, 

Origin : From the Sternal half of the Clavicle ; from 
the fore pail of the Edge of almost the iiiiole icngtli of 
the upper and middle Bone of the Sternum, and here the 
Muscle is counected with its fellow ; and from the Carti- 
lages of the fifth and sixth Ribs, where it mixes with the 
Obliquus Extemus. The Fibres trom thence converge 
towai'ds "the Axilla, where they decussate, and send off 
a flat twisted Tendon. 

Insertion: Into the Ridge at the outer Edge of the 
Groove for lodging the Tendon of the long Ilead of the 
Biceps. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 1. A. 

Action : To draw the Arm downwards and forwards, 
or in a direction towards the Sternum. 

Retween the Portions of the Muscle arising from the 

SuBCLAviUB, vel Casto-cUmicularis. 

Origin : Tendinous, from the Cartilage of the first 
Rib, It soon becomes Flesliy, and runs outwards, under 
the Clavicle, increasing in breadth. 

Insertion : Into the imdei' Surface of the Clavicle, 
from near its Head, as far outwards as tlie Coracoid 
Process of the Scapula, 'lab. XXXV. Fig. 1. A. 

Action : Jo pull the Cla\itle, and *vith it the Scapida, 
dotvEwards and fonvards. 

Serratus Magnus, 
Vel Serratus Major Anticus, vel Coatoscapuiaris. 

Origi7t : From the nine superior Ribs, by an «^al 
iramhftr of Fleshy Digitations. It runs obliquely up. 
ivards and backwaaiio «pon iJ,e side of the Thoraj, and 
between it and the Subscapularis. 

Insertion : Fleshy, uito the whole length of the Ease 
of the Scapula, and in a manner folded round it, between 
the insertion of the Rhomboideus and tlie origb of the 
Subscapulaiis. Tab.XXXV. Fig. 1. C, C. Tab. XLI. 
Fig. 1. E. 

Action : To move the Scapula forwards or SovrnvaxAs, 
according to the direction of its different Digitations; 
and \vhen the Scapula is forcibly raised, as in violent In- 
spiration, to assist in dilating tlie Thoiax, by elevating 
the Ribs. 

wards from the Spine to the joining of the Ribs 
thcL- Cartilagt's, from which, to the Slt-mum, they are 
discontinued ; that place being occupied by an Aponeu- 


diately 1: 

wi .- Jnlo the upi)er Edge of each Rib, imme- 

!ow that from which they take (heir respective 

Tab. XN.XVI. lig. l;J. E, &c. 

Portions of the Intmos[;.lcs E.xteim, which arise from 

the 'IVansveise Processus of the \crtc-bi-a;, and terminate 

in the Hibs ininicdi;itcly btlow, are termed by Albinus, 

, T.ib. XLIII. Fig. 1. 

C, C— Othe 


but p:iss over one Rib, and terminate in the next below 
it, ai-e named by tlie same Author, Levatores Costar. 
Longiores. Tab. XLIII. Fig. 1. D, D. 

Intercostales Interhi. 

Origin : The same \vith Liiat of the Extemi ; but they 
begin at the Sternum, and run downwards and backwards, 
decussating the former Muscles like the strokes of the 
letter X, and continuing as far as the Angles of the Ribs, 
from which to the Spine they are wanting. 

Insertion : In the same manner as the Eiterni. Tab. 
XLIII. Fig. l.a,&c. 

Portions of the Intercostales Iniemi, near the under 
part of the Thorax, which pass over one Bib, and ter- 
yiijiatc in the next below it, are called, by Douglas, 
Costai-am Depressoren Proprii. Tab. XLIX. Fig. 8. 

Action of the Intercostales Intemi, as weD « of the 
Extemi ; 'I'o enlarge the Cavity of the Thorax, by ele- 
vating the Ribs in the time of Inspiration ; and the obli- 
quity of the one set balancing that of the other, allows 
them to be raised more immediately upwards. 

^ '^ From 


From the obliquity of their Fibres, they are found to 
possess a greater power iu raising the Riba« than Fibres 
goiug in a perpcnaicular direetion. - 

The Intercostitles Externi end near the Sternum, and 
\he Interui iicav the Spiue, to adiuit the ready motion of 
the Ribs ; foi-, had tKe tbnner been continued to the 
Sternum, and tlie latter to the Spine, the parts of these 
Muscles supposed to be thus fixed, would of course have 
become Antagonists to the rest. 

The Portions called Levaiores and Depressores C'osta- 
rtfin assist in raising the Ribs, in the same manner as tlic 
rest of the lutercostales. 

Sterno-Costalis, vel TriangulaHs Slenii. 

Origin : From tlie Edges of the Cavtilago Ensiformis, 
and tower half of the middle Bone of the Steruum, with- 
in the Thorax. It i-mis upwards and outwards, behind 
the Cartilages of the Ribs. 

Ltscrtion : Generally by three An^iular Termination;- 
into the Cai-tilages of the thiid, fourth, and fifth Rib.-, 
also by a foui-lh Tcniiination into the cor- 
part of the Cartilage of the i-etoiid or sixth 
liib, near the union of the Cartilaginoii;^ with llic Osseou'- 
part of the Ribs. Tab. XXXIX. Fig. 1. i, /, &c. 

Action : To depress tlie Ribs into whicii tliey are fix- 
ed, and, of course, to assist in contracting the Cavity of 
tlie Thoras during Expiration. 


LoNGus Colli, vel Prcdorso-athideus. 

Origin : Tendinous aud Fleshy, from the side of tlw 
Bodies of the three superior Vertcln-^ of the BKCfc, and 
fiom the TrftiiBvcrse Ir^cesses of the foui' infeiior Verte- 
brx of the Neck. 

Insertion : Into the fore part of the Bodies of all the 
Vertebne of the Neck, by as many small Tendons, 
which are covered with Flesh. Tab. XLIX. Fig. 8. 
D, E. 

j4ction : To bend tlie Neck forwards and to one side, 
or, when both Muscles act, to bend the Neck directly 

Rectus Capitis Anterior Major, 

Xe\ Beetles Anterior Ijongus^ vel Trachelo-stib-occtpitalis 


Origin : Fmm the fore part of the Transverse Pro- 
cesses of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth Vertebi-s of 
the Neck. It runs upwards, and a little inwaids, cover- 
ing the outer edge of the Longus Colli. 

Insertion : Into the Cuneiform Process of the Occi- 

pital Bone, near its joming with the Os Spheuoidc?. 
Tab. XI.TX. Fl^ H, C. 

Actiftn : To bend the Head fon^ards. 

Rectus Capitis Anterior Minor, 

behind, and a little to the outside of the fonner Muscle. 

Insertion : Into the CmLeiform Process of the Occipi- 
tal Bone, inunediatcly before the Condvles. Tab.XIjlX. 
Fig. H. B. 

Action ; To assist the Rectus JIajor. 

Rectus Capitis L, 

vel Afloidosiih-occipitalis. 

Origin : From the anterior part of the Tr;m3vei-sc 
Process of the Atlas. — It goes obliquely outwards. 

Insertion : Into the Occipital Bone, tlii-cttJy behind 
the .Tugular Fossa. Tab. XJLV. Fig. 1. C. 

Action : To incline the Head a little to one side. 



IS, vel CucuUaris, vel Dorso-super-acron) talis 
1 the middle of the gi-eat arched Rid^i 

] Boi 


of a strong Tfiulon, caUed Ligftnunliim yiic/ui; v.U >;///,■ 

..f the Neck, and from all those of the Back, adlieriug 
Tendinous to its fellow the whole length of its Origin. 
h'^ci-tion : Flehhy, into the SeapuUiry half of the C!r- 

icic : Tendinous and Fleshy, into the Acromion, aiid 
ato the Spine of the Scapula. Tab. XL. Fig. 1. I, I. 
Action : To nio\'e the Clavicle and Scapula, aecoi-ding 
the diiections of its different Fibres. The superior 
'"ibres descending,«Kiise the Shoulder; the middle run- 
ing transvei-stly, pull it backwanis ; and the inferior 
'ibres ascending, depress il. The u hole .itting together, 
ring it immediately back. — When ilic Scapula is tixed, 
iie Muscle assists in moving tlic lie:..! b;ukw:u-d.. 


Latissimus Doiisi, vel LiUiabo.humeralis. 

Origin ■" By a liroati Tendinous Expansion, from the 
posterior part of llie Spine of the Ob Ilium ; from uU 
the Spinous Processes of the Vertebi-ffi exlendiog between 
the under end of the Os Sacrum and sixth Uoraal Verte- 
bra, and, by three or four Tendinous or Fleshy Slina, 
fi-om an equal number of inferior JJibs. Tlie Tendon 
by degiees clianjfes into a Muscle of gi-cat breadth, the 
inferior Fibres of which run upwards and outwards, and 
the superior transversely over the inferior Angle of the 
ficapulu, receiving a small Slip from it in their way to 
the Axilla, where the Fibres of the Muscle in general aie 
collected, twisted, and folded, like those of the Pccto- 

Iiiseition : By a sti-ong thin Tendon, into the inner 
T^gc of the Groove J'or lodging the Tendon of the long 
Head of the Biceps. T^ih. XL. Fig. 1. K, K. 

Action : To pull the Arm downwards and backwards, 
and to roll the Os Humeri inwards, by which the Pahn 
of the Hand is made to face b;ickwards. When the Pec- 
toralis Major acts at the same time with this Muscle, the 
iVnn is brought immediately down towards the Trunk. 

The liatissimus Dorsi and Peetoralis Major form the 
Axilla, in which the great \'essels and Nen'cs, and like- 
wise the Glands, lie which belong to the Arm. 

Serratus Posticds Inferior, vel iMviho-cosialis. 

Origin : By the same common Tendon with the La- 
tissimuei Dorsi, from the two inferior Dorsal, and from 
the three superior Lumbar Veriebrx. 

Usertion : By four Fle,hy Slips, into the same num- 
ber of inferior Kibs, near tlieir Cartilages. Tab. XLL 
Fig. 1. Trunk, D. 

Action : To depi'e<;fi the B ibs into which it is inserted, 
and thereby, during F-xpiration, to assist in couti-acting 
the Cavity of tlie Thorax. 


, vel Doi 

iw.irtum : Into tlu' wiiolc ItMgih of the Ease of the 
■Tapula. Tab. S LI. Fig. I. Trunk, AB. 
Aciion: To lU.iw tlie l^cnpula upwards and batk- 

ITiia Muscle is fretjutntly divided by an indistinct 

Vel CervieQ-mastoideiis et Dorso^cervkalis. 

Origin ; Tendinous, fiom the Spinous Processes of the 
foui' superior Dorsal ; ajid 'I'endinoua and FlesJiy, from 
those of the five inferior Cervical Vertebra:. It adhei'cs 
firmly to the Llgainentura Nucha:, and at the third Cer- 
vical \ ertebra, it recedes from its fellow, so that part of 
the Complexus is seen. 

Insertion : By as many Tendons into the five superior 
Transverse Processes of the Cervical Vertebra, and by 
a Tendinous and Fleshy Portion, into the posterior part 
of the Mastoid Process, aad into the Os Occipitis, where 
it joins with that Process. Tab. XLI. Fig. 1. Neck, C. 

Acfirm : To antagonize the Sterno-mastoideus, by 
bringing the Head, and upper C'ervital \ ertebra, oblique- 
ly backwards aud to one side. Mhen the Splenii act to- 
gether, they draw the Head directly backwards. 

This Muscle is divided by Albinus into Splenim Ca- 
pitis, or that which arises from the Neck, and goes to 

Serratus Posticus Soperior, vel DorM-eoelaiis. 

Origin : By a broaxi thin Tendon, from the Ligamen- 
tum Nuthse, over the Spinous Ptocesses of the three last 
Cervical, and two uppennost Dorsal Vertebrae j going 
obliquely downwards. 

Insertion ; By four Fleshy Slips, into the second, third, 
fomth, and fifth Ribs, under the upper and back part of 
the Scapula. Tab. XLI. Fig. 1. Trunk, c. 

Action: To elevate the Ribs, and thus to dilate the 
Thorax in violent Inspiration. 

Sacro-Ldmbalis, vel Sacro-costalts. 

Origin : In common with the Longissiraus Dorsi, 
Tendinous without, and Fleshy within, from the side, 
and all the Spinous Processes of the Os Sacmm ; from 
the posterior part of the Spine of the Os Ilium ; and 
from all the Spinous and 'I'ransverse Processes of the 
Lumbar Vertebrae. The common Head fiUs up the 
space between the Os Lium and Os Sacrum, and also the 
Hollow of the Loins. At the under part of the Thomx, 
the Muscle begins to send off lendons, which lie fiat 
npon the Bibs, and become gradually longer the nearer 
they arc to the Spine. 

Insertion : Into the Angles of all the Ribs, by an 
equal number of lendons. 'lab. XLII. Fig. 1 . IVimk, C. 

From six or eight of the lower Ribs ai-ise an etjual 
number of Fleshy Portions, which terminate in the mncr 
side of this Musdf, inul get the name ot Mtisculi jtcvci- 
sorii, vel .lilililunienttim atl Sacrv-hmbalem. 

Action: To assist in raising and keeping the Trnnk 
of the Body erect. It also aBsists the SerralUB Inferior, 

Part II.] 



^uid Quaxlratus Lutnboniui, in depressing the Ribs during 
laborious Expiration. 

From the upper part of this Muscle, a Fleshy Slip, 
called C'ert'ica/i'.s Descemfem, runs up to be fixed to the 
Ti-ansvei-se Processes of the fourth, fifth, and sixth t i-r- 
vical VcrlL'brte, by tliree distinct Tendoiia. It turns ihc 
Neck obliquely backwards and to one side. Tab. XLIl. 
Fig. 1. Neck, L. 

J Do 

vel Sacro-spi'iialis. 

Vel Complexim Mimi; vel Mastoideus Lateralis. 
Origm : From the Transverse Processes of tlie three 
ippcrijjost Dorsal, and live lowest Cer\'ical Vertebne, 
vlierc it is connected to the Tramvei-sah's Cervias, by 
IS many thin 'lendons, which unite into a slender Belly, 
uid ruu np under the ISplenius. 

Inscftion : Into the posterior margin of the Mastoid 
Process, by a thin 'iendon. 'I ah. XLII. Fig. 1. Neck, 

Origin : In cornmou with the Sacro-lninbalis. It 
forms a large, thick, and strong Muscle, ivhich fills the 
hollow between the Spine and Angles of the Ribs ; be- 
coming giadually smaller in its ascent. 

Inaerti'in .- Into tlie Transverse Processes of all the 
Dorsal \ei'tebi-a, cliictly by small double Tendons; and, 
by a Tendijious and Fleshy Slip, into the lower Edge of 
each of tiie Iiibs, excepting the two inferior, neai- their 
Tubercles. Tab. XLJI. Fig. 1. Trunk, B. 

Action : To extend the Trunk, and keep it erect ; the 
outer pait may asi^ist in depressing the Ribs during laho- 

Acfion : To assist the Comple; 
Head more laterally. 

but pulling tlic 

Levator Scapulje, 

^el Mti^cti/ns Pati'entiee, vel 


SpinaEis Dorsi. 

Origin : By five Tendinous Slips, from the Spinous Semi-Spin 
Processes of tlie two upper Lumbar, and the three lower 
Dorsad Vertcbi-a:. In its ascent, it is incorporated with 
the Longissijnus Dorsi. 

Insertion: Into the Sjiinous Processes of the eight or 
nine uppermost Dorsal Veilcbnc, excepting the first, by 
as many Tendons. Tab. XLII. Fig. 1. Trunk, A. 

Action : To fix the Vertebne, and to asKist in extend- 
ing the Trunk, and in keeping it erect. 

Origin : From the Transverse Processes of the five 
superior Cervical VertebrEc, by the same number of dis- 
tinct Heads, which soon unite to form a flat Muscle, 
ruiming downwards and outwards. 

Insertion : Into the superior Angle of the Scapula. 
Tab. XLI. Fig. 1. A,rf. 

Activii : To pull the Scapula upT\'ards, and a little for- 
wai'ds, as in shrugging the Shoulder ; and, when the Sca- 
pula is fixed, to pull the Neck a little to one side. 

i DoRsi, vel TransiersospinaUs Dorsi. 

Origin ; From the Transverse Processes of the seventh, 
;hth, ninth, and tenth Dorsal Vertebra, by as many 
itinct Tendons, which soon grow Fleshy, and then 

CoMPLEXUs, vel Trachelo-occipitalis. 

A, A. 

Action : To e 

I the Spine obbquely backwards. 

Origin: By distinct Tcndi 
Processes of the seven superi. 
rior Cervical \"ertebra 
Spinous Process of tl 
pa>,Hage upward:^, it i 
rieshv parts. 

, from the Transverse 
■ior Dorsal, aud four infe- 
by a Fleshy ^'lip, from the 
Dorsal Vertebra. In its 
nixed with Tendinous and 

Formerly described as three distin 
vcrsospinalis Liimbonim^ Trt 
and Tronsverso-spinalin CaUi. 

Fig. I . Neck, r, d. 

Action: To draw the If 
side; and when both act, i 

The long Portion of this Muscle, which li 
Spinous Pi-ocesses, is more loose tlian the re 
a roundish Temlon m the miildie of it, wit 
Belly at each end, on which 

Origin : From the side and Spinous Processes of the 

Ob Sacrum, aud from that part of the Os Iliiun which 

wanls, and to one joins with the Sacrum ; from all the ObUque and Trans- 

the Head directly verse Processes of the Lumbar Vertebra ; from all the 

, Bivt 
Vol. 1. 

r Ca- 

of the Dorsal, and of the four in- 
s next tiie ferior Cervical Vertebne, by as many distinct Tendons, 
1 the rest, and has which soon become Fleshy, and inm obhquely upwards 
it, with a Fleshy and inwards. 

it is called by Al- Insertion : By disthict Tendons, into aU the Spinous 
Processes of the Lumbar, Dorsal, and Cervical Verte- 
Q . ^TXj 



[Part 11. 

opting the Atlas. Tab. XUII. Fig. 1. Trunk, It forms a lliick Belly, which i 
' the Sii 

i upwards and t 


Actioii : To extend tlie Spine obliquely, aiid pull it to Insertion : Into the Transverse Process of the fu-si 
a side. When both Muscles act, they draw the Spiue Cervical Vertebra. Tab. XLIII. rig. 1. D. 
directly backwai'ds. 

Action: To roll the Head. 

Semi-Spinalis Colli, 

Vcl Transvei-so-spinalis Colli. 

From the Tra^s^x■^se Processes of the six q^.^^-,^ . p^j,^ tj,^ Transverse Process of the first 

Dorsal \erttbi-2e, by an crjual number of dis- Cervical Vertebra, passing upwards and a little in- 

Tendons, ivliich rmi obliquely under the Comph ^_ 

Into the Spinous Processes of all the Cer- " "insertion : Into the Occipital Bone, 

vital Vcilebi-K, cxtipl. the lirst and last. Tab. XUIl. 
right side of NcL-k, 1, I. 
Aiiion : To ci.teiul the neck obliquely backwards, and 

t the 

of the Kectus Major. Tab. XLill. 
isist in drawing the Head backwards, 

Transversalis Colli. 

Origin : From the Transverse Processes of the Eve 
iiiijiermost Dorsal Vcrtcbi-a^, bj- tUe ■...mcnumbpr of Ten- 
dinous aud Dcshy Slips. It runs between the Trachclo- 
Mastoideus, Splenius Colli, aud Cei"vicaiis Descendcus. 

hi^ertion : Into tlie Transverse Processes of all the 
Cervical Vcrtebrx, except the first and last. Tab. XLII. 

Rectus Capitis Posticus Minor, 
^'el Rectus Minor, vel Atloido-occipitalis. 
Origin : Tendinous, close to its fellow, from s 

Vel Rectus Sfajor, \el Aioido-occipitahs. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the externa! part of tlie Spi- 
nous Process of the second Cervical Vertebra. It be- 
comes gi'adually broader, and goes obliijuely upwards and 

Insertion : Tendinous and Fleshy, into the Os Occipi- 
tis, at the outside of the insertion of the Bectus Minor, 
part of which it covers. Tab. XI.III. Fig. 1. B. 

Action : I'o pull the Head backwards, aud to assist a 

Obliciuus Capitis Inferior, vel Axaido-alhidcus. 

Scalenus Anticus, vel C'oslo-cervic'alis Anlicus. 

Origin : Tendinous and Fleshy, from the upper part of 

e fii-st Bib, neai' its Caitilage., i;^,„ - Int., the Transverse Processes of the fom-lh, 

Tub. XXXVI. Fig. l.L. 

Scalenus Medics, vel Cbsto-cervicalis Medius. 

Origin : Fi-om the upper and outer part of the first 
Bib, from its Root to near its Cartilage. 

Insertion: Into the Transverse Processes of aJ! the 
Cer\'ical Vertebra, by as many strong Tendons. Tab, 
XXXVII. Neck, M, ti. 

Tiie Subclavian Artery, and the Nerves which form 
the Brachial Plexus, pass, between tliis aud the fonnci 

Insertion : Fleshy, into a Depiession between the mid- 
dle of the smaller Arch and Foramen Magnum of the 
Occipital Bone. Tab. XLIII. Fig. I. A. 

Action : To assist the tblloiving Muscle in drawing 
the Head backwaids. 

Scalenus Posticus, vel Costo-cervicalis Posticus. 
From the upper edge of the second Rib, neai 

the I 

Into the Transverse Processes of the fiftli 
and sixth Cervical A'ertebrjc. Tab. XLII. Neck, E. 

Actioti of the three Scaleni : To bend the Necklet 
one side; or, when the Neck is fixed, to raise the Rib-, 
and dilate tlie Thorax, as iji violent luspunition. 

Ikterspinales Colli. 

The spaces betwci 
vical Vei-tebra, mosi 
by double Fleshy Poi 

■ Frc 

E Upper part of each Spinous rrocess. 
tion : Into the under pait of each .Spinous Pio- 
nnodiatcly above that from which it takes it^. 
Tab. XLIII. Neck, G, G. 
n .• To draw these Processes nearer to each otlit i . 
:onrse the Neck a little backwards. 




They ; 


Interspinales Lumborum. 

with the Interspinales and 

The spaces bilwem aU the Transverse Proe 
Ihe Cermal Ve.tebrie, which are also forlie.l, arc iaied t.,,"","' "" "' "'"™''. 
uanner with double Fleshy Portions. iMertransversales Dors, 

To these Processes' towards each other, 

and turn the Keek a little to one side. Tab. XXXVH. Intertransversales Ldmborum. 

' These are live distuict Muscles, which occupy the 

Interspinales et rNTFRTRANsvr.s.i r« Tl^,.,, ^P"'"'* between the Transverse Processes of the kst Dor- 

' " svtRsAcis jjoRsi. sj ,„j j,f ^„ ,j^ i,^„|,„ Vertebras, and serve to draw 

1 heae are rather small 1 endons than Muscles, servmg them a little towards each other. Tab. XilU. Lotos 

Lo connect the Spmous and* Transverse Processes. Tab. H, H. 

XLIII. Trunk, r, r, d, d. 


\(i\ Super-scaptilo-trochitereiis Parvus. 

Origin: Fleshy, from the whole Fossa Supra-spinata, 
aud horn the Spine and Superior Costa of tne Scapula ; 
passing under the Acromion, and adheiing to the Cap- 
sular Ligameut of the Joint. 

Insertion : Tendinous, into the fore part of the large 
Tubercle on the Head of tlie Os Humeri. Tab. XLI. 
Shoulder, B. 

Action : To raise the Arm, and at the san 
pull the Capsular Ligament from between the 
as to prevent it fiom being pinched. 

[ Si'pvr-^vnpuJo-trocJnlereus Magm 

all that part of the Doisi 

TiLserfion : By a flat thick Tendon, into the upper and 
outer part of the lary,e Prouibt-rance on the Head of the 
0.S Humeri. 'J'ub. XLI. Shouldtr, C. 

Action: 'I'o roil the Os Humeri outwai-ds ; to assist 
in raising, and in supporting it when raised ; and to pull 
the Ligd-ment fiom between the Bones. 

These two Muscles are covered by an Aponeurosis, 
which extends between the Costw and edges of the Spine 

: Scapula, and gives rise to mauv of the MuBCldai- 

Teres Minor, 
Vel Super~scttpido-trochitereus Minimus. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the mferior C'osta of the Sca- 
pula. It ascends along the under edge of the Infi'a-spi- 
natus, and adheres to the Capsular Ligament. 

Insertion : Tendinous, into the back part of tlie large 
Protuberance on the Head of the Os Humeri, a little be- 
low the Lifra-spinatus. Tab, XLI. Shoulder, D. 

Action : 'I'o roll the Os Humeri outvsards, to diaw it 
backwards, and to prevent the Ligament fram being 
pinched between the Bones. 

Teres Major, vel Scapulo-Jiumeralis. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the Dorsal side of the inferior 
Angle of the Scapula, and from a small part of its inferior 
Costa. It is situated at the under part of the Teres Mi- 
nor, and sends oil' a broad flat 'Icndon, which accompanies 
that of the Latissimus Doi-si'. 

Insertion : Along ivith the Latissimus Dorsi, into tlie 
Ridg^e at the inner side of the Groove for lodging the 
Tendon of the Long Head of the Biceps. Tab. XLI. 
Slioulder, E. 

Action : To roll the Humerus inivards, and to diaw 
it backwai'ds and doivnwards. 

Deltoides, vel Stib-acromio-humeraiis. 
Origin : Fleshy, from all the outer pait of the Clavicle 



unoccupied by the Pectoralis Major, from wliicli it is 
separated by a siuall Fissure ; Tendinous and Fleshy, 
from the Acromion, and lower Margin of almost the whole 
Spine of the Scapula, opposite to theiiisertionof the Tra- 

From these origins it runs, under the appearance of 
three Muscles going in diflerent directions, and separated 
from each other by slight Eissui-es ; ^-iz. from the Clavi- 
cle outwards, from the Acromion downwards, and from 
the Spine of the Scapula forwards ; and is composed of a 
number of Fasciculi, fonning a strong Fleshy JMuscle, 
which covers the Joint of the Os Humeri. 

Insertion: Below that of the Pectoralis Major, by a 
short and strong Tendon, into a io<igh Surface, on the 
outer side of the Os Humeii, near its middle, where the 
Fibres of this Muscle intermix with part of the ilrachialis 
Extemus. Tab. XL. Shoulder, A. 

Action : To pull the Arm directly outwards and up- 
ivards, and a little fonvards or backwards, according to 
(lie diSereoi dii'ections of its Fibres. 

Coraco-Brachialis, vel Coraco-humeralis. 
Origin: Tendinous and Fleshy, firom the fore part of 

the Coracoid Process of the Scapula, in oommon willi 
the short Head of the Biceps, to which it adheres through 
the greater part of its length. 

Insertion : Tendinous and Flesh)-, into the internal nait 
of the Os Humeri, near its middle, where it sends doi>i».. 
an Ajjoneurosis to the internal Condyle of that Bone 
Tab. XXXVL Arm, C. 

Action : To bring the Arm obliquely upwards ami 

i, I'el Sub-scapuh'trochimiis. 

Origin .- Fleshy, from the three Costte and whole iu- 
ncr Suitace of the Scapula. It is composed of a number 
of -Tendinous and Flcsliy poi-tions, which run in a radia- 
ted manner, and make priuts on the Bone ; in its passage 
outwards, adlicring to the C^sular Ligaiueut. Tab. 

tcroal Protuberance at the Head of the Os Humeri. 

Action : To roll the Arm iiiwai-ds, to draw it to the 
sidtj of the Body, and to prevent the Capsular Ligament 

XXXIH. FiL'. 1. 2. 

I Extremity.— Tiib. 

many of the Muscular Fibres which lie i 

icdiately i 


om Ihe different Pi 
the Muscles on, the yhouldcr. 

It covers the two Spinati Muscles on the back pai-t of 
the Scapula, as already mentioned. 

On the Humerus, it incloses the Flexor and Extensor 
Muscles of the Fore-ai-m, and is connected to the Ridges 
and Condyles at the under end of the Os Humeri. 

At the bending of the Elbo^v, it is connected to the 
ends of the Radius and Ulna, and receives considerable 
additions &om the Tendons of the Biceps and Triceps 
of the Fcre-ann, where the Fibres from the opposite 
sides decussate each other. 

It becomes thicker and stronger on the Fore-arm, and 
forms a firm covering to the Muscles there. 

Jn its descent, it gives origin to many Muscular Fibres, 
and sends ofF among the Muscles, Partitions which are 
fixed to the Radius and Ulna. The Membrane is at 
length lost insensibly upon the Hand. 

It is thicker and stronger on the outer than upon the 
inner side of the Extremity, particularly on the Fore-ann, 
at the under and back pari of \\h'nh it forms a thick and 
strong Band, whiiii, running Imnsver.itlv, gets the name 
of Ligamenliim Carpi Amiiiliirt r<!>lvrim. 

The use of this Aponeui'osi^, like that in other parts of 

Biceps Flezor Cujbiti, 
Tel Biceps, vel Scapiih-raeHalis. 

Origin : By two Head, : The outer one, caUcd it* 
Long IJead^ begins by a slender Tendon from the upper 
edge of the Glenoid Cavitv of the Scapula, passes over 
the Ball of the Os Hmneri' within the Joint, and, b its 
descent without the Joint, is inclosed in a GrooA'e upou 
the upper and fore part of the Rone, by a Ligament 
which proceeds from the Capsular Ligament and adjacent 
Tendons : The inuer one, called its AAort Hi-ad, arises, 
Tendinous and Fleshy, from the Coracoid Process of the 
Scapula, in common with the Coraco-brachialis. A little 
below the middle of the fore part of the Os Humeri, the 
two Heads unite, and form a thick Flealiy Belly. 

Insertion : By a sti-ong roundish Tendon, into the Tu- 
bercle at the upper and inner part of the Radius, and by 
a Tendinous Expansion ij 
arm, which it likewise af 

Action : To bend the Fore-arm, and to assist the Su- 
pinator Muscles in rolling tiie Radius outwards, and, ol 
course, to turn the Palm of the Hand upwards, it also 
assistf) in stretching the j^poneui-osis. 


BrachiaLis Internus, vel Hnmero-cuhitah's. 

Origin: Flcaliy, from tlie mkldJe of the Oa Humeri, 
a,t each side ot" the iuHertion of the Delloides, covering 
all, and attaclicd to most, of tlic under and fore part of 
the Bone. It runs over tlie Joint, adJicrmg firmly to the 
Capsulai- Ligament. 

Inseriimi : By a strong short Tendon, into the Coro- 
noid Process of the I'hia. Tab. XXXVl. Arm, D. 

Action : To bend the Foi*-ami, and to prevent the 
Ligament of the Joint fi'om being pinched. 

Vel ScopiihJni, 
Origin: By llir 

: He;ids: Tlic fii-st, 

,s, from tlie Inferioi 
Scapula, near its Cervix : The second, i 
acute, Tendinous, and Fleshy, from the outi 
of the Os Humeri, a little below its upper extremity : Tlie 
third, formerly called Brachinli^ EnttrmiSy arises by an 
acute btgiuniiig, from the back part of the Os Humeri, 

or long Head, 
Costa of the 
<r shoyt Head, 
V and back pai't 

of Uie Teres Major. Tlic llucc Heads 
miite about the middle of the Humerus, and cover the 
li'hole posterior part of that Bone, adhering to it in their 

Insertion : Into the upper and outer part of the Ole- 
cranon of the Ulna, and partly into the Condyles of the 
Os Humeri, adhering closely to the Ligament. Tab. 
XLI. Arm, F,^, A, V. 

Action : To extend the Forearm. 

Anconecs, vel Epicondilo-cubitali'i. 

Origin : Tendinous, from the posterior part of ihc ex- 
ternal Condyle of the Os Humen. It descends under a 
triangular foim, soon becomes Fleshy, and part of its 
Flcsli is likewise continued from the third Head of the 


To prevent confusion iu the application of the terms 
Outer and hmer, ivhen the Muscles are described in 
the prone state of tlie Hand, — the Arm is here suppos- 
ed to be pLued by i li<' side of the Body, with the_Hand 

are"" upon "he" out. 
upon the inner side 

Palharis Longus, vel Epifroclih-palmari,". 
Origin ; Tendinous, from the internal Condyle of the 

■oming Fleshy, and sending off ; 



long slcndi 

In-iertion : Into the Ligamenti 
the Apt 
Li-m, B, 
tch the Ap< 
ill bending the Hand. 

3 Muscle is frec|uently wanlmg, but the Api 
5 aliiays to be found. 


ilwd to the Roots of all the Fingers by ; 
limber of double Slips. Tab. L. Fig. 1. 
(' binds down and braces the Muscles in tli 

Palmaris Brevis, vel Palmaro-cttfanais. 

Origin : By small bundles of Fleshy Fibres, fi-om the 
Ligamentura Carpi Annidai'e Anterius, and Aponeurosis 
Palmaris, and passing across, it has its 

Insertion into the Skin and Fat which cover the Ab- 
ductor Alinimi Digiti, and into the Os Pisiformc. Tab. 
L. Fig. 1. o. 

Action; To assist in _ contracting the Palm of the 

Flexor Carpi Radialis, 

Vel Radialis Intemm^ vel JEpilivchlo-metacar^eus . 

Origin : Tendinous and Fleshy, from the inner Con- 
dyle of the Os Humeri, and from the fore and upper part 
of the Ulna, between the Pi-onator Kadii Teres and Flex- 
or Sublimis, to which it firmly adheres. It forms a long 
Tendon, which passes; down near the Radios, goesthrougli 

. in the Us Traptziui 

, uiid becomes Hat a 

L/m-riian .- Into tlie fore and upper part of the Mela- 
carpal Bone whuh sustains the Fore Finger. Tab. 
XXXVIII. Arm, z, «. 

Action : To bend the Wi-ist, and to assist m the pro- 
nation of the Hand. 



[Part U. 

Tllxuk Carpi Ulnaris, 
Vil t'liiiii-ii J'lU-niUi; vd Cubilo-caipetis. 

Origin : TenJiiious, from the iiitenial Condyle of tlie 
s Hiimiri ; and, by a siiiall Fleshy bcgummg, from the 
n-espoodiiis side of tlie Olecranon. Il p:iayfs along tlie 
ner side of the Ulna, from whith also it derives part of 
: origin for a considerable way donit. A number of its 
Fleshy Fibres likewise arise from the Aponeurosis of the 


Ey a strong- Tendon, i 

I the Ob Pisiforn: 

Tendon is inclosed by a Rleiubranoua Sheath, in a Groove 
at the back part of the extreinity of the Lhia. 

Insertion : Into tlie posterior and upper part of tlie 
Melacai-pal tone of llie Little Fisger. Tab. XLIV. 
KightArm, Q. 

Jiiion : 'lo assist the two foniicr Muscles in extend. 
ing the Uiist ; or, with the assistance of the Fltxor 11. 
naris, to draw the Hand towards the side next the Liiilc 

Flexor Dicitobum '^ublimis, \c\ pERfOKATia, 
A tl Epih oc/ifu pImU, >^c i> Cumniimrs 

Extensor Carpi Radialis LoNGiof 

Vcl Sadialis Externiis Longior^ vel Humerv-super- 

Origin : £road, thin, and Fleshy, directly below the 

the (Js llumt-ri, ;ibovc its txtem;tl Condyle. It sends off 
a long fiat Tendon, wliich passes down, (ii'st upon the 
outer, and then upon the back part of the Radius, de- 
scending in a Groove there, and going under the Liga- 
nientum Carpi -r\jmulare Fosterius. 

Insertion : Into the npper, back, and outer part of the 
ii-pal Bone of the I'ore Fijiger. Tab. XLV. Right 


: the Co: 

: the O^ H 

onoid Pioc 

■, \ii) IIlsIu. liom the internal 
iiiLui Uiidiiii us, Jroni the Root 
1 < 1 lit Lhii and Membranous 
middle ol the hnt pait of the Ra- 
'!h ^tnd'i oft loui round Tendons 
Carpi Annulare 

Action : To I 

Vcl Bailiatis Eite 

;nd the Wrist, and bring the Hand 

,is ErevioH, 

•cl EpicomlilosJiper- 

, the TL-nd 
nf ihc Mel 

V the Hand to the 

.n-^iv. Tab. XLV. Right 

■r Muscle in extemling the 
FkM.r Carpi Radioljs, to 

t the Thumb. 

and I Ie-.l 

dius lis 11. 

beloie it pi'-sL 

Antciiub In thm luuise, thtj aie connected to those 

of tht tolltuMug Mu'-tle by hue Membranous Web, 

jnd upon the luigcis aie inclosed in strong Tendmou^ 

In'-ei (mil Into the anteiior and" uppci part of the 
second Phaldn\ of the Fmgers, beuig, near the midtr 
pait ot the hrat Phalanx, spbt and twisted to form a pas- 
sage, and at the same time a kind of Sheath, for the 
Tendons of the Flexor Profundus. Tab. XXXVIil. 
Left Arm, a, A. 

Action : 'lo bend the second, and then tie first Pha. 
lanx of the Fingers. 

Flexor Digitorum Profundus, vel Perfokaks, 
Vel Cubito-pkalangeus Commums, 

Origii) : tlcsby, from the external side and upper part 
of the L'lna, for some ivay down ; and from a large 
share of the Interosseous Ligament. It descends behind ■ 
the Flexor Sublimit, and, like it, splits into four Ten- 
ilorte;, a little before it passes under the Ligamentura An- 
uulai-f, and these pass through the Slits in theTeudonsof 
the Fk'xor l?ublimis. Tab. XXXIX. Left Arm, V» 
W, X. 

Listiiton : Into the anterior and upper pait of the 
(bird Fiiahinx of the Fingers. 

Action ■■ '1 o bend the last Joint of the Fingers. 

LuMBRiCALEs, vel Palmo-phalatigeus. 

These consist of four small Muscles somewhat resem- 
bling Eailh-worms, from which they d^ 
Origin : Thk and llesby, fr 

itside of the 

Tendons of the Flexor Profundus, a little above the lower 

edge of the Lig:unentum Carpi Annulare. At the under 

.1 Condyle of the ends of the MetacaipaJ Rones, each sends off a slender 

Origin : Tendinous, from the 
Os Humeri ; and in its progress Fleshy, from tlie middle Tendon, 
of the rina, where it passea over that Bone, its round JJnertian : Into the outer sides of the broad Tendons 


of the Intcrossei Aruscles, about the middle of the first middle of the po&tcrior part of the Radius. 

Phalanx. Tab. L. Fig. 3. ni, &c. XXXIV. Fore-anii, G. 

Action: To bend tlie first Phalanx, and increase the Action: To roll the Radius in\vard.«, by whi' 

Flcvion of the Fingers^ wiiilc the long Flexors are in full brings the Palm of the Hand downwards, or uito a 

Extensor Dicitorum Communis, 
\'cl Epiconihh-siipfr-j'fiafajigi'ii.t Commimi's. 

Origin: Tendinous and Flfsliy, from the external 
Condyle of the Os Humeri, where it adheres to the Su- 
pinator Radii Brevis, It passes down upon the baek 
part of the Fore-arm, and before it goes under the Liga- 
iDcntum Carpi Annulare Posterius, it splits into three or 
four Tendons, some of which may be divided into smaller 
ones, rpon the back ol' the Metacarpal Hones, the 
Tendons become broad and flat, and near the Heads of 
tlies^e Roues scud Aponeurotic Kxpausioiis to, each other. 

J/i.'icrtioii : Into the posterior part of all the Bones of 
the four Fingers, by a Tendinous Expansion, which is 
tliitk and strong at the sides oF the Joints, but tliin at 
'.hc-ii' hiitk', to facilitate their motions, 'lab. XLV. 

S, T. 

Radii Brevis, vel Epicondih-yadicilis. 
Origin: Tendinous from the external Condyle of the 
Os Humeri, and Tendinous and Fle.hv from' the outer 
.and upper part of the Ulna, and from" the liitcio-cous 

Insertion: Into the upper and fore part of the Radius. 
Tab. XLIV. Fore-arm, O. 

Action: To assl^it the Supinaloi- Lojigus. 

PRONATOK Radii Ti;re^,, \i;1 Ei.ilrf,<hh-yu,lialis. 

Origin: Fle.hv from the iiiUninl C oiidvk> ni' the Os 
Ilmncri, and -IVniiiiKms frnm llir. Coronoid |>.nress ..f 
.1.. Uh,a. n goes ,)hlK|nely acrns. the upper cm.I of .he 
I'lexor Vliiscles of the Wrist, ami is ..f a laptTini; fonii. 

Jn.^frfi'm- Thin, Tendinous, and Fkshy, into the 

Pronator Radii Qi 
Origin: Broad, Tend! 

vel Cahito-radialin. 

c Joints of the Fingers. 

.'SUPINATOR Radii Longus, vel Hiimcro-stiper-radiali^. 

Origin .- By an acute Fleshy beginning, from the Itidge 
of the Os Humeri, above the external Condyle, nearly as 
high as tlie middle of the Bone. It forms a thick Fleehy 
. Belly, which covers the upper part of the Extensor Cai-- 
pi Radialis Longior ; and about (he middle of the Fore- 
arm, sends a tapering Tendon along the edge of the Ra- 

In-^ertion : Into the outer side of the under end of tii( 
Radius. Tab. XXXVUI. Fore-arm, W. 

Action ■ To roll the Radius outwards, and, of course. 
to turn the Hand iato a supine situation, or with the P,din 

id Fleshy, from the under 
id inner part of the Ulna. The Fibres running trans- 
rrsely, the Muscle has its 

(he midcr and fore part of the Radius. 

■igm : By an acute, Flesliy beginning, from the fore 
of tlie Radius and Interosseous Ligament, the Ori- 
vHH.ding ti-om the Tubercle of the Bone, as far as 
'ronator Quadratns. It has fiequcntly another Ori- 
liy a distinct Fleshy Slip, from the internal Condyle 
■Os Humeri. 

Origin : Fiom the Ossa Trapezoides, Magnmn, c 
t'nciforme. It is divided into two Poiiions, which fon 
a Groove for the Tendon of the Flexor Longus Pollicis. 

Insertion : Into the Ossa Sesamoidea, and Base of th 
fii-st Bone of the Thumb. Tab. L. Fig. 2. 

To bend the first Joint of the Thumb. 


; Pol: 

e] F/t> 

\1 Fft-ior Ossis Metacarpi Pollk 

Internodii, vel Carjiu-iiietacarpcifs Pollicis. 

Origin: Fleshy, from the Os Tnipc/iimi and Liga, 
lentuin Caqji Annulare Anterius. It lies inunediately 
nder the Abductor PoUicis. 

Inttrtion : Tendinous and Fleshy, into the under and 
ire part of the Metacarpal Bone of the Tliunib. Tab. 
.. I'ig. 2. /. 

Action : To bruig the Thumb inwards, so as to make 

oppose the Fingers j from which circumstance it lias 

Extensor Ossis Metacahpi Pollicis, 

Vel Ciibito-supcr-mctacarpcus 'PoUicis. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the middle of the posterior 


pavtd of tlie Ulna, Radius, and Interosseous Ligament. 
ft runs obiiqueiy o\tr the Itadius, sending one, or more 
JVequeiitly t^vo 'I'eiidons, tlirough an Annular ISlieath. 

Insert imi : Into the Os 'Irapeziuni, and upper and 
hack iiait or the Metacarpal Boue of the Thumb. Tab. 
XLH.Kighl Fore-arm, /. 

Ad ion : I'o extend the Metacarpal Bone of tlie Thumb, 
and di'aw it fixim the Fingers. 

Extensor Primi Internodii Pollicis, 
Vcl Extensor Minor, vel Citbltosuper-phaJangeus Pri- 
mus Poinds. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the back part of the Ulna, and 
from the Interosseous Liigament, near the former Musele, 
by the side of which it runs. 

Insertion : Tendiuous, into the posterior part of the 

Actum: To extend the first Joint of the Thumb. 
Extensor Secundi Internodii, 


Vel Extensor hidicis Pivprius, vel Ctihito-sitper-phalan- 

geiis Prinni-s Indicia- 

Origin: By an acute Fleshy begiDning, from lli>- 
middle of the posterior part of the Ulna, at the inner sidr 
of the Extensor hecuiiai lutemodii Pollicifl. Its 'Itn- 
don passes under tlie same Eigament with the Extensor 
Digitorum Communis. 

Insertion : Along with part of the Extensor Digitorum 
Communis, into the posterior part of the lore Finger. 
Tab. XLIV. Left Fore-arm, T. 

Action : To assist the Extensor Communis in extend- 
ing all the joints of this l;mger, as in pointing a.t any 
thing, hence called Indicator, 

Abductor I>fDicis. 

Origin : From the Os Trapezium, and from the upper 
pai't and inner side of tlie Metacarpal Bone of the 

Insertion ,- By a short Tendon, into the enter and 
bMk pai't of the first Bone of the Fore Finger. Tab. L. 
Kg. tf. ,-. 

Action : To bring the Fore Finger tuwaxde the 

Origin: By an acute, Tendinous, and Fleshy begin- 
ning, from the middle of the back part of the Ulna, and 
from the Interosseous liigament. Its Tendon runs 
through a smaJl Groove at the under, inner, and back 
pai't of the Radius. 

Insertion: Into the last Bone of the Thumb. Tab. 
XJJV. Left Fore-arm, R. • 

Action : To extend the last Joint of the Thumb, 

Abductor Pollicis, 
Vel C'arpo-auper-phalangeus PoIHcis. 

Origin : Broad, Tendinous, and Fleshy, from the Li- 
gameutum Carpi Annul.-ire, and from the Os Trapezium. 
It lies immediately under the Skin, and over the Oppo- 
nens Pollicis. 

Ijisertion : Tendinoas, into the outer side of the root 
of the first Bone of the 'I'humb. Tab. L. Fig. i . i. 

Actio?! : To draw the 'nmmb from the Fingers. 

A particular portion on the inner side of this Muscle 
is called, by Albi«us, Abductor Brevis Alter, 

ADDVcroRPQi.j.ici5,vtlAIetacarpo-Phal{tngeus Pollicis. 

Origin : Fleshy, fvmn almost the whole lengtli of the 
Metacarpal Bone of llie Middle Finger; going atroBs the 
Metacarpal Bone of the Fore Finger, its Fibres converge 
and send off a short Tendon, 

Insertwn : Into the inner part of the root of the first 
Bone of the Thumb. Tab, XXXIX. Fig. 1. Right 

Action : To pull the Thumb towards the Fingers. 

Flexor Parvus Minimi Digiti, 
Vel CarpQ-phaiangeus Secundus, 

Origin : From the Uncus of the Os Uncifonne, and 
adjacent part of the Annular Ligament. It passes ob- 
liquely over the under end of the following Muscle. 

Insertion : By a roundish Tendon, into the inner part 
of the Base of the first Bone of this Finger. Tab. L. 

Action : To bend the Ixittle Finger, and assist the Ad- 

Abductor Minim) Digiti, 

Vel Carpa-plialangeiis Minimi Digiti, 
Origin : Heshy, from the Os Pisiforme, and from that 

part of the Ligamentum Carpi Annulare Anterius next 

it ; going nearly straight down at the inner side of the 

Insertion : Tendinous, into the inner side o£ the Base 

of the first Bone of the Little Finger. Tab. L. Fig. 2. v. 
Action : 'lo draw the Little Finger firom the rest. 

Adductor Minimi Digiti, 
Vcl Met-acarpcm, vel Ctv pu-mctacmpvus Minimi Digiti ■ 

Origin ■ Fleshy, from ihc edge of the Hook-like Pro- 
cess of the Om 111. ifin nil-, and from that part of the Li- 
gamentum Caipi Anuuhuc next it. 

Imertion : 'I'endinous into the inner aide, and aoteriov 
or under extremity, of the Metacarpal Bone of the Little 
Finger. Tab. L. Fig. 2. w. 


Action : To beud the Metacarpal Bone, and bring this 
Finger towards the rest. 

Vel Metacarpo-phalangei Latemks. 

Origin: From the sides of the Metacarpal Bones. 
They fill «P the spaces between these, and are sometliing 
similar to tne Lnnibiicalesf but larger. 

Insertion : By slender Tendons, along with those of 
ilie Lombricales, into the sides of the Tendinous Expan- 
sions of the Extensor Digitorum Couunuuis. Tab. L. 
Fig. 4. e—t. Fig. 5. 6. 7. 

Action : To give the Fingers their lateral motions, 
«id to assist a little, accOL'ding to their situations, in bend- 
uig or estcndiii;;- thu lii-st Ph^anx of the Fingers. 

Of thf Intci-ossei, three, seen in the Palm of the Hand, 
arise witli single Heads, and are called Interni ; and four 
on tlie back, of the hand, with double Heads, termed Ex- 
tfiiiiy or Bicipites. Part oftheExtemi, however, ai-e 
also seen in the Palm of the Hand. 


Origin : From the outer or Radial side of tiie Meta- 
carpal Bone of the Fore Finger. 

Insertmn : Into the outside of the Tendon on the 
back of the Fore Finger. 

miction : To draw the Finger outwards, towards the 

Posterior Indicis. 

Origin : From the inner or Ulnar side of the Meta- 
carpal Bone of the Fore Finger. 

Insertion : Into the inside of the Tendon, on the back 
of the Fore Finger. 

Action ■ To draw the Fore Finger inwards. 

Origin : From the outside of the Metacai-pal Bone of 
the Ring Finger. 

Insertion : Into the outside of the Tendon on the back 
of the Ring Finger. 

Action: To draw the Ring Fmger outward^. 

Interosseue Auricularis. 

Origin : From the outside of the Meta.cai-pal Bone of 
the Little Finger. 

Insertion : Into the outside of the Tendon on the back 
of the Little Finger. 

Action : To draw the Little Finger outivards. 


Prior Medii Digiti. 

Origin: From the coia'csponilitig sides of the Meta- 
carpal Bones of the Fore and Middle Fingers. 

Insertion : Into the outside of the Tendon on the back 
of the Middle Finger. 

Action : To draw the Middle Finger outwards. 

Posterior Medii Digiti, 

^ponding sides of the Meta- 

Posterior Annularis. 

Origin : From the correspouf^g sides of the IHeta- 
cajpal Bones of the Rmg and Little Fingers. 

Insertion : Into the iuside of tJic Tendon on the back 
of the Ring Finger. 

Action : To draw the Ring Finger inward=. 


fFERioR Extremity, 

1 of the Muscles of the In- cles, and sends oft' Pai' 

cia Lata, or Tendinous Expansion, which, as in the Su- 
perior Extremity, forms a general Covering to the Mus- 

e of the Fas- nected to the Ridges and Processes of the Bon^. 



It is thick aiiJ Jti-ong Gil tlie otiUide of the Thigli 
Leg, but lowiirds the ianer side of both, 
the former, it giadually turns ihiimcr, im 
appearance of Ceilulur Membrane, 

it desceuds fi-om the Processes and other Projections on 
the outside of the Bones of the Pch-is, but more espe- 
cially from the 'lendons of the Externa! i.ayer3 of the 
Muscles of the liOins and Abdomen. — See the description 
of the upper part of this Fascia in p. U'i. 

A little below the Trochauter Major, it is intimately 
connected to the Linea Aspera. At tlie Joint of the 
Knee it receives additions from the Tendons of the Ex- 
tensors of the Leg, and is there coniiected with tlie outer 
and inner sides of the Head of the Tibia and ribiila. In 
the Leg, it is firmly fixed to the Supines or Kidgesof the 
Tibia and Fibula, and at the under end, to the Bones of 
the Ankle, where part of it, thicker and stronger than the 
rest, is extended from the Malleolus Internus and Os Na- 
viculare, to the Malleohia Externus, and adjacent part of 
the Os Calcis, to form the Ligajnentum Tarsi Annulare. 

Symphysis, below and behind tHe former Muscle ; It 

Milarly on runs obliciucly outwards. 

•ather the Insertion: By a short flat Tendon, into the inner and 
upper part of the Linea Aspera, fi-om a little below the 
'J'roclianter Minor, to the beginning of the insertion of 
the Adductor Longus. Fab. XXAIX. Left 'IJiigh, e. 

Su,.} *^^-"''- 

Adductor Magnus, vel Ischwjfemoraiig. 

Origin : From the side of the Symphyaia Pubis, a 
little lower than the former. The Origin is continiwd 
doivntvards from tlie Cms and Tuberosity of the Os Is. 
chiuin. The Fibre.s run outwards and downwards, spread- 
iiig out wide, and tijriiiiiig a very large Muscle, 

i/t-tt'rtion : Into the whole lenglh of the Linea Aspera ; 
the under part of the Muscle extending along the Ridge 
which leads to the inner Condyle of the Os Fenioris. It 
is also fixed by a roundish Tendon, into the upper part 
■of that Condyle, a little above which the Femoral Ar- 
tery, in its course towards the Ham, passes between the 
Tendon of this Muscle and the Bone. Tab. XXXVII. 
Fig. 1. Thigh, D. Fig. 2. A, B, C. 

Act/o» o/ the three -i^ducinrs : To bring the Thigti 
inwards and upwards, accordii,gtotlu.HLfferent directions 
Fibres, and to assist a little in rolling it out- 

Pectinalis, vel Pectinem^ vel Super-pitbio-femoraJis. 

Origin : Broad and Fleshy, from the upper and fore 
pan of the Os Pcctinis vc! Pubis, between the upper 
pait of the Foramen Thyroideum and Brim of the Pelvis. 
It runs doivnwards and outwards at the umer side of the 
Psoas Magnus. 

Inserlio/i : By a flat and short Tendon, into the Li- 
nea Aspera of the Os Femoris, a little below the Tro- 
chanter Minor. Tab. XXXIV. Thigh, E 

Action : To pull tlie Thigh upwaids and inwards, and 
to give it, ajid of course the Foot, a degree of rotation 

Tbicjeps Adductor Femoris. 

Under this appellation are comprehended three distinct 
Muscles, viz. Adductor Longus^ Adduce Brew'Si and 
Adductor Magnus. 

Adductor Lohgub, vel Pubio-femmaJis. 

Origin : By a strong roundish Tendon, from the upper 
and fore pait of the Os Pubis, and Ligament of the Syn- 
chondrosis, at the iuner side of the Pcctinalis : It runs 
Jownwards and outwarde. 

hiAertum : By a broad flat Tendon, into the middle of 
the Linea Aspera. Tab. XXXVIU. Thigh, c. 

Adductor Brevis, vel Sub-pubio-Jemoralis. 
Xirigin .- TendioouB, from the Or, Pubis, at the side of 

Obturator Exterkus, 
Vel Sub-pu!m-trocha«tereus Externus, 

Origin : By a semicircular Margin, from the parts of 
the Ossa Pubis and Ischium, which form the anterior 
half of the Foramen Thyroideum, and from the Mem- 
brane which fills up that Foramen. The Fibres are col- 
lected like rays towards a ccnti-e, and pass outwards over 
the back part of the Cervix of the Os Femoris, 

Insertion : By a strong round Tendon, into the Cavit j 
at the inner and back part of the Koot of the Trocliaji- 
ter Major, adhering in its coujse to the Capsular Li. 
gament of the Thigh-bone. Tab. XXXVII. Fig. 1. 
Thigh, C. 

Action : To roll the Thigh-bene obliqnely ontw.-tni^-. 
.and to prevent the Capsular Ligament Irom being pindi- 

Gluteus Maximus, vel Sacro-fenwratis. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the back part of the Spine 
the Os Ilium ; from the under and outer part of the I 
Sacrum ; from the Os Coccygis ; and from the postein 
Sacro-sciatic Lig-aments, over which part of the infein 
edge hangs in a Flap. The Fibres are collected m 
coarse Fasciculi, which run obliijucly forwards and a 11 
tie downwards. The upper pait of it covei-s almosl il 
whole of the Trochimter JIajor, :uid it is intimately fm 
nected with the broad Tendon of the Tensor Fag:n(F J-\ 
mm-is. This Muscle is the lai-gest of the Body, and con 
poses the principal part of the jbuttock. 

Part II.] 


Insertion: By a strong, thick, aiid bi-oad Tendon, nient. Tlie livo Heads are uuiieJ bj a Tcudinoua au 

into the upper aiid outer part of the Liiiea Aspera, along Flesliy Meiiibiane, and fnrm a Sheath for the leceptio 

which it is continued for some way doivii. Tab. XL. of the Tendon of the Obturatoi- fntenms. 

PeliTs and Thigh, A, A. Insn-tim: Tendinous and Fleshy, into the Cavity : 

Action: To extend the Thigli, and pull it backwards the inner side of the loot of llie Jiochanter Major, c 

and a little outwaj'ds. It cxttiida also the Pelvis on the each side of the 'J'endon of the Obtm-ator Intciiius, 1 

Thigh in standing; and, assisted by the other Glutei, which they ftnnly adhere. Tub. XLl. Pelvis, C. 

maintains the equilibrium of the Body ou the lower Mx- Action : To roll the Thigh outwards, and to prevei 

treniity, which rests on thcgtound, while the other is car- the Tendon of the Obturator Iiit'.i:i js fmm starting oi 
of its place while the Muscle is m action, 

lied forwards. 

vel lliOrt 

Origin : Fleshy, from all that part of the Spine of the 
Os Ilium which is unoccnpird by the Gluteus Ma\imus ; 
from t!ic upper part of the Dorsum of that Bone ; and 
fi-om aji Aponeurosis which covers the Muscle, and joins 
tJ)e Fascia of t]ic Thigh. It sends off a broad Tendon, 
which has its 

Lisertfrm into the outer and back part of the Tro- 
chanter Major. Tab. XH. Pelvis, A. 

Action : To pull tte Thigh outwai-ds, and a little 
backwards. The fore part of the Mii=clo «.=ists in roll- 
ing if ■ 

Gluteus Minimus, vel Vio-Uvchantereus Panits. 

Origin : Fleshy, fram the lower half of the Dorsum of 
the Os Ilium. Its Origin is continued from the superior- 
anterior Spinous Process, along a rising of the Bone, as 
far as the great Sciatic Notch ; and tlie Muacle runs in a 
rotated manner to a strong flat Tendon. 

Instriion : Into the fore and upper part of the Tro- 
chanter Major. Tab. XLII. Pelvis, A. 

Action : To assist the former in pulling the Tliigh 
outwards, and a little backwards ; ajid, along with other 
Muscles, in rolling it inwards. 

Pykiformis, vel Sacro-troch«ntertiUS. 

Origiti : Within the Pelvis,, by three Tendinous aud. 
lleshy Heads, from the second, third, and fouith pieces 
of the Os Sacrum ; and, becoming round and tapering, it 
p;ihneB out of the Pelvis, along with the Sciatic Nerve^ 
iliiiuigh the great Notch of the Ilium, from which it re- 
leives the additiop of a few Fleshy Fibres. 

Irixertian : By a roundish Tendon, into the uppci put 
r.\ the Cavity at the inner side of the root ol tliL Tjo- 
( hanter Major. Tab. XLI. Pelvis, B. 

Action: Toassist in the Abduction of the Thigh, md 
1(1 its rotation outwards. 

Gemini, vel Gemelli, vel Inchio-trQchantet ctis 

Origin: By two distinct Heads; the supeiior fiom 
I I' Spinoug Process, and the inferior from tne lubero- 
liv <vf the Os lEthiuni. and from (he 8acro-Hciatic Liga- 

Obturator Tnteknus, 
A' el Marsiqiidli'', vel Sub-inibio-trochanicrcus Iiilcrnvi. 
Origin: Within the Pelvis, by a semicii-cular Fleshy 
margin, from the anterior half of the Foramen ITiyroi- 
deum, and, in part, from the Obturator l.<igaineDt. Its 
Fibres converge, and scud off a round Teudon, which 
passes over the Os Ischium, between the Spine and Tu- 
of that Bone, as a rope passes over a pulley Mlierc 


r Ligament of the Thigh-bone, il 

ni, ijito the Kii^u Pit at the root of the Trochanter Ma- 
jor. Tab. XLII. Fig. 1. Pelvis and InferiQr Extre- 

Action : To roll the Thigh obliquely outwai'ds. 

vel Inckiu-sub-lrochanterevs. 


In^rtifm ; Fleshy, into a rough Ridge coDtinued from 
the root of the gi-eat to that of the small Trociuuilcr. 
Tab. XLl. Pelvis, E. 

Aclimi : To roll the Tliigh oulwardii. 

This Muscle i^ nccaslonaljy ivaiitiiig. 

The Pyrifonnis, Gemini, Quadratiis, and Obtirralorcs, 
which arc the Rotators of the Thigh when it is in a lioi. 
with the Body, become its Abductors when it is in tile 


Vol Ilto-aponcttniso-fcmona. . 

Ol igm 

om the I 

luon. Tendinous, and Fleshy begin, 

iioub Piocess nl the Os Ilium It qocs down«aids, md 
» lillle baikinr.U, loimmi, a thuk Flsshi Eelh, which 
iclostd ui 1 doubling ot the \poueuiasis oi \ a^ma 01 

tin Ihith 

ijoi, into 


[Paet U 

ve] Ilio-pretibialii 

Tora the superior-aatei- 

Ilium, at the in 

It soon bccomi 

MheMusclos Ml 

the longest JMuscli 

i Tk'sliy, ] 
obliquelv downwards over the Muscles &jlu;Ued upon 
fore and inner side of the 'Jhigh 
of the Body. 

Imertioii ; By a broad and thin Tendon, into the inner 
side of (lie Tibia, near the inferior pail of its Tubercle- 
Tab. XXXVllI. Itight Inferior Extremity, g, y. 

Action: To bend the Knee, and bringonc Legoblique- 
ly inw ards across the other, -as tailors do at their work. 

Gracilis, vel Rectus Jbtternus^ vel Sub-pulno-prettbiak's. 

Origin: By a thin Tendon, from the Os Pubis, near 
the Symphysis ; soon becoming Fleshy, and descending 
ill a direct course by the inside of the Thigh. 

Jni/(Ttirm: Tendinous, into the Tibia, lower than tlie 
Sartoi-ius. Tab. XXXVJ. Fig. 1. Thigh, G. rig.2. D. 

Action:. To assist the in making the full 
Hexiou of the Knee, after it has been bent to a certain 
degiec, by the Flexors on the back pait of the Thigh. 

Rectus, vel Gracilis Anterior^ vel Ilio-rotidevs. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the inferior-anterior Spinous 
Process of the Os Ilium ; and Tendinous, from the Dor- 
sum of that Bone, a little above the Acetabulum. It runs 
down over the aut*--rior part of the Capsular Ligament 
which incloses ihe t'ervix of the Os Femoris, and, in its 
passage along the fore piirt of the Thigh, becomes gra- 
dually larger as far as its niiddle, after which it decreases 
towards its lower cstieniity. In the midtlle of the fore 
part of the Muscle, there is a longitudinal Tendinous 
Line, from which Fleshy Fibres run off like the plumage 
of a feather ; the Tendon itself being moat conspicuous 
behi. • 

outer part of the Root of the Trochanter Major. It- 
Origin is continued from the Trochwiter, alongthe whole 
outer side of the Linea Aspeia, to near the external Con- 
dyle of the Os Femoi-is, by Fleshy Fibres, which form 
the piTDcipal part of the outer portion of the Thigh, and 
obliquely forwai-ds to a middle Tendon, where they ter- 


■ part of tlie Pa- 

the edge of the Tendon of the Rectus, with which 
it is connected. Part of it ends in an Aponeurosie, which 
is fixed to the Head of the Tibia, and afterwards is con- 
tmued to the Leg. Tab. XXXV. Fig. 2. C. 
Action : To extend the Xieg. 

Vastus Internus, 
Or Inner Part of the Tri-femoro-rotideua. 

Origin : Tendinous and Fleshy, from between the fore 
part of the Os Feraoris, and root of the Trochanter Mi- 
nor. The Origin is also continued along the whale inside 
of the Linea Aspera, by Fibres running obliquely for- 
ivoriis and downwards, which occupy the under and inner 
side of the Thiglt. 

Insertinn : Tendinous, at the side of the Crureus with 
which it is connected, into the upper and inner edge of 
the Patella, continuing Fleshy lower than the Vastus Ex- 
temus. Part of it likewise ends in an Aponeurosis, which 
is fixed to the upper part of the Tibia, and afterwardfi is 
conUnued to the Leg. Tab. XXXV. Fig. 2. B. 

Action : To assist the three former Muscles in extend, 
ing the Leg; then the Patella, fixed to the Tubercle of 
the Tibia by a strong Ligament, supplies the office of a 


js, vel Ischio-preiibialis. 

erlion: Tendino 
'inn : To extend the Leg, 

the upper pait of the Pa- 


,el Cn 

Middle of the Tri-fai. 


Or-g'ii : Flesrhv, from between the two Trochanters 
of the 0-, Feiiimi's, bi.t nearer the Minor ; and from the 
fore pjit uf the Tliii-Ji-boiic to near ita luidei' extremity, 
Ity h\Ai< AVL- ..oiimit^d tu both Vasti I\Inbcks; anterioi'- 
ly, il i, i.,v,nd l.v liif lUttUK, tl.e Tendon of wiiich it 
joins near the lowir |].;ii of the Thigh. 

Insert (rii: Into the upper and back part of the Pa- 
tella, behind the Rectus. Tab. XXXV. Fig. 'i. A. 

Action : To assist in the extension of the Leg. 

Vastus Exterwus, 

Or Outer Part of the Tri-fevtoro-rotuleus. 

Origin: Broad, Tendinous, and Fleshy, frojn the 

Origin : Tendinous and Fleshy, in common with the 
long Head of the Biceps, from ihe posterior part of the 
Tuberosity of the Os Ischium. Its Ikhiiv Ecllv rrnis 
down the back part of llic Tliif;ii, ami .sfn<ls off ;i lon^; 
roundish Tendon, which passing hy tlu- inner ."^ide of the 
Knee, aftenvards becomes flat. 

Jn.sertion: Into the inside of the Kidge of the Tibirt, 
a little below the 'lubiTclc, ami c.nncclcd to the under 
edge of the Cn.cilis. TiLb. XLl. Thigh, K. 

Action : To bend the Log, iuid, when bended, to ivll 
it inwards. 

Semimembranosus, vel Isckio-poplilo-tibiaiis. 

Origin : By a bioad flat Tendon, from the upper ;i 
back part of the Tuberosity of the Os Isihimn. i 
Fibres composing ihe I'leshy Belly, forma Bemi-pennif'M 
Muscle, by rmmiiig iu ;ai oblique direction towald^ 
flat Tendon at the inner and under part of the Mubt 

of the Tibia. Tab. XXJl. Thigh, C. 


Action : To bend the Leg, aiid bring U dli-cctly back- 

BfcEPS Flexor Cburis, 

Origin : By t^vo distinct Heads. The "first, or Long 
'had, anT,us in fomiiioii with the Semitendiiiosus, train 
iie Linptr :m(l b:itk. part of tlic Tuberosity of tlie Os 
-diLULiu T1k> sccoiul, 01 SImrt Hcatl, arises from tlic 

inner Ham-sti-ijig^ aod l1 
between the Hani- strings 
are Bituated, which run t 

eBicepH the outer Hamstring ; 
the gi-eat Vessels and >iciTe3 
J the Lieg. 

Ghitcus Maximiis, by a Tk-shy acute beginning, whicli Fkvsl)ly, and sjireadfi . 

soon grows broader, as it descends to join the iirst inivards and douuua 

Head a little above the extenial Condyle of the Os Fe- Menibiauc. 

Insertion: By a strong Tendon, into the upper and per and inner pari of t 

outer part of the Head of the Fibula. Tab. XLI. Tab. XLII. Lcj., G. 

Thigh,*, c. Action: To a'.si.^ti, 

Action : To bend the Leg. to roll it inwards. '1 1 

The Semiteudinosus and Semimembi-anosus form the lar Ligament fiom btii 

vel Femoro-jiopllto-tibialis^ 

lall round Tendon, from the outer 
le exlenial Condyle of the Os Fe- 
■ back part of the Capsular Liga- 
Jji pa>iin;f the Joint, it becomes 
out, the Fibres running obliquely 

L'liding the Ln^, and, when benl. 
\' also prevents the Caps.i- 

; LF.G AKJj FOOT, serving i 


Origin : By two distinct Heads ; one from the upper 
and back part of the internal Condyle of the Os Femoris, 
and from a little above the Condyle, by tivo separate be 
ginnings; The othci, Tendmoub tromthc upper and back 
piirt of the external Condvlt A littk belovv the Joint, 
theii- Fleshy Bellies meet m a middle Tendon, the union 
giving the appearince of a longitudinal Haphe Below 
the middle of tlie Tibia, the Muscle sends off a broad 
thin Tendon, which, becoming gradually narrower, joms 
that of the Gastrocncmiu'i Infeinus, a little abo^e the 
Ankle. Tab. XL Leg, K, K, M 

Gastrocnemius Intehnus, 

Vel Soleua, vel Tibio-calcaneus. 

Origin: By two Heads. The first from the back 
part of the Head, and upper and back part nf the Body 
'if 1 1 " (•'ibiiJa : The other from tlie back part of the Tibia, 

viinnuu;- u^^y■.,nU aloiii^v Hu. under edge of the Popliteus, 
r'M....,<i- ilir uiii.f paiK.l theJlone, from which it receives 
IV hv Fibn... fur sum.- way down. The Flesh of this 
Mil, uliicli in of tiK' compound Pcnniform kind, co- 
■■■ uvd by (lie Tendon of the Gastrocnemius Exteiims, dc- 
.1 . i.Jh nearly as far as tlic extremity of the Tibia, a little 
.ilinve which the Tendons of both Castrocneraii unite, 
uiil form a strong roimd Cord, called Taidu Achillih, 
nr^mply //r,7 'tVmloji. 

/.ii^ci-tion : Into the upper and back part of the Os 
( dUAv, by the projection of which the Tendo Achillis is 

at a considerable distance from the Tibia. Tab. XLI. 
Leg, H, L. 

Action : To extend the Foot, by raising the Heel. 

By the Bellies of the two Gastrocneraii, but particu- 
larly of the Extemus, the Calf of the Leg is formed. 


IS, vel Femoro-cakaiteus Parii 

Origin : Thin and Flesliy, from the upper and back 
part of the external Condyle of the Os Femoris, and 
Iroin the Capsulai' Ligament of the Joint. A little below 
the Head of the Fibula, it sends off a slender Tendon, 
the longest of the Body, which descends obliquely in- 
w irds, between the inner Heads of the Gastroenemii, and 
ificiunds runs along the inner Edge of the Tendo 
A Hi! 1 IS, to which it is closely connected. 

J/i tihii : Into the inside of the posterior part of the 
0^t.iki.s, belou chc Tendo AcHiLLis. Tab. XLJ. Leg, 

Action : To assist ijic Gastrocncmii, though in a small 
degree only, and to pull tiie Capsular Ligament of the 
Knee from between the Koncs. It likewise agitates a 
Fatty substance belonging lo the Bursa; MucosiE, at the 
insertion of the Tendo Ai hillis. 

I'his Aluscle is sometimes, though very seldom, wanting. 

Tibialis Ant 

vel Tilio-sujiei 

Origin : Tendinous, fjom the 
the Tibia, between its 'I ubercle 
the Fibula. It then niiis down, 
of the Tibia, adliering to it aiiJ ic) tin- 
Interosseous Ligument. 'I'miaid-. tin- i 
Leg, it sends off a ;.'ii.iii^ ix--. '■■-'■ 'I tue 

upper and fore part of 



[1-AKl II. 

tmijer the Lig-AmeatuT 
Ankle, and, ruiiui&g < 
cidarc, it has its 

>i AniHiIaic, near the inner Sheath with the Tcndou of the preceding Muscle, and 
le Astragalus and Os Navi- there crossing behind thai Tcudon^ runs iorwaid iu :t 

Sheath proper to itself. 
:o the middle of the Os Cii- Insertion : Teadinoug, into the itmt and external pail 
neiforme Internum and Biise of the Metatarsal Bone of of the Metatarsal Bone of the Little Tof. lab. XXII. 
the Great Toe. Tab. XXXIV. Leg, G, r. Leg, M, C. Tab. XLIll. Leg, €. 

Action: Totciid the Foot. Action: To assust tlie foniiev Muscle in pulling the 

Foot outwards, its outer edge upwards, iind lo extend ii 
Tibialis Posticus, vd Tibin^^ub-farseus. *»> ^ ^^^ ^'"S"'^' 

Origin: Fleshv, fi'om tli. 
Tibia, under the Proct^ss n 
then, passuig through a Fiss 
Interoi&eous Ligament, it cc 
hack part of the Fibula, ne 
one half of the upper part 
also from the Interosseous L 
towards a middle Tendon, 
round, and passes in a Gr< 


r and fore part of the 
ioLis it to tiie Fibula ; 
the upper part of the 

i Oi-ii 

L the 

he 'I'ibia, and from near 

the last-named Bone, as 

the Fibres ruuuing 

i descent, becomes 

-c behind the Malleolus In- 


Vcl Peronco-super-phalangevs Commxinis. 
Origin : Tendinous and Fleshy, from the upper auJ 
outer part of the Head of tiie 1 ibia, and fi-oni the Head, 
and almost the whole length of the anterior t^piue of the 
Fibula. It arises, also, Fie,shy, from the Aponeurosis whidi 
covers the upper and outer part of tlie Irfg, and ft-om the 

into the under 
e Slips, the la,',t 
iiial Bone of the 

t Ligament. Under the Ligainei 
Annulare, it splits into four round Tendons, 
along the upper part of the Foot. 

1 Tai'si 


Tab. XLIII. Leg, B. 

of the 'libialis Amicus, to turn the To 
1 !ie outer edge of the Foot dounwards. 

Peroseus Longds, 
Vl-1 Primus, \c'l Pcrom-o-f^i/b.lar.'^cm: 

' Origin : Tendinous and Fleshv, from the fore part of 
the Head of the Fibula ; and Vle.liv, from the outer 
pail of that Boue, domi to within a hand-breadth of the 
Ankle. The Fibies run in a Penniform niannei' towards 
:i long Tendon, whiih becomes round, and, inclosed in a 
Sheath, passes through a Channel behind the Malleolus 
EstemuH, It is then leflected to the Siouoaity of the 
Us Calcis, runs along a Groove in the Os Cuboides, and 
goes obliquely 

the Bones i 

niddle of the 

the OsCunciforme Internum, Tab. XLIL Leg, L, b 

Action ; To extend the Foot a little, to di-aw it out- 
wards, and to turn the inner edge of it downwards. 

Fekokeus Brevis, 
Vel SecjinduSi vel Peroneo-metaiarsetis Magnus. 
Origin : Fleshy, from the outer part of the Fibula, 
beginning some way above the middle height of the Bone, 
and contiuuing its adhesion as far as the Malleolus Ex- 
temus. The Fibres run, like those of the former Musde, 
to an external Tendon, which becomes round, passes be- 
hind the outer Ankle, ivhcrc it is indndcd iu the same 

over the upper side of the Toes as fai ns tbe i-ootof the 
last Phalanx. Tab. XXXV. Leg, k, b. 

Action: To extend all the Joints of the four small 
Toe?, and to assist in the flexion of the Ankle. 

Peroneus Tertics of Albinus, 
Vel Peroneo-metatarseus Minor^ 
Is a Portion of the former Muscle. 

Origin : From the middle of the Fibula, m commuit 
with the Extensor Longus Digitorum. It contuiuc 
down to near the Malleolus Exteinus, and Gendi< it-< 
Fleshy Fibres forwai-ds to a Tendon »hich passes undd 
the Liganientnm Annulare. 

Insertion .- Into the root of the Metatarsal Boue of 
the Little Toe. Tab. XLVI. Left Leg, W,.V. 

Action : .To assist in bending the Foot. 

Extensor Beevis Digitorum, 
Vel Cakositper-phahngeus Cotnnitim's. 

Origin : Fleshy and Tendinous, from the outer and 
fore part of the Os Calcis ; soon forming a Fleshy Belly, 
which is divided into four Portions. These send oti 
an equal number of Tendons, whidi pass over the upper 
part of the Foot, crossing under those of the foruiti 

Insertion : By four slender Tendons, into the Teudi- 
rfousExpai ■ ■ ■ - ■ - 

all the T'oe 
Foot, O. 


Aponeurosis Plantar 

This, like the Apoueurosis Palniaus, ig a strong Ttn- 
diuous Expansiou, which co^eis the Muscles, \ easels, tiid 

Nerves of the Solt 

It arises from the 'lubcio'.il\ it the iindei ind back 
part of the iH Cikis, md is dnided into three Poitions, 

s subdivided into h\c "^Iips ^^hi(.h iplit tt the loots ot 
he Toes, and embiate the leudons of the Tlcvoi Mus. 

Flexor DroiTOauM Accessobius, 
Vcl Masva Camea Jacobi &rLVii. 

Oiii^m By two Poitiona, the inner Flesh), from 
the Suuiosit> of ttiL Os (. jkis> , the outer Tendinous, but 
feoon bLLoming tleshy, ficui the foie and ontei pait ot 
th-it iJoDt 

Iti'.Lilim Into the Tendon of the Flexor Longus Di- 
giloiiuii, betoit It diMdes luto t>mJlci Tendous. Tab 
L Fjg 1(J i,c, rf 

iitun To a&jist the Flf-xoi Longus 

^e! Phntfj iuh-phalangevi 

\\1 Flexor SubUm 

vel Pi foi 

Oi gut By foui rendinous and Flesliy beginiiing'i, 
from the I enilon ot tlic 1 ie\oi Piohindus, just btfore its 
' ' I del (he same general 


\tl Caka sub-Pha- 

vUli tl , 

Origin: Narrow and Fleshy, tiom the mferioi -inttnor 
part of the Tubeio^t^ ot thp Oo C»l»-i-*, and irom the 
Aponeurosis riantaii-, It tonus a thitL llet,hy Bcllj, 
which sen^H otT tour small Tendons, that spht for the 
p:issage of tlie Tendons of the Flexor Longus. 

Iji-iertion : Into the second Plialanx of the four small 
Toes. Tab. L. Fig. 9. a. 

Action : To bend the first and second Joints of the 
Toes, but particularly the second. 

The Tendon of the Little Toe is frequently wanting. 

Flexor Longus Digitorum, 

Origin: By an acute Tendon, ivhich soon becomes 
Fleshy, from the back part of tlie Tibia, at the under 
edge of the Popliteus ; and this Origin is continued doini 
the inner ed^e of the Bone, by short Fleshy Fibres end- 
m^ in its Tendon. It aiisea also by Tendinous and 
Fl -shy Fibres, from the outer edge of the Tibia i and 
beiween this double ordfr of Fibres, the Tibialis Posti- 
cus lies inclos'd. Haviniv i^cone under two -\imular Liga- 
ments behiml the inner Ankle, it parses through a Hinuo- 
»ity at the inside of ihe Os t'iitcis , and about the middle 
of the Sole, i-eceivts ;i Tendon from the Flexor Longus 
Pollicis. It theu divider into four Tendons ivliich run 
tiirouyh tire Slits of the PertonUus. 

h>-frhw,: fnr.. Mu i!;i-<".f tlie third Phalanx of the 
tour s,„;iller T...-> ; ill.' T 'i.dou.s of this, as well as of 
llir FI.;m,.' Brews, h. in;' iiielosed upon the Toes by An- 
nular Lur;t,„uitb. Tab. :\Ui. Leg, I. Tab. L. Fig. 10. 

Action: To bend the diflfereat Joints of the Toes, 
particularly the last one. 

del Tu 1 1 , at the inside ot 
the hi-st Joint ot the toui mh ill luis, nito the Tendinous 
X.-»pansion sent horn the !■ xlensois to to\ei the uppei 
part ot the Toes 1 ih L Fig 10 g, h, i, Jc 

Action To nuiet t the flexion ol the foes, and to 
draw them mwards 

Extensor Pkoprius Pollicis, 

Origin : By an acute, Ten^nous, and Fleshy begin- 
ning, from the fore part of the Fibula, some way below 
its licad. It continues its Origin from the same Bone 
to near the outer Ankle, by Fleshy Fibres which descend 
obIi()uely lowai-ds a Tendon. 

In-^ertion : Tendinous, into the posterior part of both 
the Bones of the Great Toe. Tab. XXXV. Leg, rf, e,f. 

Actinn ; To extend the Great 'I"oe, and assist in bend- 
ing the Ankle. 

Flexor Longus Pollicis, 
Vel Peroneo-sub-phalangftis Pulbcis. 

Origin: Tendinous and Fleshy, from the back part 
of the Fibula, some w;iy below iis Head; being con- 
tinued down the same I-oiic, almost to its under end, by 
a double order of oblique IHeshy Fibres. Its Tcndoa 
passes under an Annular Ligament behind the inner Ankle, 
then through a Fossa in the Astragalus. 

Imertion : Into the Joint of the Great Toe. Tab. 
XLII. Leg, H. 

Action : To bend the Gi-eat Toe, particularly the last 

Flexor Brevis Pollicis, 

Vel Tarsosui-jphatangdwi Pollicis. 

Origin : Tcudinous, from the under and fore part of 

or THE nnrsciiEs. 

tPARt U. 

the Os Calcis» and from the O3 Cuneiformc Externum. 
It is inseparably united i\ith the Abductor and Adductor 

Action : To bend the fii-st Joint of the Great Ttte. 

Abductor Pollicis, vel Cako-svb-pkalangeiia PolUcis. 

Origin : Fleshy, from the anterior and inner part of 
the ProUibcrance of the Os Calci-^, and 'IVndiimus from 
the same Bone, n-here it jniiis witli lIk- Os iNiu-iculiirc. 

Lk^erlion : Tendinous, into the internal Os Sesamoi- 
deum, and root of tlic first Bone of the Great Toe. Tab. 
L. Fig. ». c. 

Action : To pull the Great Toe from the rest. 


I Pol: 

"^"^61 Metatarso-sitb-phalangeus Pullicis. 

Origin : By a long thin Tendon, fr 
of the Os Cslcis, from the Os Cuboides, from thc"Os 
CuDciformc Externum, and fram the root of the Meta- 
lai-s;d Bone of the Second Toe. The Muscle is divided 
into two Fleshy Poitions. 

Insertion : Into the external Os Sesamoideum, and 

Vel Meiatarsosuh'phaiangeus Transversalis Pollicis. 

Origin : Tendinous, from the under aud foi* part of 
the Metatarsal Bone of the Great I'oe, and from the in- 
tei-nal O9 Scsamoideum of the first Joint. It Ibrms a 
Fleshy Bell}', which runs transversely between the Me- 
tatarsal Boaes and Flexor Muscles of the other Small 

Imeiiwm : Tendinous^ into the under and outer pai', 
©f the anterior extremity of the IVIetatai-sat Bone of thr 
Little Toe, and Ligament of the next Toe. Tab. L 
Fig. 11. /. 

Action : To contract the|Epot, by bringing the rooti, 
of the outer and inaer Toes towards each other. 


Vel Metatarso-phalangei Laterales. 

The Inu:.o«o;-«.;M, Tendinous and Fleshy irom, and 
der part ^^ ^^^ spaces between, the Metatai-sai Bonaa, Tlij'ec, 

lied Intently arise with single Heads, and" are placed 
the Sole ; and four, termed Extemi, or Bicipiits, 
3e with double Heads, and appear on both sides of the 

L. Fi 

of the Metatarsal Bone 

II. g,h. 

n : To pull tlie great Toe 

, ^ _„„ The Insertion of all the Interossei is by slender Ten- 

the Great Toe. Tab. ''°"^» "**" the Expansion sent off from the Tendons of 
the Lumbncalea, and of the iExtensor Muscles of the 
towards the rest. Toes. 

Abductor Mikimi Digiti, 
Vel Calco-siib-pMlangevs Minimi Digiti. 

Tab. L. Fig. 12. 

Origin : Tendinous and Fleshy, from the edge of a Prior, vel Abdttctor Medii Digiti. 
Cavity on the under part of the Protuberance of the Os 

Calcis, and from the root of the Metatarsal Bone of the Origin : From tlic inside of the Metatarsal Boiic 

Little Toe. tJie Middle Toe. 

Insertion : Lito the outer part of the root of the fii-st Imejjpn : Into the inside of the root of t]ie first Bone 
Bone of the Little Toe. Tab. L. Fig, 

of \ 

Action : To draw the Little Tot 

Plexor Brevis Mivimi Digiti, 
Vel Taraasub-pJialangeus Minimi Digiti. 

Origin : Tendinous, from the Os Cuboides, near the 
Groove for lodging the Tendon of the Peroneus Longus ; 
and Fleshy, from the outer and back part of the Meta- 
tarsal Bone of the Little Toe. 

Lmrtion : Into the anterior extreraitj' of the Meta- 
tarsal Bone, and root of the first Bone of the Little Toe. 


, vel Abductor Tertii Digiti. 

t of the Met a. 

Origin : Fix>m the inner and under pi 
tarsal Bone of tlie third of the smair To' 

Insertion : Into the inside of the root of the first Sonc-^ 
of the third Toe. 

Action : To pull the third Toe inwards. ■ 

Prior, vel Adductor Minimi D^i- 
Origin : From the inside of the Metatarsal Boni 
lie Little Toe. 




Insertion -. Into tlie inside of the root of the first Bone Insertion : Into the outside oE the root of the first 
of the Little Toe. Bone of the Fore Toe. 

Action : To pull the Little Toe inwards. Avtion : To pull the Fore Toe outwards. i_ 

INTEROSSEI EXTERNI, vel Bicipites. Postebioh, vtl Adductor Med Digiti. 

Tab. L. Fig. 12. Tab. XXXVU. Foot, F. q^,.^.^^ . j,^^^ ^^^ contiguous sides of the Metatarsal 

Bones of the secimd and liiiid of the small Toes. 
I^RIOR^ vtA Abductm- Indids. Inset tion: Into Uic uut^idc oi the root of the fii-st 

Onein: From the contiguous sides of the Metatw-aal '^^^^ <>'" the sttond <)f the ^iu;^ll l-ocs. 
Bones of the Great and Fore Toes. '^*'»» ■ ^" P"" ^'^"* ^ "*■' outwards. 

htsertion : Into the iuside of the root of the lii'st Bone 
of the Fore Toe, Posteiuoe, vel Addticior Tcrtii Digiti. 

Action ; To pull the Fore Toe inwards. 

Origin : From the contiguous sides of the Metatarsal 

•a ^ . I Ajj 1 T j'^-. Bones of the thiid and toui-th of the small Toes, 

Posterior, vel Adductor Indicts, . ■ , .1 . -j .... . .■ .1 e . 

Insertion : into the outbide 01 the root ul the nrat 
Origin : From the contiguous sides of the Fore Toe, Bone of tlic tliiixl of the sniaJl Toes. 
aud second of the small Toes. Action : To pull this 'loe outwaids. 

( 1S8 ) 


Kepresents the Aponeuroses or Tendinous Membranes, which appear upon removing the Com- 
mon Integuments, and which cover the Muscles of the Extremities. 

FIG. 1, 

r;tves a Vieteofthe Afonei'rosis trhkh covers the Mus- 
cLEs on the Fore Part of the Supejiior Extremity. 

A, The deltoid muscle. 

B, The npoueuTOsis sent off from the tendons of the 
muscles on the shoulder to cover the flexor muscles of 

(t. The aponeui-osis continued fion. tl.c-fi>ro-flide of the 
arm, joined to a thicker and stronger one sent off from 
the tendon of the biceps flexor cubiti, 

luiscles on the a 

jj, The continual 

leudona of the fi 

uhich, on acco 

I' part of the fore-ai'm. 
I of this aponeurosis, covering the 
or muscles of the hand and fmgers, 
t of ils ihiuutsis, arc seen shiniog 

F., The aponeurosi 

aris, which is connected above, 
of the palmaris longus, and to 
the anterior transverse ligament of the wrist, and be- 
lov.', to the roots of ihe four lingers by an equal num- 
ber of double slips. 
1% The musculus abductor pollicis. 
G, The palraaiis brevis. 

back part of the fore-arm, forming tlie lij^amentum 
carpi annulare poKterius. 
The tendinous sheatlis which cover the fingers are here 
but fainUy represented. 

FIG. 3. 

Gives a View of the Aposehrosis upon the Fore Part 
of the Inferior Extremitt. 

A, The thick and strong aponeui-osis at the fore and 
outer part of tlic -thi^^ Bfn\ down from the muscles 
about tlie pel\4s, and from the under end of the exter- 
nal oblique muscles of the abdomen. 

B, All aponeurosis covering the masclea upon the fore 
and inner part of the thigh, much thtoner and weaker 
than that larther out. 

C, Au attacimient of the aponeurosis of the thigh to the 
head of the tibia. 

D, The aponeurosis of the inside of the thigh, fixed to 
the con-esponding side of the tibia. 

£, F, The aponeurosis sent from the fascia of the thigh, 
and from the extensor muscles of the leg, to cover the 
muscles on the fore part of the leg. This aponeurosis. 


like that on the thigh, is thick and strong : 
and becomes gradually thinner towards the 


. the Bnck Part of the Su- 

of the 

G, K, Parts of this apoaeurosis thicker :uid stronjjei 
than the rest, forming the superior and inftTuir lig« 

vering the infra-spinatus, similar to 

le Bupra-spinatus. 

\'hich covei-3 the back part of the 
arm, hcnl down from the tendons of the muscles on the 
sliouldcr, and with the aponeurosis on the fore-side of 
the avni, forming a sheath, which incloses the muscles 
on this part. 
D, Tlie a])oneurosis on the back ])art of the fore-arm. 

i many of ihc fibres intermixing with, 
and decussating each other, at the opposite sides of the 
F/, A thit'k and strong portion of the aponeurosis on the 

FIG. 4. 

1 the Back Part of the Inf 

A, The gluteus magnus. 

>B, The aponeurosis of the back part of the thigh, axisinf> 
from the tendons of the glutei, and from those of the 
loins, fixed to the linea aspera of the os femoris, 

C, Continuation of this aponeurosis covering the muscle.'^. 
vessels, and nerves of the ham. 

D, That portion of the aponeurosis which cova« the gc- 
melli. From this part, the aponeurosis is continuEt' 
down, and lost upon the foot. 

TAJi.3 3. 


( 1*1 ) 

A View of the Second Layer of Muscles on the Anterior Part of tiic Bo 

A, Tlie cornigator supereilii. 

(I, The levator palpebite superioris, 

B, The teniporulia ; 

6, Its teudou passing luider the lyg 

C, The luaaseter. 

D, The levator auguli oris. 

E, The buccinator. 

F, The orbiculai'is oris. 

f, The na^.ili? li^bii tuperioris, at tli 
is a portion of the depresscu- la 

G, The depressor labii inferioris. 
H, The sterDO-clcido-mastoideiia. 
I, The sterno-hyoideus. 

c. The trachea sceu obscurely. 
K, The omo-hyoi^ei 
L, Thehyo-thyrc*"'' 

d. The OS hjoiri ' 
M, The levator ET 
ft The scalenus r 

ft, Its long head. 

c, A section of the aponeuiotlc tendon of the biccp, ; 

(/, Its roiuid tendon. 

B, The coi-aco-brachialis. 

f, The subscapularis of the right side. 
/, The teres major of the right side. 

C, The \uider end of the brachialia iatemas. 

D, -The long head of the triceps extensor cubtti. 

g. That part of the triceps called Brachialis Kxteiiiu^. 

E, Exteosorcs carpi i-adiales^ longior et brevior. 
Upper F, Extensor ossis raetacarpi poUicis. — Loner T, 

B, The pet 

C, C, Tfie 

g, 8cc. lotercostales iuiemiy the tendinous fascia being 

D, D, The rectus abdominis, with the tendoji of the ob- 
liquus iutemus covering its outev edge ;— on the right 
side it is entirily exposed. 

Af h, Teiifhnous intersections of the rectus abdominis. 

E, The pyramidalis. 

F, The oblitjuus iutemus. 

/, *, The tendon of tJie obliquus intenius. Between i 

and /, the tendon splits into two layers, which inclose 

the rectus ; troni k to the pubis, the whole tendon goes 

befove the rectus. 

/, /, A portion of the tendon of the obliquus internus rc- 

, mainiiig upon the outer edge of the I'cctus, 


r pru 


lodii pollici 

A, Ex tense 

G, Flexor sublimis perfoi 

See also Tab, XXXV. Fig. 2. 

Pelvis, and Infj 

A, The under end of the iliacus iutemus. 

B, The imder end of the psoas magnus. 

C, The pectinalis. 

D, The cut end of the rectus femoris. 

E, The anterior edge of the gluteus medius. 

FIG. 2. 

A The cmralis, with its tendinous fascia. 

B, The V 

C, - 

- extemus. 

D, The cut tendon of the rec 

E, The adductor longus fenio: 

F, The gracilis. 

G, The tendons of (he cn-acili' 
H, The tendon of the biceps t 
I, The peroneus lon-us. 

a. The [leroneui bievi^. 

K, The extensor longus digito 

b. The tendons of the extensoi 

s fixed to tlic patella. 

c. The pe. 

d, The exi 

r proprius pollic 

r pi'oprius pollic 

/, A bi-ajich of the tendon of the c 

lici-;, not alu-.iys found. 
L, Tiie edge of the gastrocnemius iiitenms. 
M, The edge of the flexor longus digitoruni pedis. 
N, The tendons of tiie tibialis posticus, and flexor 

digitoruni pedis. 
O, The flexoi- brevis digitorum pedis-. 

( 1*2 ) 

A View of the Third Layer of Muscles on the Anterior Fart of the Boot. 

adon of the obliquus 

imediately above which 


aliei^ue nasi. 

FIG. 1. 
Head o/irfNECK. 

A, The iosertion of the abductor ocuU 
o, Tlie adduttor ocuti of the right side 

B, The msertion of the levator ocuU. 

C, The trochlea, and part of the 

D, 'i'he obliquuB hiferioi' oculi, im 
is the insertion of the depret 

E, The depressor labii auperio 
P, The orbicularis oris. 
G, The buccinator. 
H, The levator labii inferioris, 
A, Part of the pterygoideus ex 
c. Part of the pterygoideus int 
I» The stemo-tnyroideoB. 
K, The thyro-hyoidens. 
rf. The OS hyoides. 
e. The thyroid cartilage. 
/, The cricoid cartilage 

musclea arising &om it. 
gy The trachea. 
A, Fart of the pleura. 
Ij, The scalenus anticus. 
M, N, The scalenus medius. 
?', A portion of the trachelo-mastoidcu^. 
O, Tne rectus capitis anterior major. 
k. The longus colli. 
/, The constrictor pliaryngis inferior. 


A, A^ Sic. Anferior poi'tioos of the intercostalcs ex 

B, B, &c. Anterior part of the iiitercostales uiteiT 

C, '1 he fleshy pail of llie transversalis abdominis ; 

0, 0, py A priot of the two mnhilical arter 
the uraciius^f, upon the peritoneum. 

^, 'J he penis cut across, in which are si 
cavernosa penis et urethrae. 

Superior Extremity. 

A, The subscapularis ; 
d, Its tendon. 

B, 'i'he teres major of the right side ; 
A, Its teudon. 

C, The coraco-braehialis. - 

D, H, The brarln3ii^ mtcmi.«. 
E^ The bracliialia extemus. 

F, The extensor carpi radialis brevior. 

G, The extensor carpi radialis longior. 

1, The flexor digitorum profundus. 
K, The flexor longus poUicis, 

I., The flexor brevis pollicis. 

See also Tab. L. Fig. 3. 

s 0, Of and of 
n the corpora 

:th the two crico-thyroid 

Pelvis, and Inferior Extremity. 

A, The gluteus minimus. 

B, The iliacus intemus. 

C, The psoas magnus. 

D, The obtuiator extemuS. 

E, The adductor brevis. 
P, The adductor magnus. 
G, The gracilis. 

PIG. 2. 

A, The adductor brevis. 

B, r, Ibe :idHuctor maj 
D, The gracilis. 

D, D, i he cut edge of that part of the tendon of the 
transversal is muscle which joins the obliijui, and pusses 
before the rectus and pyramidal is. 

E, E, That part of the tendon which passes behind the 
rectus, and is covered by, 

G, tl. The posterior layer of the tendon of the obliquus 

?«, m. The remams of the tendoasof the obhque mnr;- 

i-les, forming the linea alba. 
H, The uuibilieas. 
1, The E|»ermatic vessels passing under the edge of the 

1, I ht' tl('\(>r loii^iiis digitorum pedis. 
J, I'he iL'iiduu ul' the tibialis posticus. 
, The tenduu of the flexor longus digitoi 
, The flexor digitoritm attessorius, 
)y The extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

( U3 ) 


A View of the Fourth Layer of Muscles situated on the Anterior Part of the Bod\ 

A, The legator piilpebrse superioi 
n, The levator ocuii. 

B, The adductor oculi. 

C, The abductor oculi. 

D, The depressor oculi. 

E, The obliquus superior. 

F, The obliquus inferior. 

G, The pterygoidcus intemus. 
H, The obliquus superior capitis 
1, The scalenus medius. 

K, &, c, d, e. The loiigus colli, 
/tftf> lutertransvcrsales colli. 

J, The middle tcndoa on the left side, with its Cbres dc- 

3 of the left aide. 

»■, Origin of the diaphragm, from the twelfth rib. 

C, The psoas parvus on the right side, that ou the left 
being removed. 

s, Till.' tendon of the psoas par\'us passing down to b<! 
fixed to the brim of the pelvis. 

D, The quadiatus lumboruin. 

E, A section of the penis. 
f. The corpus 

"" E corpus 

A, A, A, Intercostales 

B, a, Intercostales exte 
E, B, i. The convex p 

phragm ; 

h, The anterior point of its middle tendon. 
Cy rf, e,/, g^ A, The fleshy origins of the diaphragm, from 

the cartilago ensifonuis, peritoneum, seventh, eighth, 

ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs. 
t\ V, ;; I, The first heads, or tendinous crura of the iufe- 

rior muscle of the diaptiragm ; 
t. The passage for the aorta, between these heads ; 

The second and third heads of the inferior muscle of 

the diaphragm are situated between the upper ends 

of the first heads and the psoa: muscles, but are not 

represented here. 

/, The fourth head ; 

m. Another head, sometimes found connected with the 

quadratus lumborura ; 
n, w, The fleshy crura from the joining of these heads. 
0, Fibres crossing each other under. 
Pi The passage for the esophaguii. 

thoracic side of the dia:- 

V, Tlie 
«', The aec 
X, The sph 
y. The trai 

rsalis pcrmei. 
Superior Extremity. 

A, The subscapularis. 

B, The supinator brevia. 

C, The flexor breWs polticis. 

D, The adductor pollicis. 

See also Tab. L. Fig. 4- 

Pelvis, and Inferior Extremity. 

A, The psoas magnus. 

B, Its origin, cliiefly from the lumbar vertebrae. 
(Sr, Its passage out of the abdomen, along with, 

B, Tiie iliacus inteniiw. 

C, The obturator extemus. 

D, The upper part of the adductor magnus. 

FIG. 2. 
A, B, C, The continuation of the adductor magnns. 
«, The insertion of the psoas magnus and iliacus intermix. 
i>. The tibialis posticus, the interosseous ligament beiiig 


Kepre&enta tlio Common Int: 
N|:cK, with the First Layer of Mu 
of the Anterio:- Part of the Body. 

! of the Muscles and Glands of the Head aua 
in tlie Right, and Second Layer on the Left Side 

FIG. 1. 
A Hair, viewed with a Microscope. 

A, The i-oot. 

B, The bearded body. 

C, The small extremity. 

FIG. '^. 

The Cuticle of the Hand, with the Nails adhenng to it- 

FIG. 3. 

, The levator labii supcrioris. 
I The levator augulj oris. 
, The zygoiu aliens inajui', 
, The depressor anguli oris. 
I 'i'he (iepiesbor labii iuferioris. 

m. The parotid gland ; 

n. Its duct. 

5, o, Tlie facial artery. 

'Oyp, Ihe facial vein. 

y. The anterior heads of the digastri 

r. The ioiei-ior maxjilary gland. 

f, 'Jhe sterno-hyoidei. 

(, /, The omo-hyoideus. 

r/, ContinuatioD of the facial vein. 

1', The iterno-Diastoideus. 

The Piece of Skin^ Fig. 4. 



The Corpus Seticuhre^ Fig. 6. 

«, The frontal inuscU-. 

i, The temporal iiiuhtle, on svhiti 

the temporal artery are aeen. 
f, t, I'he' orbicularis palpebrarum 

s of the superior extremity. 

On the Right Side, the Muscles imniediately under t/t* 
C'omMion Iniegtimtnls^ on the Anterwr Part of the 
Body, are represented i oa the Lejt Side, the Mas- 
cLEs are seen, which come in view when the JEsterior 

For the Explanation of these Muscles, sec Tab. XXXIT. 
and XXX\. to which add here ibe Fiist Lajer of 
Mut>c]es OD the 

bcett removed, 
I the larger bran 

Right Fori 





tor radii 







or radu t 




caipi radiiilis ; 










, Ilf* teudoii. FIG, 10. 

3, Paris of tlic flexor dicitoruni subliniis. rji, t. i r v ,, . „ ^ 

■i'liL. tauloii of tlif llfxor c'lnii ubiu' is ^''* ^^'^'""' ^'^^^'^ °-^ Muscles w/^Mf Face amlNzc 
Tlie tk'MH- loniius poilifis " ' "^''*''" "'*■ -'^"■''■' '"'*' ^"'" '■"««''*■''■ 

lis teiitloii, iii^.Lrud lilt., ilie lust joint of the (hutiib. See them described T:ib. XXXV. 

Tart of tbf jiioiKitui- ixidii (jnadi'^tiis. j „ 

Pavt of the extensor prinii et secuiidi iiitcniodii pol- "^^^^ I'oke-aiui and Hand of Fig. 0. 

Ucis; /, The extensor caipi radiabs loiigior. 

Their tendons ; w. Part of the extensor eai-pi radialis brevior. 

Theii' ainiular ligament. r^ 'I'he supinator radii brevis. 

The tendinous aponeurosis of the pahn. «', The cut exlreniiij of llie piwiator radii tere-^. 

The transverse ligiuncnt of the wrist. .r. Part of the flexor caipi uluaris ; 

The pabiiLiri-s brcvis. y, Its tendon. 

Part of tlie flexor prinii iiiteruodii pollicis. x. The flexor digitorum sublimit ; 

The abductor pollicis ; A, Its tendons. 

Its tendon, forming an apoueiu'csis with the exten- B, Part of (he pronator radii r]uaifiatiis. 

sol's. C, The extensor, of the ilaiml.. 

Part of the flexor secuudi interuodii. D, The llcxor pollicis Unigu.i ; 

Tlie annular sheath of the tendon of the flexor longiis P., Its tendon, neai' lis ijiscrlion. 

pollicis. F, The flexor ossis metacai-jii pollicis. 

Pai-t of the adductor pollicis. ; G» The flexor brevis pollicis. 

The tendon of the adductor indicis, andJlrst lumbri- H, The flexor pawns niinimi diglti. 

calis. I, The abdnctor minimi digiti. 

The abductor miniini digiti. K, K, Tlie Hr.^t and secm.d Imubiicak-. ; the third ai 
'Ilie flexor brtvis miuinu digiti. fourth arc also in \ien-, hut iiiiic'iicred. 

2.3. The annular sheaths of the tendons of the flexors L, The tendons of the lumbricalis and Interossei, whit 
of the fore-linger. These ligaments are also represent- may also be seen on tht: sides of tlie other fing-ei-s. 

ed in the other fuigCrs. 31, The tendons of the flexor digilorum !,ublimis, divide 
The tendons of the lunibricales and interossei, which neai- their insertion, for the passjigo of the tendon» i 
may also be seeu on the sides of the other lingers. the fle.xor profundus, niaiked J*f. 


Represents the Parts situated under those shewn in Fig, 9. Tab. XXXVIII. together with the 
Eye-Lids, Lacrymal Gland and Ducts, and Muscles of the Eye. 

) Hand 

9, The 
T, P..r: 
I', TIm 

X, X, Tilth' i 

Z, The t 

5 longio 

_y, The four lumbi'ic 
«,"Tlie flexor loiigUHpoliitw; 
ff. It, teii.ioii, liiaerttd into tlie last 
3, Tilt Ikxor brevi^ nollicis. 

radialis bve™r. 

lie last joint of each of the 

t of the i™st. 

FIG. -2. 

Described Tab. LXXII. Fig. 9. 

Shews the Lacrymal Canals^ tfie Teguments and Botiea 

being cut auai/, 

FIG. 3. 
Described Tab. LXXII. Fig. fi. 

t of the thumb. 

Right Side of the Thunk. 
A, A, The iutcrcostalea extcriii. 

, K, I Ik- '■uil-ii.t- vi tlif lungs &ppeai-iiig through tlie 

., *, >>, The peritoneum, tliroiiyli which the boivcls ap- 
pear obscurely. — Between this auci the liuca albu, liie 
vestige of the epigastric artery h seen. 

!, The spermatid; cord, coming out behind the perito- 

FIG. 4. 

Eye-Lids c»//i>»i eacholher^ at thee 


A, A, Til 

B, The. 

C, D, The edges of the eye-li 
of the excretory ducts of (he 

E, Tlic puntta lacrymalia. 

F, F, The cyc-lushes. » 

membi'aue of the eye-lids. 

S/iiiv the Muscles of 

■vi- of the light eye. 

vith the BinaU orifices 

the EiE 

r, The supinator radii bre\ns. 

d^ Tlie pronator radii (juadratuN. 

f, Tlie flexor brevis pollicis. 

f^ The sesamoid bones into wliich it \. 

„ The bill ofllir 
''piu'tuftiie max 

( w ) 



A View of the First Layeh of Muscles on the Posterior Part of the Body, after the Integu- 
ments and Aponeuhosbs have been removed. 

FIG. 1. 

Head, Neck, and Trunk. 

A, The occipital part of the occipito-froiitalis ; 
a. The fleshy, 

£, The tendinous part of this muscle ; 
r, A tendinous membrane joining its two sides ; 
dy Pait of the tendinous membrane, covering the upper 
end of the temporal muscle. 

B, Tlic attollens aurem. 

C, The anterior aurls. 

D, A small part of the retrahentes aurem. 

E, The back part of the orbiculajis palpebrarum. 

F, The zvgomaticus major. 

G, The masseter. 

f, Tlie pterygoideus intemus. 
ft The platysma myoides. 

'H, The sterno-cleido-mastoidpHs. 

I, i, I, The trapeilu». * 

g, A, Its insertion into the spine of the scapula and outer 
end of the clavicle, 

tV *» Its tendinous porti' 
Ligameiitum Nuc/ia 
K, K, K, The latissimuB dorsi ; 
kf k. Its tendon. 

L, Part of the obliquus exteruus al 
W, Part of the insertion of tlie ihoi 
n. Part of the sacro-lumbalis. 

Superior Extre 

The extenjor 

ossis raetafiarpi poliieis 

, The extenso] 

r primi iuleniodii poUici 

The extensoi 

• proper to the little lino 

The cMensor 

taipi ulnaris. 

The i>ahiiaiis 


The flexor sul 

ilituis perlbratus. 

The flexor ta 

rpi ol„ans. 

u. Pari o! th. 

r flexor p.ofandus pcrloi 

The ligamenuim .ari,, a,„n,lare poMc, 

a the nape of the neck, called 

^ 1 he teres major. 

^, The triceps extensor cubiti. 

, The long, 

, The short head of the triceps. 

, The lliird head, called BrachiiiHs Extern: 

, The common tendon of these three heads. 

, Thfbrachialis internum. 

'■, The anconeus. 

i. The supinator riidii longus. 

I, The extensor carpi nuiiaJis longior. 

, The extensor cai-pi radhilis brevier. 

;, The extensor digit* '" 

Sec Ihc Muscles on die Hand, i'.ib. L. Flj 

A, The gluteus maxi 

B, Part of the glutei 

C, The edge of the t 

FIG. 2. 

A, The under part of the glutens maxiinii'-, 

fl. The adductor magnus femoris, 

C, C,. The gi-acilis. 

6, Part of the sartorius. 

D, The long head of the biceps flexor cruii.-, ; 

E, Its short head. 

c. The insertion of the biceps into the fibida. 

F, The seniitendmosns. 

G, H, The semimembranosus. 

I, The edge of the vastus iutemus. 

rf. Part of the plantai-is. 

k, K, The gasti-ocnemius externus. 

L, L, L, The edge of the gasti-ocnemius intei'iiui. 

M, I'he tendo AcHiLLls. 

f, The tendon of the plantaria. 

N, The peroueus longus. 

O, The pei-oncus bre\-is. 

P, The flexor longus pollicis pedis. 

Q, Tlie tendon of the peroneus brevis. 

/■, Tlie tendon of the peroneus longus passing into the sole. 

K, The teudon of the extensor longus digitoium. 

g^ The tendon of the pei-oueus tertius. 

"s. The abductor mtuiuii digiti. 

/;, The ligament common to the long and short peronei 


/, The ligament proper to each of these t 
k^ The ligamentum tarsi annulare. 


A View of the Second Laver of Muscles on ilic Posterior Part of the Body. 

FIG. 1. 

K, The c 
L, Thf c 
M, The . 
N, The e 
O, The € 
P, The e 

tarpi I'adialis longior. 
carpi radialiH brevior, 
r radii bi-evis. 
ossis metacarpi pollicis. 
primi intemooii pollicis. 

, The tcmporaliij exposed, by removiug it^ leudiuous 

Lipoiiciu-osis. p^ T],e extcusor secundi intemodii pollici 

Tlie tondou of the temporalis, passing under the zy- q -phe indicator. 

g""'a- . . 11^ The flexor profiuidiis. 

The pteiygoideMs uitemiis. g^ Xhc flexor carpi ulnaris. 

, The masseter. X, A small share of the flexor sublimis. 

The mylo-hyoidcus. See also Tab. L. Fig. 6 


,\, (/, The levator scapulte. 

C, The spkuius capitis et colli. 

D, The upper end of the couiplexus. 


A, f, The rhomboides major. 

B, The rliomboides minor. 

C, Tlic scn-atQs posticus superior of the left ^ide. 
1), f. The sen-atus posticus iufei-ior._y; The- pa: 

ivhidi the latissimus dorbi was cut. 

E, The uudcr pai't of the sen-atut, 
r. Part of the aacro-lumbalis. 
G, Part of tlie longissimusdorsi. 
H, Pail of the spinalis dbisi. 
I, I, The broad teudon common to 

and serratus posticus inferior, 
K, The back pai't of the obliquus i 


Pelvis, and Inferior Extremity. 

A, The gluteus medius. 
E, The pyriformis. 

C, The gemiui. 

D, The tendon of the obturator intermis, passini 

E, The nuadratus femoris. 

F, The vastus externus. 

G, G, The adductor maguus femoris. 
H, The semitendiuosus. 

I, The gracilis. 

FIG. 3. 

L, Xif The intercostales e 
M, The coccygeus. 
N, The levator aui. 
O, The spliiucter ax 

Superior Extbzm 

E, The siipnuspuiatus. 

C, The in fra^ spina tus. 

D, The 1 

E, The teres major. 

E, The tnceps extensor cubiti ; 

g. Its long head i- 

fi. Its short head. 

G, G, Pail of the third liead, najned Brachiahs Exler- 

7, Tlie common tendon of the triceps, inserted into tlic 

11, Part of the brachiaJis iuteiTiu^. 
J. The 

a, fl. The continuation of the adductor inaguus 
and of, 

A, A, The vastus externus. ' 

B, The biceps flexor cruris ; 
t. Its long head ; 

c, r. Its short liead. 

d^ The common tcudon of die two heads. 

C, A small portion of the vastus interims. 

D, Continuation of the gi'acilts, and of, 

E, The semitendinosus. 

F, F, The seniimcmbraiiosus. 

f, e, 'I'he cut heads of the gastrocnemius exterau: 

G, The popliteus. 
H, H, The aoleus. 

I,/, The plantaris;— /, Its tendon. 

K, The cut tendon of the gastrocnemius externus 

L, The tendo AcHlLLis, with that of the plautaii 

ring to it, fixed to the oh calcis. 
M, The peroneus longus passing to the sole. 
N, The peroneus brevis. 

O, The tendons of the extensor digitorum longit", 
P, Tlic tendon of the peroneus brevis. 

g, The tendon of the peroneus tertiu^. 
h. The extensor brevis digitorum. 

Q, Tlie flexor brevis digitoium. 


C 1*9 ) 


A View of the Third Layer of Uv 

I the Posterior Part of the Bodv 

Head aiid Neck. 

i, The back part of the buccinator. 
(T, The pteiygoidtiis btei-uus. 
ft, The myto-hyoideus. 

B, B, r, ■/, The complex us,— rf, A flesliy slip from the 
spiuous process of tne first dorsal vertebra. 

C, The tratlielo-niaatoideus, 

D, The scaJeiuia niedius, 

E, The scalenus posticus. 

F, The semi-spiiialis colli. 

G, G, The iuterspintdes colli. 
H, The obliquus capitis superior. 
I, I, The transvtiaalis colli. 

K» The upper eud of the longiasiiuus dorsi, joiuiug the 

trachelo-mastoideus and cer^ncalis desceudens. 
L, The fleshy slip from the sacro-lumbalis, called Cervi- 

calis Descendens. 

A, E, E, The spinalis dorsi. — Between the spiuoi 
ceases of the doi'sal and lumbar vertebra, the in 
uales muscles appear. 

a, 6, Part of tJiu senij-sninalia doi'si, 

B, Thelongi^ibms Jorsi. 

C, The lendony of the Miici'o-luiubalis. 
, A tendou covering, and partly giving origin 1 

1 head of the longissimuB dorsi and s 

D, Part of this tendon rnnniiig ai 

F, The transvcrsalis abdominis 

G, The innerlaycr of the apoi 
tua posticus inferior, and obliquus in 

H, H, H, The intercostales exlerui. 
I, I, Portions of the intercostales exi 
ajNus Levatores Costanim. 

Superior Extremii 

K, Til 

rt of the coraco-brachialis. 
-t of the brachialis intemus. 
e brachialis externus, or third he 
iisor cubiti. 

e extensor cai-pi radialis longior. 
; extensor carpi raiUalis brevior. 
e flexor profundus. 
e siipiualor radii brevis. 
t of the lie\oi' lon^us pollicis, 
'" (juadiat 


See also Tab. L. Fig. 7- 
, amJ Inferior Extrej 

A, The gluteus minimus. 

B, The obtui-ator iuternus. 

C, ITie tendon of the obtuiatoi- extcn 
a. The insertion of the iliacus internu 

D, 'i'he upper end of the giacilis. 

E, The semimenibfaiiosu^. 

F,F, The adductor niagnus femoris. 

FIG. 2. 

C, .^—^——^^^ of the semimembranosus. 

D, Tlie short houfi of the biceps flexor cruris The letter 

is placed over llic fioni wlnth the long head was cut. 

E, E, The cut liL:ids of ihe g-astrotuemiiis extemus. 

F, The origin of the piantaris. 

G, The popliteus. 

H, Tlie tibialis posticus. 

I, Tlie flexor lougus digitonuu pedis. 

K, The flexor loiigus pollicis pedis. 

L, The peroneus longns. 

«, The tendon of tlic tibialis posticus. 

/>, The icndon of the peioneus lougus passing to the sole. - 

fll, The peroneus brevis. 

c. The tendon of the peroneus brevis. 

N, The cMcnsor bi'cvis digitorum pedis. 

O, PliiI of ihc flexor longns tligitorum pedis,. 

( ISO ) 


A View of the Fourth Later of Mu 

I the Posterior Part of the Body, 

!E, The scalenus medius. 

F) The upper end of the multi&dus Bpins. 

G, G, The interspinaJes colli. 

H, H, The intertrans vera ales colli posteriorcti. 

J, i, ], The semispinalis colli. 


A, A, The Bemjgpinalia dorsi. 

B, E, The multihdus spinse. — On the left side of the 
neck and trunks the gemispinalis colli and semispinalis 
doi-si are raised, by ivhich a full view of thi8.inuHcle ia 

C, C, &c. The levatores costarum breviores. 
U, D, The levatores costarum longiores. 
E, E, &c. The intercostales externi. 

«, a, «, The intercostales intemi of the left side. 
bt b. The pleura. 

s lumboruni. 
, G, The interti'aDBversales lumbomm. 
, U, The interspinales lumbomm. 

Superior Extremity. 
, The subscapularis. 
, 'I he Biipinator radii brevis, 
, The pi-oiiator radii (juadratus. 

FIG. 2. 

A, A, A, The continuation of the addactor magiins fenio- 
ris. — The shaded part in the middle of the muscle re- 
presents the impression made by the sem 

B, 'Ihe tibialis postieuu. 

C, The peroneud brevis. 


( 1-51 » 


A View of the First Layer of Muscles on the Right, and Second Laver of Muscles on tlie 
Left Side of the Posterior Part of the Body, and of the Muscles of the External Parts of 

On the Left Side of the Head, and Right Siik nf the 
Posterior Part of the Trunk ajid ExTHEMixits, tht 
Muscles immediately under the Conimun Jntecl'- 
MENTS are sheioi ,■ on the Left Side of the JWrfvor 
Par/ 0/ /Af Trunk and Kxtkemities, arc s,in the 
Muscles which come in- View when the Ei/crior ,S<7 
has been removed. 

a, a, Tlic tendons of the anterit 

tlie iuiubiicaifs. 
/., />, b, 'I'lie tendons of the post 

undi interoodii polllc 

iiodji pollic 

All the Muscles represented in this Figure are explained ^5 The tendons of the three extensors of the tliunib, 
in Tab. XL. and XLI. exceptmg tliose on the under '* The adductor pollicis. 
parts of the Fore-arm, and on the Hand. "'■> "'1 The tendons of the interossei and lurahrkales, 


^ additions from it, tixed t 

: X \ r 


i, 6, i, Tlie leDflous of tlie posterior iaterossei. 
c, c, f. The interoBsei. 
d^ The prior indicia. 
e. The abductor indicis. 
ft 'ITie adductor poUicis. 

'g,g. The tendons of the interossei and lumbricaJes, after "i ", A section of the thighs, 
joining with the tendons of the extensor conuniuiis, *♦ The clitoi-ie. 
fixed to the thii-d phalanx. f* ff 'l'l>e cruia clitoridis. 

^ (/, </, Tlie eiectores clitoridis. 

FIG. 2. t; f, The spliiucter vaginae. 

Muscles ahmt the Root of the Penis and Vuder End /' '1''^ sphincter aui, connected with the sphincter , 

of the Intestinum Rectum of a Child. Spf^akVi 

These Muscles are described in Tab, XLVUI. Pig. 9. 

( 1*3 ) 


itepresents the Second Later of Muscles upon the Head, Neck, and Upper Part of the 
TuuNK ; — the Third Layeu of Muscles on the Right, and Fourth Lavlh ot iViu ci.Ei. on the 
Left Side ot the Posterior Part of the Body, with the Muscles on the Sole of tlie Foot. 

Muscles «pon the Head and Neck, and Upper Part of 
the Trunk, deeper seated than those represented in 
rig. L of the former Table. 

Explained in Tab. XLI. 

B, The supinator radii brevis, 

C, The pi'onatOF radii ([iiadratu; 

D, The (Icxor brcvis polUcis. 
£, £, The adductor poUicls. 

The Third Later of Muscles on the Rights end Fourth 
IiATER of Muscles on the Leji Side of the Posteriot; 
Part of the Body. 

H, The flexor profundus perforansk 
I, The supinatov radii brevis. 
K, The flexor longus pollicis. 
L, The pronator radii quadratus. 
M, M, The tendons of tlie e 
N, The flexor brevis pollicis. 
O, The adductor pollicis. 
P, The prior indicis. 
Q, The posterior indicis. 
It, The prior medii digiti. 
S, The posterior medii digit). 
T, The prior annularis. 
U, The posterior annularis. 
Vj The prior auriculariF. 

See Tab. XL.— XLIII. where the Muscles of these 
parts are more properly rcpi-eeenttd. 

FIG. 4. 

Muscles, and other Parts deeply seated, ou the Side 
and Back Part of the Head and Neck. 

a, fl. The rectus capitis posticus minor, on each side. 

J, The rectus capitis lateralis. 

r, The ligament between the first and second cer\'icai 

(f, rf, The intcrspinales colli. 
e, e. The intertransversaJes colli. 
f The palate, covered with its glaodular membrane. 
g. The glands, appearing after the uvula is cut off. 
A, The septum najium next the fauces. 

PIG. 5. 

The Aponeurosis, and different Iiaters of Muscles, 
with some of the Ligaments m the Sole, after re- 
moving the Common Integuments. 

for the explanation of whirb. see Tab. L. Fig. S— 12. 

( !M ) 


The Muscles seated about the Throat j with a View of the First Layer of Muscles upon the 
Lateral Parts of the Body. 

FIG. 1 \7. 

Explained in Tab. XLVH. 

FIG. 18. 

A, The occipito-fron talis ; 

B, The apoueurosis joining the t 

C, The attollens aurem. 

D, The anterior auris. 

E, The retrahentes aurcm. 
a. The hclicis major. 

sides of this muscle^ 

r. The tragicus. 

(/, The an ti- tragic us. 

F, The orbicularis palpebi-aruni. 

G, The zygomatitus major. 
H, The buccinator. 

I, The massetcr. 

K, The depressor anguli oris. 

I*, The pterygoideus internus. 

M, The platysma rayoides. 

N, The atenio-cleido-mastoideus. 

O, The complexus. 

P, The splenius. 

Q, The scalenuB mcdius, 

R, The levator acapulse. 

S, S, T, The trapezius. 

r, The terea minor. 

x'x, T, Thelatissi 

Z, The pcctoi-ulis mi 
a, ..(, /', I'hc ,KcL(.rL(l 


(/, rf, t 



s abdominis ;— (?, d, The 

Left Superior Extremii 

A, The dcltoidcs. 

B, The biceps flexor cubiti. 
*', The bracmalis internus. 

D, The triceps extensor cubiti. 

E, The flexor carpi ulnai-is. 

F, The supinator radii lougus. 

G, The flexor carpi radialis. 
, H, H, The extensor carpi radial 


K, The extensor carpi ■ ' 

L, The extensor digitoi 

M, Its tendon. 

N, The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis ; 

0, Its tendon. 

P, The extensor primi intemodii pollicis ; 

Q, Its tendon. 

It, The tendo secundi intemodii. 

S, The ligamentum caqii annulare posterius. 

T, Tlie ligament confining the tendons of the extensor 

ossis metacarpi, and extensor primi intemodii pollicis. 
W, The adductor pollicis. 
X, The oppouens pollicis. 

RiGtiT Superior Extremity. 
A, B, The triceps extensor cubiti ; — A, The part called 

KTtensor Long its ; — B, The part called £xtensor 


C, The brachialis internus. 

D, The biceps flexor cubiti. 
£, The supinator longus. 

F, Tlie pronator tei'es. 

G, Tlie flexor carpi radialis, 
H, The pahnaris longus. 

1, The flexor sublimis perforatus. 
K, The flexor carpi ulnai'is. 

L, The extensor cai-pi ulnaris. 
M, The flexor brevis pollicis, 
N, The tendon of the flexor longus, with its retaining 

the outside of it, the 

O, The palmaris brevis, 

abductor miuiuii digiti. 
P, The tendons of the extensor digitorom 
Q, The aponeuroses of these tendons, stretched 

back of the four lingers. 

Left Inferior Extremity. 

A, The adductor longus feinoris. 

B, The pectinalia and psoas magnus. 


C, The sartorius. 

D, The teusor vagiiia feiiiori;j. 
K, The gluteus medius. 

G, The seroittmliiiosus. 

H, The biceps flexoi- cruris. 

I, Th^ v^tm exteiuus. 

K, The rectus. 

L, The vastus internus. 

M, The ligaroeut connectmg the patella to the tibia, 

^~, The outer head of the gastrocnemius exteiiius, 

O, O, The g-astrocneraius intenius. 

P, The tendo AcHiLLis. 

Q, The peroneus longus. 

B, The peroneus brevis. 

S, Ligaments binding the tendons of the peronei. 

T, The exteBsor longus digitoiiun, iuseparably connected 

U, The peroneus tertius. 

V, The tendon of the peroueus tertius, inserted into tlie 

metatai'sal bone of the little toe. 
W, The tendon of the extensor longus, splitting into foui' 

smaller teudons ; 
X, X, Their insertions into the toes. 
Y, The extensor propriua poUicis ; 
Z, Its tendon, 
fl, fl, The tibialis anticus. 
ft, The upper and undei- poi'tious of the Ugamentum tarsi 

r, The extensor brevis digitomm pedis ; its tendons are 

inserted into all the toes, excepting the smallest. 

I he liji 

imi digit i pedis. 

ivhitii iiits tiic patella to the tibia. 

i digiti pedis i 

D, The 

E, The saitorius ; 

F, Its tendon, tised to the tibia. 

G, 'I'he gracilis. 

H, The semimembranosus. 

1, I, The semitcndinosus. 

K, Tlie gastrocnemius extemus ; 

L, Its tendon. 

M, The gastrocnemius internus. 

N, The tendo Achillis. 

O, The teudon of the plantaris. 

P, The flexor proprius pollicis pedis. 

Q, The ligament binding the teudon of the flexor longna. 

K, The flexor longus digilorum pedis. 

S, The tendon of the tibialis posticus. 

T, The ligament covering the tendon of the flexor longus 

digitorum pedis, and tibialis posticus. 
U, The ligament which retains the tibialis posticus. 
V, The tibialis anticus ; 
AV, Its tendon. 
X, X, The upper and imder portions of tlie ligamentum 

T, The tendon of the extensor proprius pollicis pedis ; 

2, An aponeurosis joining this teudon. 

a. The abductor pollicis pedis. 

b, The flexor digitoi 



MusciiES seated about the Throat. 

a. The pterjgoideus externus. 
6, intemue. 

f, The mylo-hyoideiis. 
rf. The Etylo-hyoidene. 
tff, The digafitricus. 

g, A, The hyo-gloasus. 
i\ The OS hjoides. 
X-, The thjpo-hyoideus. 
f^ The thyroid cartilage, 
itty The crico-thyroideus. 
11, The cricoid cartilage. 
Of A section of the esotiliagus. 
p, p. The constrictor pnar)'ngis iurcrioi*. 

FIG. 2. 
ftcpresetiis the l^ivsci.zs under those shewn in fJie pre- 
ceding Figure, wkich^ together with the Bight Si^e of 
the Lower Jaw, are here removed. 

fi. The upper jaw. 

b, A section of the lower jaw. 

c, The tongue. 

d. The stylo-glossu^. 
r. The hyo-glossus, 
f. The genio-glossu9, 

f, The stylo-pharyngeus. 
, /i. The constrictor pharjiigiB sujicrioi . 

:, yl-, - 

/, The th^Toid c 
«i. The cricoid 
p, A section of 

o. The under half of the .Btylo-^ossu 

being removed. 
/», c. The genio-glossug. 
d. The constrictoi' phaiyngis superior. 

1 of the esophagus. 

A, Tlie circumflexus palati, immediately behind which is 

the levator palati. 
h. The stylo-pharyngeus. 
r, c, Tiie palato-pharyngeus, covering a part of the mem. 

brune of the pharynx, 
rf, Tlie constrictor i»thini fauciuiu. 
r. The tonsil. 

f, The stylo-glossus, where it joins the tongue. 

g, A section of the hyo-glossus. 
A, Thelingualis. 

I, k. The genio-hyo-glossus ; — t", Its origin from the lowct 

A The OS hyoides. 
wi, The ligament which joins the comu of the os hyoideS" 

and thyroid cartUagc. 
n. The body of the thyioid cartilage. 
o, The cricoid cartilage. 
p. The ligament by which the thyroid aud cricoid carti' 

lages are Joined together. 
q, A section of the esophagus. , 

FIG. 5, 

Fourth are removed^ the Pharynx is lata open longt-' i • 
tudirmUy, and the JR^ht Part of it cut off, to shew ' 
its Cavity, with t1i£ Moat of the Tongue and F.pj- 

, The tonsil. 

', The constrictor isthmi {ancinm. 

, 'Ilie tongue. 

i The under part, of the linguali?^ 

■, 'J'he genio-nyo-gIosau9. 

, The epiglottis. 

, I'lie OS hyoides. 

■, The thyroid cartilage., 

, The ericoid cai'tilage. 

I, The pliarynx laid open. 

:, The upper part of tlie csophiigii'^. 


Presents a Posterior View of the Pharynx, and the Un- 
der Part of the Bones of the Head, to -which the 
Pharynx is connected. 

phar^'ngis iufcrior 

The upper point of the 
icii side. 


Iff The under end of the pharynx ; — the letter points also 
at the inner transverse libres of the oEsopliagus, wbicli 
are laid bare. 

f, r, The outer fibres of the oesophagus descending ob- 
liquely backwards on each side. 

rf, A section of the oesophagus. 

f, c, A section o»" the trachea. 

/,/, Tlic ends of the coruua of the os hyoidea. 

£y g. The ligaments which join the upper processes of the 
thyroid cartilage to the ends of tlie cornua of the 03 

hf A, The constrictor raedius pharyngis, -on each side. 
), /, The constrictor superior phavyngis, on each side. 
X-, k; Tiie naked membrane of the pharynx. 
/, /, The stylo-pharyngeus on each side. 
m, m. The styloid processes of the temporal bones, 
n, ;i. The pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone 
0,0, The backmost tooth of the upper and mider jaws, 
on each side. 

Pivsents the next View, after the reriiova! of the Louvr 
Constrictors of the Phakynx. Tlie Hones of the 
Head are not addad ; but the Styloid Processes are 
left, to '•htn flu OkICIN of (he STYLO-PHARYNGEr. 

fl, 6, A", Tlie constiittoi pharyngis medius. 

f. The upper cousliictor ol the phar\Tix, cut off from the 

d, 1'he naked membrane of the pharynx. 
c, The styloid process of the temporal bone, cat oiFat its 

'he stylo-pharyngeus, ai;ising, tendinous, frogi the si 
end of the stylo-pharyngeuB and palal 

ioid process, 
The corai 

'*, Part of the stylo-pharyngeus and palato-pharyngei 

fixed to the edge of the thjToid cartilage. 
■', The naked membrane of the lower part of the pharvii 

i\ The c 

, The superior 

,' Its inferior!^ 
, Tlie tubercle 
perior comu. 
, The cricoid c 

the OS hyoidcs. 
comu of the thy: 
: edge of the lli\ 

, c, A, (/, The c 

, The tcvatui' palati. 

The circuiiillexus palati. 
, I'iic tcudinous origin of the stylo-pharyngeus, where 

it iH cut off fi-om the styloid process. 
, 'I'liat part of the stylo-pharyngeus which forms two 

fasciculi, paiising separately uudci tlie fibres of the up- 
per constrictor. 
, 'I'he under and larger part of the stylo-pharyngens. 
, Part of the common end of the stylo-pharyngeus and 

palato-pharyngeus, Bxed to the thyroid cartilage. 

Part of the common end of the stylo-pharyngeus joined 

to its telLow on the back of ihc pharynx. 

FIG. P. 

ft, The naked membrane of the pharynx, 
i. The small hook of the pterygoid process, 
f, Tiie palato-pharjTigeus. 

d, e. Part of the common end of ^e stylo-phai^geus a 

FIG. 10. 

Pcpreseiits the Jjuter and Fore Part (f the Phartn 
the whole Posterior Part being reinoved. 

, The cavity of the nostril, with the lower os spoDgia-. 

sum, covered with the mucous membrane. 
, d. The palatum inoHe. 
, The uvula. 

, The posterior arch, which descends laterally from the 
thi-ough the side of the pharynx. 

g, 'I'lie t 
/', The tongue 
7, The epiglottis. 

i. The inembi-anous aide of the glottis. 
/, The lima, or slit of the glottis. 

Ill, 'J'he back part of the tube of the larynx, projecting 
(vitJiiu the phai-ynx. 

FIG. 11. 

Pejircsenfs l/ie Muscles lying immediately under the 
Membrane of the Pharynx, which, with the CEso- 
FHAGUsa/^rfTRArnEA, are removed. 


c. The paliito-iiliaryngcu-s ; 

(/, The part whitili afteiM-aids passes under the levator 

f, Jfait of the pakto-pliiuyngeus, called by ALBI^rtJS, Sal- 

f^ Part of tlic coiiunoji eud of the palato-phaiyngeus and 
6t j'lo-pli aiy iige us . 

g. The posterior edge of the velum palati. 
A, The uvula. 

j\ The tonsil, projectuig before the palato-pharyngens. 

k. The tongue. 

/, The epiglottis, 

m. The poiut of the arytenoid cartilage. 

7), The arytenoidt'us obii(juiis. 

FIG. 14. 

Muscles of the Palate, viewed o 

a. The levator palali. 

b, c, Tlie circuniflexus palati ; — c. Its tendoOf passing 
. ovei' the hook-like piT - -*■"'' ' '' ' ■ 

</, llie membrane of tlie 

f. The Eustachian tul 

/,;;./; The ciicumlerei,. 

the palate is cut off. 

The Mouth ami Fa 
the Palatum I\jol 
the investing flltJii 

from which the membrane of 


lU'cli oC the palate — Setween this and 
ii-cli ft, is the seat of the iunygdaJa. 

a. The Eustachian tube opening laterally into the poste- 
rior foramen of the nostril. 

&, The OS spongiosum inferius, covered with the mucous 

r. The levator palati. 

rf, The cJrcumflcxus. 

r, The small hook of the pterygoid process. 

/, Part of the palato-pharyngeus, which passes through 
the soft palate, under the end of the levator. 

^, Part of the common end of the stylo-pharyngeus and 
palato-phaiyngens, produced more paj'ticiUaiiy from 

(/, The ij^'ula. 

f, The tongue. 

f.,/^ The fauces. 

g^ The constrictor istluui faucium. 

A, The palato-pharyngeus. 

FIG. 16. 

Shews the Larynx, with its Post 
those at the Side of the Thyro 
Right Part of which is removed. 

Represents the Must les which appear upon the Removal 
of the Levatokes Palati, the Annular and Ary- 
tenoid Caktilages, and their Appendages. 

n, TIic ciicumflcxus palati. 

7), The iipoLieurosis of the ciixumflexi. 

r, The huok-like process of the pterygoid plate. 

rf. The palalo-pharjTigcus. 

f, Pait of the stjlo-pharyDgeoB inserted into the thyroid 

/, The thyniid cartiUigc. 

g^ A proinineucL- upon (he inner side of the thyroid car- 
A, The under end of the epiglottis, fixed to the tJiyroid 

f, f , yi The thyro-epiglotttdeus. 
d,gy 'Ihe thyro-aryteuoideus. 
A, The arytenoideus transversus. 
i^ J — ■ -- — obliquuSf with it 

from the Muscles and Me; 

a. A, c, The inside of the left half of the thyroid c 

rf, The superior coiiiu of the thyroid cartilage. 

y. The cricoid cartilage. 

gj 'i'he right arytenoid cartilage. 

A, The left arytenoid cartilage. 

7, A-, The epiglottia ; — k^ Its concave part. 

( ista ) 


This Plate contains the Anatomy of the Parts about the Groin in both Sexes, or of the Parts 
concerned in Inguinal and Crural Hernia. — All the Figures, excepting the Third, belong 
to the Left Side of the Body — Fig. 2. S. 6. are taken by the Author from Nature. — Fig. 
1, 3. 4. 7. 8. are Sketches from the highly finished Work of Mr Cooper, on Hernia. 

S/ifii'S the Formation of the Abdominal St'ngs in the 
Male, the Course of the Spermaiic Cord through these^ 
and (he Form and SitmUion of some of the Fascice. 

1 which assists ui the 

0, The external abdominal ring, 
i, The upper coliunn of the tendoi 

formation of this riug. 
c. The under column of this tendon, extending from, 
rf, Tlie crural arch, or ligament of Poupart, to be fi; 

to the pubis, 
e, The lllal, and, 

/, The pubal poitioa of the fascia lata femoris. 
g. The vena saphxna perforating tlic fascia lata, to 1 

minate in the femoral vein. 
A, The tendon of the external oblique muscle, cut ; 

reflected, to shew parts deeper seated. 

1, The lower edge of the internal oblique muscle, 
from the criual arch, and also reflected. 

t, The ti-ansversaiis, the lower edge of which is cut ; 


,e the back part of the tr; 
111, thereby preventing 

1 the 

ural arch 
usck and its 
from happen- 

tcrnal iliac blond-vessels ana the 
jpijrior-anterior spinous process of the 03 ilium. 
The internal abdi 
I, The epigastric blood- 

. isels, passing first at the 

' aide of^^ and then behind the spermatic cord. 
0, The spermatic cord, dcscendiug through the abdi 
rings, shewing at the 
' guinal canal, and the 

p, The spermatic cord, in its descent to the testicle. 


, The superficial fasciaj which c 

f about the 
i the tendon of the 

external oblique muscle of the abdomen, cut &om the 
ligament of Poufakt, and turned up. 
J, That part of the superGcial fascia, which covers the 
fascia lata femoris at the upper part of the thigh, cut 
and turned outwards. 

c, The under end of the tendon of the external oblique 
muscle, forming the ligament of Poupart. 

d. The round ligament of the uterus, passing through the 
external abdominal ring. 

c. The fascia lata femoris, descendmg from the under 

/, Tlie cresceutic or falciform edge of this fascia. 

g^ The vena sapha;na, passing through a notch io the 
fascia, to terminate in the femoral vein. 

A, A vein descending from the integuments of the abdo- 
men, also to terminate in this vein. 

7,/, Some lymphatic glands situated in the notch at the 
side of the vena saphsena, where crural herois happen. 

FIG. 3. 

Represents the External Abdominal Bingt and the Fal- 
ciform Ligament, or Semilunar Edge of the Fascia 
Lata Femoris, in the Female, 

0, The symphysis of the pubis. 

b. The external abdominal ring, with the upper and undec 
columns by which it is formed. 

c. The crural arch. 

d. e. The fascia lata of the thigh ; rf. The iUal, and, 
e, the pubal portion of this fascia. 

/,/, The seroiluoar or falciform edge of the fascia. 

g. The crural sheath. 

A, The vena saphxna. 

if The place where the bowels protrude io femoral heinia. 

FIG. 4. 

Shem the Insertions of the Tendon of the External Oh' 
lique Muscle into the Os Pubis i the Iliac Fascia, and 
the Orifice of tlie Crural Sheath, in the Female. 


The external abdominal ring, with tn^) orifices in it, 

which bappciis occasionally. 

The anterior surlkce of the crural arch : above the 
the direction of the fibres of the tendon 
lal oblique muscle, anil curved tenflinous 

letter is seen 
of the exter 
lines decu&sa 
r, The third in 
lique muscle, 

third insertio 

I that tendon. 

ligftment descending towards the groin. 
k. The exteroal iliac arteiy. 
/, The epigastric artery. 
m. The circumflex artery of the os ilium, 
n, The obtui-ator artery, to this subject arising from the 

o. The external iliac vein, re 
ing with those sent off froi 
/), The crural ring. 

!", The fascia iliaca, passing fiom the crural aich over 

the internal iliac muscle. 
I, The orifice of the crural sheath, for the passage ofthe 

femoral blood-vessels and absorbents. 

Sketch of the Inner Side of that Part of the Parietes 
of the Akdomen, which separates this Cavity from the 

Gives a View of the Inner Side of the Crural Arc/i, and 
of the Passage of the Blood-Vesseh which go under it^ 
in the Male. 

By a. The abdominal muscles reflected. 

h, r, rf, The posterior, or inner part of the crural arch ; 
rf, A portion of this arch, forming the third insertion 
of the CKteriial obliq^ue muscle, and which is broader 
than in the female. 

r, The iliac fascia, covering the internal iliac muscle. 

ft Part of the large psoas muscle. 

g:. The external iliac artery, sending off, 

6, The internal circumflex artery ofthe os ilium, and, 

(", The epigastric artery. 

t. The external iliac vein, receiving the circumflex and 

epigastric veins The circumflex artery and vein are 

seen iu the place where the iliac joins the transverse 

f. The crural ring, where femoral hernia occurs, 
m. The speiniatic blood-vessels. 

n. The vas deferens, departing from the blood-vessels, to 
get into the pelvis. 

VutB of the Inner Side of the Crural Arch in the Fe- 
male^ and Parts smnewhat corresponding with those 
seen in the former Figure. 

a. The symphysis of the pubis. 

i. The brim of the pelvis. 

c, rf, Tiie crural arch, or ligament of Poupart, The 
letter d is placed on that part of the ligament that is re- 
commended by GiMBERNAT to be cut in crural hernia. 

e. The iliac fascia covering the mternal iliac louacle. 

/, The large psoas muscle, with a brauch of tlie lumbar 
nerves riuining along it to the. thigh. 

) the symphysis of 

F, d. The symphysis of the pubis. 
>, The rectus abdominis, inserted i 

', The fascia iliaca. 

F, e, The fascia transversalis i e, that part of it which 

passes from the pubis to join the tendon of the rectus. 
\ Tlie round ligament of the moms, posing thmngh the 

fascia transversalis to get into the inguiaal canal. 
:, The iliac artery. 
■^ The beginning of the epigastric artery, with its asso- 

r ring, through which femoral hernia 


: which forms the 

I, The tendon of the transversalis inserted into the pubis 
behind the external abdominal ring, and preventing 
that opening from being seen. 

, r. The fascia transversalis, which here separates, to 
form the internal abdominal ring. 

', The fascia iliaca. 

, The place where the two fasciae meet, and shut up the 

end I 

t' the abdonie 
: artery. 
; artery, with tlie corresponding v 


Tab ji' n^ ^ 

( 159 ) 


Views of various Muscles, some of which aie not sufficiently shewn in the fotmei- ¥i 

FIG. I. , PIG. 5. 

T/ie Sttrno-Cosiah's. Jjitenor View of l/ie Levatobes, vit'lh f/ie Sphincter 


See Tab. XXXIX. Right Side of the Trunk. 

J- J Q Q f. The bulb of the urethra. 

..,,''" .^, ,,., <;, A section of the urethra and corpus spoDgiosum. 

A View oft/ie Cavity oJ the Diaphragm, or of the .SWt ^ -^^^ spliinctcr intcniua ani. ' ' " 

m-xl the Abdomen. /'/,/,/, The place fi-om wheLce a portion of the os pubi^ 

A, The cartilago eusiformis. is cut out, to obtnio a view of the levatores which lie 

B, The cartilage of the seventh rib. behind. 

C, The point of the twelfth rib. ^, The levator ani, arising froiiUheinner.sidcof the os pubis. 

D, E, F, The first, second, and thii'd lumbar vertcbnc. /;, T6e thin portion which comes out fi'om the angle where 
G, A section of the aorta. the cms penis joins ihe corpus spongiosum urcthr.T. 
H, The mouth of the ccellac artery. 
I, The superior raeseoteric artery, and, on each side of 

it, the renal arteries. The Accel. 
K, A section of the vena cava. and Erectores Penis. 

L, A section of the oesophagus. „^ T]ieacceleratororin3e,iuveiiluigthebulboftlieurethra 

M, The psoas niagnus. W ^ 'pjie " ' 

N, The quadratus lunibDrum. ^, ^ 

O, The gi-eat intercostal nerve. J „ Xhe ere 

P, The last of the doi-sal nerves. f^ -^.^e corpu. ._. _ ^ 

Q, Q, The interior arch, or fleshy boundary of the dia- " . ,. ui-ethiw. 

phiagm, to which the peritoneum adheres. ' VI C 7 

R, S, S, The cordiform tendon of the diaphragm. 
T, T. The fleshy pai-ts of the diaphragm ^^'bich come The Back Par! nf the Sphincter Externus Ant. 

firom the ribs. • g^ The point by \\hich it adheres to the extiemity of the 

U, U, The fleshy pillars of the diaphragm. os cocc^-gis. 

V, V, Thetendinoustrura,urlongbeadsofthediapliragm. J^ The anus, from which to a the fibres of the opposite 
W, W, Fleshy columns on each side, where the ccsopha. gidgg meet iu angles which poiut upwards, and become 

gns passes. nioie acute as they ascend. 

FIG. 3. FIG. 8. 

fhe Fore Part of the Coccygeus. The Fore Part of flie .Sphincter Externus Ani. 

(T, The tendinous origin of tlie coccygeus, from the spl- a^ The fibres wlilcli meet from each side, forming angles 

nous process of the os ischium. pointing upwards, and wluch, as in the former Figui-e, 

ft. Insertion of part of the coccygeus jn'o the o'i sacrum.. become more acute as they ascend. 

/,, The termination of the sphincter ani in the peiineum, 
spongiosum methra:. ^ 

(/, Tlie bulb of the u 


<?, The posterior and outer part of the muse 
e. Its iosertion into the under part of the os 
/, The tendinous end meeting its fellow bcloi 
g'. The muscular coat of the rettimi, called 

Sphincter hitermts Jni. 
b. The aous. 

Milncles ahout the Itmt 


/A(-' Inlestiiitt 

in liecttim 

a, a, Tlic 


i. The le 

,, The tn 

tusversiilifi pel 


,1, The cr 

eetor penis. 

f, The M 

eelcTad.i- iirin 


1, The co: 

iia penis. 

>, The eo 

*, The .e 

riitu,,, lui„ed 


I, P;iit ol 


!:, The ct 

It edge of (lie 


■ml Vmler End of 

( 160 ) 


Ilepreaeiita the Salivary Glands, Parts about the Throat, and certain deep-seated MdscleSj 
in the Interior Part of the Body, not suflBciently shewn in former l^igiues. 

fart of /Ae Muscles ofUie Os Hyoides, together with 
the Submaxillary Gland. 

«, Part of (he masseter. 

A, The posterior head of the digastricus ; 

r. Its anterior bead, 

rf. The stylo-hyoideusj through which the ttadon of the 

diga,stricus passes. 
«, e, The stenio-hyoidei. 
/, The omo-liyoideus. 
gy The phary 

li^ The submaxillary gland. 

ff, a^ The mylo-hjoidei. 
by Tlie hyo-glossus. 
r. The sterno-thyroideus. 
rf. The thyro-byoideus. 

f. The submaxillary gland rallied £rom its place behind 
the angle of the lower jaw. 

/, The stylo-glossus. 

g. The stylo-pharyngeus. 
A, The pharynx. 

riG. 3. 

Muscles deeper stated than the former. 

u. The gcnio-hyoideus. 

i. The genio-hyo-glosKUS. 

f. The atylo-glos9i!S. 

(/, The stylo-phaiyngeus. 

ff, Tlie submaxillary gland raised, by which its duel is 

seen in its passage under tlic tongue, to its tennination 

at the side of the fni;num linguxt 
f. The sublingual gland. 
J, The OS hyoides. 
A, The thyroid Ciirtilagc. 

/, The cricoid cartilage, ivilh the ciico-thyroidei. 
i, 'iTie thyroid gland. 
t, ITie trachea. 
jtf. The pharynx. 

iy fl. The genio-hyo-glosans ; 

i, Its origin, tut from the inner part of the lower jaw. 

(', c, c, i he hyo-glossus. 

rf, 'I'he stylo-glossus. 

e, I'he tip of the tongue pinned out, at each side of whicb 
the papiltcc appear. 

f,fy lite basis, or root of the tongue. 
^, The membrane, ivith its mucouB glaLds, continued 
Irom the tongue to the epiglottis. 

FIG. 5. 

Shem the To»GU£, Os Uyojdes, and Lartvx, sepit- 
rated from the l^eft Side of the Head, and tumtii 
over upon the Rigkt^ — the Hj:ad being inverted. 

«, The inner side of the lower jaw. 

by Part of the glanduls palatini. 

f , The uvula, with its muscle hanging over the openings 
into the back part of the nose. 

rf. The right side of the pharynx remaining entire. 

r. The tongue, at the anterior edges of which the papilla 

f The salivary glands of the tongue, 

gy One of the apiygdala^. 

A, The OS hyoides, with its left cornu jomed to the left 

superior comu of the thyroid c^tilagc. 
■fy The thyroid cartilage, 
it. The back plirt of the cricoid cartilagCi 
ly fy The arytenoid caitilagcs. 
»/, The epiglottis. 
fly The cartilagt's of the trachea. 
0, The membi'anous part of the trachea. 

FIG. 6. 

A, The cartilages of the trachea. 

B, The membranous back pai't of the trachea. 

C, C, That part of the phaiynx which arises from the pte- 
rygoid processes, Icvatores palati, and os occipitis. 

D, D, Parts of tlie pharynx which arise from the lower F, Tlie scalenus anticui 

E, E, Fibres of the pliarynx, from the root of the tongue ; 

F, , from the os hyoidcs ; 

G, , fi'om the thyroid c;u-liUiye ; 

I, The'03 hyoides, 

K, The thyroid cartilage. 

h, Lj The styloid processes. 

M, M, The ligaments from ttie styloid processes, fixed to 

the appendices of the os hyoides. 
N, N, The atylo-hyoidci. 
O, O, The styto-pharyngei. 
P, The back pm-t of the esopliagjs ; 
Q, Q, Its external surface. 
R, The stei-no-thyroideus. 
S, The thjTO-hyoideuB. 

FIG. 7. 

A View of the Right and Back Part of the LAnYN!;. 
n. The cricoid cai-tilage. 
b^ The epiglottis ; 
f, Its root cut from tlie base of the tongue, where many 

small glands appear. 
(/, The tips of tlie arytenoid cartilage freed fix)m their 

ff. The concave surface of the thyroid cartilage, and its 

superior cornua: The riglit half of the cartilage is 

turned back. 
f^ The inferior cornu of the thyroid, cut from, 
g^ Its comiection to the cricoid cartilage. 
A, The crico-aryteaoidens posticus. 

I, lateralis. 

h<, The thyro-arytenoideus. 

/, The arytenoidei 

ni, The trachea ; 

n, Its membranous part. 

FIG. 8. 

A View priiici'pnlfi/ of 'the Muscles j'n the Interior Pari 
of the Body, next the Spime. 

A, The rectus capitis lateralis. 

B, 1 anterior minor. 

C, major. 

D, E, The longus colli. 

H, The Irachelo-mastoideus, 

I, I, &c. The intercostales extenii. 

K, K,&c ii.Lemi. . 

1,, L, &c. Portions of the internal iiitcrcostals, calkd 

Depressores Proprii Cawperii. 
M, The transversus abdominis. 
N, The quadratus lumbonim. 
O, The pso.ts parvus. 

P, magDua. 

Q, A portion of the psoas magnus ; the upper part which 

lay over the qnadi-atus iumboi'um is cut off. 
R, The iHaeus intenius. 
, The pyrifopmis. 

FIG. 9. 

Explained in Tab. XXXTII. 
FIG. 10. 

The Abdomen opened^ and its Contents removed^ toshew 
the Diaphragm Mid Muscles of the Loins. 

A, A, The containing parts of the abdomen cut and 
turned back. 

B, B, Tlie cut ends of the ribs. 

C, The origin of the superior, or greater muscle of the 
diaphragm, from the cartilago eusLFormis. 

D, D, Origins from the libs. 

E, E, E, The eordiform tendon of the diaphragm. 

F, The perforation in tliat tendon, for the passage of the 

■G, G, Tlie long crui'a of the inferior, or lesser muscle of 

the diaphragm. 
H, Tlie passage of the aorta between the long crura, 
I, I, Shorter heads of the diaphragm. 
K, K, The fleshy colunms from the joining of these 

L, Fibres crossing under, 
M, The passage of the esophagus. 
N, The quadratus himborum. 
O, The psoas paiTus. 

P, P, The large psoEc, tlie ri^iht of ^vliich is turned ent. 
wards at its Iow«r end. 

( 163 v) 


The different Orders of Muscies on the Under Part of the -FouE-AnM and Hand, and on 
the Sole of the Foot. 

I, Tlie tendon of the supinator longus, 
i, ■ flexor cai-pi radhadis, 

•, palmaris longus, 

/, = — Jlesor subUniis, and, 

., . . flexor carpi uluai-is. 

; The flexor longus poUicis. 
•;, Tlic liyajiieiit imder whicli the 
carpi et priiui iaternodii pollicis pa^s. 
, The flexor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 

1 intemodii pollic 

7\ The abductor pollic 

/,-, Tlie teudou of the extcosBr pj 

f. Part of the flexor brevis poUi< 

Jii, Tlie teudou of the flexor lougus polUcis boimd by li- 

//, Tl]e aponeurosis palmarl^, slightly distinguished into 
ibur portions, the extremities of which afterwards be- 
come more distinct, and ai-e strengthened by t 
tendinous fibres. 
The palmaii; 

p. The abdm 


, The adductor mc-tacarpi 

, The flexor par^'Us minimi digiti. 

, ty «, Three small annular ligaments, ^vhich retain the 
tendons of the sublimis and profundus io their places 
on the fore-finger. 

, tr, ,r, Tlie tendon of the flexor sublimis, with the ten- 
don of the flexor profundus passing through it. 

', The iQifrtion of the tendon of the ftcx( 
into the third bone of the mid-iinger. — Th 
with those marked s, /, u, v, w* a, are seen 

', The flexor poinds longus ; 

', Its tendon. 

jy hy The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 

', ■— primi intemodii pollicis. 

r, The ligainentum carpi annulare anterius. 

„ lie flexor ossis mctacaipi pollicis. 

«, n. The ajiterior and posterior portions of the flexov 

brevis pollicis, with the teudon of the flexor longus 

pollicis oet ween them. 
I, The adductor pollicis^ 
>, The abductor mdicis.. 
r, J, Stc. The lumbricales.. 
V The tendon of the flexor Eublimis, perforated by that 

of the flexor profundi^, and inserted into the second 

bone of the lore-finger. 
, The tendon of the flexor profundus. 
, The insertion of the flexor profundus into the third 

!* t/ic V/ider mid Fore 

The Secmid Order of Muscles i 
Part of the Foue-arm bt, 

tilt The tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris. 

A, J, A portion of the flexor digitorum sublimis 

fl. The flexor longus pollicis ; 

&, Its teudoji. 

c, </, f. The flexor profundus. 

/, The tendon of the flexor pi-ofuadus 

A tendon of that muscle is also f 

other lingers. 
gy 'I'he ligamentum carpi annulare. 
hy The adductor metacarpi minimi dif 
t', ky I'he flexor brevis pollicis. 
/, The adductor poUicia. 

, Tiie pronator radii quadiatu: 



!», c, Tlie (loxor bi-cvis pollkis, with the ossa sesamoidea 

iiito uliicli it is insci-ted. 
?, The adductor pollicis. 

*" e, The prior indicis. 
/, The posterior indicis. 
gy The prior niedii digiti. 
J), The posterior niedii digiti. 
-" '^' ■ lularis. 


', The prior n 

i". The posterior aunularis. 
, Tlie iiiterosfjeits auriculuris. 

riG. 5. 

The First Order of Muscles on the Under and Back 
Part of the Fore-arm and on the Back of the Hand. 

o. The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicM. 

ft, primi internodii pollicia. 

f, The tendoE of the extensor pruiii iiiternodii pollicis, 
aecundi inteinodii pollic 

i\ The abdnctor iudicis.. 
^, The prior medii digiti. 
If The posterior medii digiti. 
7j(, ' annularifl. 

The Third Order of Utjscles on the Under md Back 
Part of the Fohe-arm and on the Bach of the Hand. 
— Otte of the Heads of each £jfcr/ui/ Interosseous 
Muscle w removed^ to obtain a I'lcw of (he Internal, 

Oy Tiie tendon of the extensor carpi indiaJis loogior. 

E,/, The 

/;, The flexor tiixpi uluaris. 

7', The ligament which confines the two first 

the thumb. 
l; The ligamentum carpi annulare posterius. 
;aj'pi uhiaris. 

c. The cut tendon of the extensor digitoi 
d^ The utiduttor pollicis, 
D, The flexor brevis pollicis. 
Cy Tlie prior indicis. 
f The posterior indicis. 
gy Part of the prior medii digiti. 
A, Fart of the posterior inedii digiti. 
/, 7'he prior annularis. 
. k^ Part of the posterior anAnlaiis, 
/. The interosseus anricularis. 

n(. The tendons of the extensor digitorum c 

\-ided hy longitudinal fissui'cs upon the back of the 

?(, Tlie tendon of the indicator. 

0, Aponeui'otic slips joining the tendons of the extensor 
digitorum to each other. 

p, Part of the abductor minimi digiti. 

q^ The adductor pollicis. 

7', Tendinous expansions continued from the tendons of 
the extensor digitorum communis, and of the interossei 
and lurabricales, adheriug closely to the bones. 

5; The division of these ^xpausions continued from the 
tendons of the extensor digitorum commuuis, and of 
the interossei and lumbricales,— for the readier motion ■ 
of the joints ; 

/, Their tei'mination at the lost joint of the fingers. 

FIG. 6. 

The Second Order of Muscles on the Under and Back 
Part of the Fore-akm and on the Back of the Hand. 

i pollic 

the Coimaon Int 

, ft, c. The aponeurosis plautaris, connected behind to 
the OS calcis, and before to the fust joint of all the 
toes. — (T, The middle part divided into five abps, which 
split at the roots of the toes, and embrace the tendonii 
of the flexor mnscles. — ft, The portion which covers 
the abductor minimi digiti. — c, The portion which 

s ends of the abductor, and short 

flexor of the gicat toe. 
, Part of the trans versid is pedis, 
, The abductor minimi digiti pedis. — A small part of 

the lumbricales, the abductor minimi digiti, the short 

flexors, the tendons of the long and short flexors, 

the ligaments which confine them, a 

other toes, — nearly as in the hand. 


fy Its tendoi 

/, The tendon of the indicator. 

gy The flexor carpi ulnaris. 

A, The cut tendon of the extensor digitorui 
Sections of the tendons of this muacle : 
Hpoa the ring and little fingevs. 

The First Order of Muscles on the Sole, after the A- 
poNEUKOSis, and mo\t of the Ligaments shewn in 
theformt-r Figure, an- removed. 

a. The flexor brevis "digitorum, sendijig tendons to the 

second phaliinx of the four smidl toes. 
5, The tendon of the flexor longus pollicis. 
c, The abductor poUicis. 


f, The abductor n 

liniml digiti, a 

omposed of two parts, 
3 the first bone of the 

and fixed by a con 

anion tendon ti 

Htile toe. 

The flexor brcvis 

minimi diglti. 

FIG. m. 

The Secoitd Order of Muscles m 

Iff, The tendon of the flexor longus digitoi 

ft, c, (/, The flexor digitorum pedis accesst 

t«'0 heads arising from the os calcis j — i/, Its ii 
into the tendon of the flexor 

f. The; connection between the tendons of th'e flexor 
longus digitorum and flexor longns pollicis. 

/*,/, TJic insertion of the tendons of the flexor kingus di- 
gitorum into the last bone of the small toes. 

-, /;, /, /.-, The lumbric-des. 

/, The tendon of the flexor longus polticis. 

»i. The insertion of the flexor longus pollicis into the last 
joint of the great toe. 

H," The insertion of the tibialis posticus. 

7J, 5, The two parts of the flexor brevis pollicis. 
J-, The insertion of the peronens brevis. 
.*, The tendon of the peroneus longtis passuig to the sole. 
/. w. The ligaments connecting the bones at this part of 
the sole, aad giving origin to muscles. 

FIG. 11. 

T/ie Third Order of Muscles m t!ie Sole. 
«, Tlie insertion of tlie peroneus brevis. 

, The tendon of the peroneus longus, 

, The insertion of the tibialis posticus. 

', f, A ligament binding the os cuboides to the os calei.i, 
and giving origin to muscles. 

; The flexor brevis minimi digiti. 

, A, The adductor pollicis. 

, l; «(, The flexor brevis pollicis pedis ; — A', Its tendi- 
nous origin fi-om the os calcia and os cuneiforme ester- 4 

num ; — /, Its connection with the adductor pollicis ; 

»), Its connection with that pai-t from which the ab. 
ductor pollicis was cut. 

, The trausversalis pedi«. 

FIG. 12. 

The Fourth Order of Muscles in the Sole. 

tarsal bone of ihe gneM toe, and sending tendons 

the OS cuneiforme tntemnm. 
f. The insertion of the tibialis anticus. 
(/— i; The interossei. 
rf, The abductor, and, 
c. The adductor indicia pedis. 

f. The abductor and adductor medii digiti, 

g. The abductor, and, 

A, The adductor tertii digiti. 
7\ minimi digiti. 










^HE Bu 


Mucosa belong chiefly to the Extretni- 
a few also evisit m some other paits 
Thej aie found between paits c\|iosed I 


of the Body. 

friction, as between Teodoi 

pi;iy upon each othei, as at the lUher 

JTlexor Cubiti ; 

Oi- bett\'een Tendon and Cartdage, 

ud £one':>, whcic ihet 

lunic ite, not only in Aditlts, but often also 
til the CaMtyof the Joints, as behind 
the Liteubois ot the Leg , though this is 

, the Sole 

louiijiiig ihe TendoQS, and lioin; 

juiid the 'lendoDs ot the Flcioie 

Or coiiiplet 
their Sheaths, 
Digitorum : 

Or where Tendons i ub on eich other, is between ihoae 
of the EstensoicH Caiiii RidiJesand L\ttii-.oies, PoIlitJa 

Or between Tendons md Evfeiual Paitb, is o\(i iht 
Tendons of the Flcvores Dyiloium, in the Pahn ot the 

Or between Tendons and Ligaments of ihe Touits, as 
between the Tendons of the Fle\ores Digitoiuni and Li- 
gainentum Carpi Capsulaie 

They are found in a tcv\ places «heie Pioce'jse'i of 
Bone play upon Liganientsi, li between the Aeioniion 
Scapulae and CapsuHr Ligament ot the Hmntrus 

Or where the Bones pin on each otiiti, as bctnecu 
the Clavicle and Coiacoid Process of the SeipuU 

Some of tlie Bui-sb 
rate with each othei , i'- bttu en 
lisdialis and Extcnsoi Scciindi IiUt 

in Chiidim 
Iht Undm 
moic tiDiiRiiiH the case m adiinced age 

Tilt Jiui^i. in t,ciiciai a,ie either of a romidish or o\nl 
1 im, tiiiiii wliieh they hd.\e been an-inged under tivo 
cUs^f--., Mz the Sp/iei ical and J agimil 

Iheii stiueture i-* the same with that of the inner 
La^ ei ot the Capsular Ligament ot the Jomts 

Like that, they are toimcd ot a thm Pellucid Serous 
Membrane, posses'-mg little sensibditj, and jomed to the 
siurounding puts b^ CelluHi Substance, nhich, m many 
pliees, isniieimixed "ith Fdt 

Like tli'i Ctpsiile ot the Tomt, tiiey have commonly a 
thm Lnei ot t utilise, oi ot lough Membiane, between 
them ind the B >iie 

Like it, the\ haie reddish -coloured Masses of Fat 
niojeeting into thcu Canities, Iroin the ed^es of which 
^^nges are sent of! , as behind the Li{,ameut ot the Pa- 
tch i, 01 at the inseition of the Tendo ^chillis 

Like It -il^o, the iii'.ide ot the Bui -e i-, remarkably 
Mnooth, being lubiicaled uilh the siiuc kuid ot Gelati- 
nous 1 luid \Uiich IS found m the C uilits of the Joints, 
and \\lueh senes the same geneial puiposc with that 
of the Joints, mz to lessen Friction, and present the 
consequences ^hich would otherwise itsult troni it. 

( 168 ) 


The Euisae of the Head and Neck are small when A Bursa bclongiilg to the Tendon of the Circuinflt-;ap 

omparcd iiith those of the Bxtremities. The followiug Palati, where it plays upon the inner Plate of the Ptciy- 

ave lately bfcn ctc^cnbed by Authors, viz, goid Process of the Sphenoid Bone. 

A liaj^:i hiiivi-i II (in- ttiidon of the Superior Oblitjue A Bursa under the Massetcr. 

iustic (>r ilif \'.\i- :iik! lis Ti-oclile.1. A Biu'sa under the upper end of the Stemo-hyoi- 


liuns_^ abuul lilt Joint of thf Shoulder, Four long B....K5; IJuinp the felicalhs which inclose the 

A 1, » u,„!., 11... tlivick', uiK-rc ilpl;iysupon the Tendons of the Flexor, uoon ,h. Finder., 

f-.^^, ^, ; j , . , ;,,.-, ,.,„|y ' Four short Biir.^a; m\ tlic iorc jkuI ot tlie Tendons of 

\'i . , . ■ '! 11 iht- Aironiioii Siiinila; and Li the Flexor Dlgltonun Sublimis in tiic Palm of the Hand. , 

g-..uu.,.' ... . . .., tiK C:,.,..;,.,.! Process ''"d the Capl A large Eur., between t lie Tendon of the Rexor Pol."/- 

sular Li ' imciif ot llie Humerus. ' ^'*^^ Loaglis, the tore part of the Kadius, and Capsular 

■ A small Eu™, BOmetimes absent, betiveOTthe point Liganient of the Wrist and 0» Trapeiium. 

ot the toracoiJ I'rocess and Capsular ligament of the . * '»''e» Burs* between the Icndons of the Fiejor D,. 

Humerus gitonim Profundus, and the fore part of the end of the 

A E^sa between the Tendon of the Subscapnlu-is ««'«''= aod Capsular LiEament, of the Wrist. 

Muscle and Capsular Ligament of the Joint of the Hu- "<''' '"'o last-mentioned Burs» ="■ '"met 

merus, n hicli frcinently eommunicates with the Cavity '" communicate with each other. ^ ■ „ 

of the Joint A Bursa bet ween the Tendon of the Flexor Carpi Ra- 

A BuiJ I, not constant, between the Origin of the Co- '■'"l'^ '>^^ "* Traiiczium. , .^ . , , „ 

raco-biachialis a,„i short Head of the Biceps Muscle, *» inconstant Bursa between the Tendon of the rienor 

lunl Ca|„ul:,r Li.-amciit of the Humerus. ''»■?' I'hiaris and Os 1 isilorme. 

A Enr^a bclueen the Tendon of the Teres jMajor and -* Hursa between the rendon of the Extensor Ossis 

the Os Ihnii.rl, and upper part of the Tendon of the Metacariii P,."-- «• ' 


A small Bursa between the Tendon of the Lati 

! ofoirf llw Joint 0/ Ihe Elbow. 
1 1, a I'Jntm or Mass of Pal, between the 
I I . ; :nHl a Cartilage which incrusts the 

le llxteusor Seeuiidi In. 
1 of the Tendon of the 

■<in the Tendon common to the Anolhrr Bursa 

II.. Hrevior, Fxten.or D.sitorum p,,„„ai huunodii 

:'-;.iuKtl,e Radius. -j.|,^^b. 

in i.iii-l.iiit, hihvc.H the rtndoa jj^ -Qxn-^a. between the Tendons of the Extennor of the 

-r ( nbitiaiid OlLcniiion. Fore, Middle, and Ring Fingers, and iiigament of the 

■ l^i oj tht FoK£-AHM and the ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Tendons of tlie Extensor of the Little 

rounding the Tendon of the A Bursa between the Tendon of the Extensor Carpi 





EuRS.i: ujWH l/i€ Pelvis and Upper Part of the Tbigh. 

A very large Bursa between the Iliacus Intcrnus and 
Pfioas Magnus, and Capsular Ligament of the Thigh- 
bone. This is sometimes found communicating with the 
Cavity of the Joint, especially in an old person. 

A Bursa between the Tendon of the Pectinalis and 

A small Bursa between the Gluteus Medius and Tro- 
ohanter Major, and before the insertion of the Tendon of 
tlie Pyriformis. 

A Bursa between tlie Teudon of the Gluteus Minimus 
and Trochanter Major. 

A Bursa between the Cluteus Maxunus aa*l Vootus 

A Bui 

A Bu 

An oblong Bursa continued a considerable way between 
ihe Obtui-utor Internus and Gemini, and Capsular liga- 
ment of the Thigh-bone. 

A small Bursa at the Head of iiie Senuniembranosus 
and Biceps Flexor Cruris. 

A small Bursa between the Origin of the Semitendino- 
aus and that of the two former Muscles, 

A large Bursa between the Tendon of the Gluteus 
Maxinius and root of the Trochanter Major. 

A Bursa between the Tendons of: the Sc niimombrano- 
sus and Gastrocnemius Extoruus, and Lig^mcMr of the 
Knee. This Bursa contains a smaU one Mitliin it, ft-om 
which there is a passage leadijig into the Cavity of the 
Joint of the Knee. 

A Bursa l^ptween the Tendon of the Semimembranosus 
and the internal Lateral Ligament of the Knee, from 
which also there is a passage leading into the Joint. 

A Bursa under the Popliteus, likewise conununicating 
with the Cavity of the Knee-joint. 

Burs* about the Joint of the Khee. 

A large Bursa beliind the Tendon of the Extensors of 
tht L^. This, in yoimg Subjects, is separated from the 
Cavity of the Joint by a thin Partition, consisting of the 
Capsular L'igam<nt and the liursa intimately connected ; 
hut in old people-, it vcvy fi-cquently communicates with 
the Joint by a \j.t<^i- (Spelling. 

A Bursa behind the Ligament which joins the Patella 
to tlie Tibia, in the upper part of the Cavity of which a 
Falty ^HbstHnce projects. 

A large Bursa between the Tendons of the Sartorius, 
Grit^lia, SemitendinosuB, and Tibia. 

'Vol. 1, 1 

EuRS^ ahovt the Ankle. 

A Bursa between the Tendon of the Tibialis Anticos 
an.: under part of the Tibia and Ligament of the Ankie. 

A Bui-sa between the Tendon of the Extensor Proprius 
Pollicis Pedis aud the Tibia and Capsular Ligaoient of 
the Ankle. 

A Bursa between the Tendons of the Estensor Digito- 
rum Loogus and Ligament of the Ankle. 

A large Bursa common to the Tendons of the Peronei 

A Bursa proper to the Tendon of the Peroneus Brevis. 

A Bursa between the Tendo AcHlLLis and Os Calcis, 
into the Cavity of which a Pelofon of Fat projects, 

A Bursa between the Os Calcis and Flexor Pdlicis 

A Bursa between the Flexor Digitorum Loogus and 
the Tibia and Os Calcis. 

A Bursa between the Tendon of the Tibialis Posticus 
and the Tibia and Astragalus. 

BuRSJE in Ike Sole of the Foot. 

A second Bursa for the Tendon of the Peroueus Lon- 
gus, with au oblong Pehiton of Fat witliin it. 

A Bui-sa common to the Tendon of the Flexor PoUicif 
Longus, and that of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus, al 
the upper end of n-hich a Fatty Substance projects. 

A Bursa for the Tendon of the Tibialis Posticus. 

A Bursa lining the Sheath of each of the TendoDs ol 
the I!le](ors upon the Toes. 

( «T0 ) 


Represents the Bursjg Mucosa of the Superior Extrkmities.. 

^he BunsjE Mccos* of this and the succeeding Table are all represented as sht open, and several 
qf them inflated. 

X, A bursa, with a pehtoa of fat, bettveeu the Icn 

of the biceps and tubercle of the radius. 
T, The origin of the extensor carpi radialts longior. 
Zr A small bursa, between the tendon common to 

; the clavicle to the cwa- 

A, The clflvicle- 
Bt The acromion scanulae. 

C, The fore part of the scapula. 

D, The ligament of the semilunar notch of the 
£, The coiaeoid process of the scaputa. 
F,F, Two ligaments ' ' ' '" "' " '* - 

CO id process. 

G, The head of the os humeri. 

H, The body of that bone. 

I, A bursa under the clavicle, where it playa upon the 
coracoid process of the scapula. 

J, A strong ligament which joins the acromioQ to the co- 
racoid process. 

Kf A large bursa between the acromion and ligament J, 
and the capsular ligament of the humerus. 

1*, A small bursa, sometimes absent, between the point 
of the coracoid process and capsular ligament of the 

M, The tendon of the subscapularLs. 

If, A bursa between it and the capsular lig-ament of the 
humerus, which frequently communicates with the ca- 
vity of that joint. 

O, A bursa, not constant, between the origin of the co. 
raco-brachialis and short head of the biceps, and cap- 
sular ligament of the humerus. 

P, I'he tendon of the teres major tunied outwards. 

Q, A bursa between the teudou of the teres major and 
the OS humeri, aud upper part of the tendon of the la- 

B, The tendon of the latissimus dorei turned outwards. 
S, A small bursa between the tendon of the latissimus 

doFsi and os humeri. 
T, A bursa between the tendon of the long head of the 

biceps flexor cubiti and the body of the humerus. 
r. The radius. 
V, The ulna. 
W, The tendon of the biceps flcror cubili totned Ic- 


c. The thick, part of the sheath of the tendons of thft 
flexors of the middle finger. 

(/, The sheath of the tendons of tlte flesors of the ring- 
finger, slit open. 

r. The aheath of the tendoas of the Qexors of the little 
finger, slit open, and the tendons drawn forwards, to 
shew them fully. Each of the sheaths of the flexora 
of the hiigers is lined with a bursa, 
yi A very large bursa surrounding the tendon of the flexor 
pollicis longus. 

g^ A, /, A, Four short bursae on the fore part of the ten^ 
dons of the flesor sublimis digitorum in the palm. 

/, A probe iutroduced into a Targe bursa bttweeu tlic 
tendon of the flexor pollicis longus, and the fore part 
of the radius, and between the capsular li{,^'uneut of 
the wrist and the os tvapezium. 

;n, A pn>be put into a large bursa behind the tendons cf 
the fTexor digitorum pioluudu,*, and on the lore parts 
of the end of the radius, and capitular ligament ot the 

n, A bursa between tlie tendon of ihe flexor carpi radialij 



F,, The tendon of the infra-apinatus turned outwards. 

Ff The tendon of the teres lunor turned outwards. 

J, The 09 humeri. 

J, Tlie external, and, 

K, The internal condyle of the humerus. 

Ij, The radius. 

M, The ulna. 

N, The olecranon. 

O, The tendon of the tiiceps extensor cubit! turned 

F. A small burea between it and the olecranon. 

Q, A bursa between the tendon of the extensor ossis me- 

tacarpi pollicis and the radius. 
II, B, A large bursa common to the extensores carpi 
• radialea, where they cross behind the extensor ossis 

metacarpi pollicis. 
S, S, Another bursa common to the 

diales, where they cross behind the extensor secnndi 

internodii poUiciti. 
T, A third bursa at the insertion of the tendon of the 

extenijor carpi radialis brevior. 
tJ, A bursa for the tendon of the extensor secundi inter- 
nodii poUicts, which communicates with the bursa 

S, S. 
V, Another bursa between the tendon of the extenEor 

secundi internodii pollicis and metacarpal bone of the 

W, The tendons of the extensor of the fore, mid, and 

ring fingers. 
X, A bursa between these tendons and the ligament of 

the wrist. 
T, Another bursa for the extensor of the little finger. 
Z, A bursa between the teudon of the extensor carpi nS* 

nans aad ligament of the nTist. 

(172 )• 


Repreaents the Burs-e Mucos.e of the Infehiou Es 

A, The spine of the os ilium. 

B, ITie inner side of the os ilium. 

C, The OS pubis. 

D, The neck, of the thigli-bone, 

E, The i-oot of the great trochanter. 

F, The thigh-bone. 

G, The iliacus iuternus. 
H, The psoas raa^us. 

rf, The tibia, 
-e, 'J'he fibula. 
f. The back p; 

g^ The tendon of the gracilis 


I, The ii 

> the t 

f the iliacus u 

K, A very large bursa mucosa, between these two mus. 

cles and the capsular ligament of the thigh-bone. 
Ij, The pectincus. 
]M, A bursa between the tendon of the pcctineus and 

N, The adductor brevis femons. 
O, The gluteus mhiimus. 
P, The tendinous part of the gluteus medins. 
Q, A small bursa between tlie gluteus niedius and tro- 

chauter major. Beliind it tlic tendon of tJie pyiiforrais 

?', A large bursa belwet 

gracilis, seraitendinoHUS, and tibia. 
A, The internal lateral ligament of the knee. 
/, A bursa between the tendon of the tibialis amicus, and 

under pai-t of the tibia and ligament of the ankle, 
and psoas maguns. »], A bm-sa between the tendon of the extensor proprius 

poilicis pedis, and the tibia and capsular ligament of 

the ankle. 

f thee 

r di^lorun 

B, A bui 

I betw 

1 the t 

don of the gluteus minimus 
nus, which is joined to the 

S, Part of tiie gluteus maxiinus, 

gluteus mcdius. 
T, Part of the vastus extemus. 
U, A bui'sa betn ecu the gluteus 

V, The patella. 

W, The capsular ligament of the knee. 

X, The tendon of the extensors of the leg, 

tunied up. 
Y, A large bursa behind the tendon of t!ie 

the leg. 
Z, A communication frequently found between tliis bursa 

and tlie cavity of the knee-joint, 
fl, fl. The ligament which joins the patella to the tibia, 

A, The dorsum of the os ilium. 

B, The OS sacrum. 

C, The OS coccygis. 

D, The tuber of the os ischium- 

E, The large trochanter. 

F, The middle of the thigh-bone. 

G, The gluteus minimus. 
JI, The pyriformis. 

I, A bursa mucosa between the ghiteus medius and pyri- 

K, K, 'j'he obturator intemus cut across. 

L, I*, The grniini. 

M, A bui'sabetivecn the obturator internus and os ischium. 

N, A probe put into a bni-sa, which is continued to » 

dotted line between the oblurator interims, gemini, and 

capsular ligament of the thigh-bone. 
O, 'i'he fiuadratus femoria. 
P, The origin of the semimembranosus, and long head of 

the biceps flexor cniris. 
Q, A small bursa mucosa. 
It, The origin of the ecmilendinosus turned back. 



S, A small bursa mucosa. 

T, The tecdon of tlie gluteus maximus. 

Vy A larg« bursa between the teDdon of the gluteus ma\i- 
mu3 and root of (he trochanter major. 

V, V, Two small bursse between the tendon of the glu- 
teus maKimuB and os femoris. 

"W, The back, part of a large bursa, between the tendi- 
nous part of the gluteus niiixhiius and vastus extcrnus. 

X, The intemal condyle, and» 

Y, The external condyle of the thigh-bone. 

Z, The tibia. 

fl, Tlie fibula. 

by The biceps flexor cruris tui-aed downwards. 

i/,.The inner head of the gustracaemiusextemus turned up. 

Cy The semimembranosus turned down. 

/, A bursa between the tendons of the semimembi'anosuB 
and gastrocnemius, and the ligament of' the knee. 

gy A probe passed into a small bursa witliln the b\n'sa /, 
from which there is a passage into the cavity of the 
joint of the knee. 

A, A probe pj»s«"l into a bursa between the tendon of the 
senumeinbranosus and the intemal lateral ligament of 
the knee, from which there is a passage communicating 
with the joint of the knee. 

iy A small portion of the popliteus. 

/j A bursa under it, eomutunicatlng with the cavity of the 

. joint of the knee. 

i*N The tendon of the pcroneus longus. 

'p, A large bursa common to the tendons of the peronei. 
f, A bursa proper to the tendon of tlie peroneus brevis-. 
r, A ligament which ties the fibula to the os caicis. 
«, The tendo Achillis turned down. 
^ A bursa between the tendo^ Achillis and os caicis. 

3 of fat, which projects uito the ca- 

Vy h. pfhtoTfy 

vity of that 
Vy The tendon of the plantariii. 

«', A bursa between tlie os caicis and S^xor poUicis longus. 
Xy 'I'iic flexor digitorum longus. 

J/, A bursa, between that flexor and the tibia and os caicis. 
a. The tendon of the tibialis posticus. 
&, A bursa, between this tendon and the tibia and astrs- 


FIG. 3. 
A View of the Ebrs/e Mucosa in ths Sole of the 

A,. The 06 caicis. 

B» The tendo Achillis. 

C, C, The abductor minimi digiti cut across. 

D, The tendon of the peroneuti longus. 
E,-A second bursa for that tendon. 

f. An iMoaspeloton of fat within tliis bursa. 

G, "I'he fleshy,. 

H, The tendinous part of the flexor longus pollicis pedis. 

1,. A bui'sa common to this tendon, aud the tendon of the 

flexor digitorum profundus. 
K,. A fatty peloton at the upper end of this bursa. 
li, An imperfect septum between the two last-named 

tendons, containing some fat. 
M, The tendon of the tibialis posticus in its bursa. 
N, The place at which the flexor digitorum sublimis ie 

cut off. 
O, The massa caniea Jacobi Sylvii, or flexor tertius. 
P, The abductor pollicis pedis cut oft" from the os calcis- 
Q, R, S, T, U, The bursse mucosa of the flexor tendons 

slit open nearly their whole lengih. 

( 17* ) 


Xjgausmts are tvhiU^ strongs fiexible sobstances, of 
an intermediute firmness between CartUage and common 

They arc composed of Fibres vaiiously disposed ; the 
greater pai't of them, however, running in a longitudinal 

The Ligaineuts of moveable Joints arise, for the most 
part, at the junction of the Bodies of the Bones with their 
£piphjses, from the C'ervii^ and beyond the edges, of 
the articulatiiig Cartilage of one Bone, and are laxed, in 
a similar manner, into the corresponding parts of the 
!Bone atljotning. 

The Ligamentii thus fixed are called Capsular, &«m 
theu- forming a Puree or Bag, which inrtudra the Jomt. 
Where fanVfy of motion is allowed, the Capsular Li- 
.gameiit is nearly of equal strength round the whole cir- 
cumference of the Joint ; but, where the Joint is of the 
nature of a Hinge, the Ugament is strongest at the sides 
of that Hinge, oris there strengthened by the addition of 
Xiigamentous Slips, termed Lateral UgamentSi which as- 
isist in regulating the motion of the Jointsj 

The outer part of the Capsular Ligament is'fonned of 
3 continuation of the Periosteum, whith is connected to 
the surrounding parts by Cellular Substance ; while the 
mner Layer, — remarkably thin and dense, — is reflected 
over the Bones and Cartilages %vhich the Ligament in- 
cludes ; one part of it tlms forming Periosteum, and the 
other Perickoiidrium. 

In certain parts of the Body, there are, besides the 
Ligaments mentioned above, others for the firm connec- 
tion of the Bones, or for confining the motion to one par- 
ticular side ; as the Roimd Ugavient of the Thigh, or 
Crucial, or Lateral Ligaments of the Knee, already 

Wherever the Ligaments are few, long, and weak, the 
notions are more extensive ; and, on the contrary, where 
the Ligaments are numerous, short, and strong, the mo- 
tions are more limited. 

Ligaments have Bumerons Blood-vessels, which can be 
leadily Injected. 

Upon the inner Surface of the Capsular Ligaments, 
their Arteries secrete a liquor whici assists in the lubri- 
cation of the Joints. 

The NeiTes of Ligamests are very muwte, but in 
M>me parts can be easily traced upon their Surface. 

The Semdbitittf of Ligaments, in the soimd state, is 
JDConsiderable ; when in a state of inflammation, how- 
ever, they are found to occasion extreme pain. 

Use: The Capsular Ligaments connect Bones toge- 
ther, aEsist in the sccretioo of the Synovia which tlicy 

contain, and prevent the other parts iu the- Joint from 
being pinched. 

The other Ligaments join Bones together, and preserve 
them in their jiroper situation. 

In many paits, the Ligaments give attachment to Tea- 
Jons, and in some they supply the place of Bone, and give 
origin to Muscles, as in the Foramina Thy roidea of the Pel- 
vis, and between the Bones of the Fore-arms and Legs. 

In some parts, they assist in connecting immoveable 
Bones, as at the Os Sacrum and Os Innominetum : In 
othei's, they form a Socket iu which moveable Bones 
play, as where part of the Astragalus moves on the Id. 
ganient stretctied between the Oa Calcte and Os Sca- 

Synovial Orgavs, 
Commonly called Glands of the JoiifTS. 

Hiese are Masses of Fat found in the greata noin. 
ber of the Joints, covered with a continuatioo wf the 
inner Layer of the Capsular Ligament, and projecting 
in such a manner as to be gently pressed, but not braised, 
by the motions of the Joint ; and, in proportion as these 
motions are more or less frequent, the liquor which they 
secrete is discharged in a greater or smaller quantity. 

In some Joints, they have the same appearance with 
the conmion Fat of the Body ; in others, they ai« of a 
redder colour, from the numerous Blood-vessels dispersed 
upon them. 

'I'hey have been generally considered as Glands lodged 
within Masses of Fat; but, upon a minute inspection, 
no knotty or Gtandular Bodies are to be found in them i 
nor have they the appearai^ce of Glands, farther than in 
being Secreting Substances ; which circumstance alone 
assimilates them to the nature of Glande. 

From the edges of these Fatty Bodies, Fimhria bang 
loose, and convey a lubricating Liquor, called Synovia, 
into the Cavity of the Joints. 

From the extremities of these Fringes, the Liquor can 
be readily squeezed ont by pressure ; but their Cavities 
and Orifices are so minute, or are otherwise of such a 
nature, as to have hitherto eluded discovery. 

The Fimbriic- have been generally considered aa Em- 
cretory Ducts of Glands ivithin the Joints. Dt Mokho, 
however, in hisWWk ujton the Bur^a: Mucosae, supposef 
them to be of the nation of the Follicles of the Urethra, 
which prepare a Mucilaginous Liquor, without the assiv 
tance of any knotty or Glandular Organ. 

'X^c Arteries w'hiiAi supply these Bodies with Blood 

for tlicir Sccrelion, and the I'eias which retUTO tl* 


Part Ilf -J 



Blood after the Secretion lias been perfoi-med, cau be 
readily seen ; but no Nerves can be triced into them ; 
nor does it appear that they possess a higher degree of 
Sensibility than the other parts of the Joints aheady de- 
flcribed, althou^, when tliey inflame and suppiu-ate, they 
have in some instances been observed to occasion the 
most excruciating pain. 

The Synooiay which is a thin Mucilaginous Liquor, 
resembluiiT the glair of aji egg, appears to be fiinusned, 
not only by tlie Substances already mentioned, but also 
by the extremities of Arteries oii the inner Surface of the 
Capsular Ligaments in general, and serves for the lubi'i- 
cation of the Joints ; iov which purpose it is well adapt. 
ed, being remarkably slippery to the touch. 

Synovia is found to be composed of Water, mixed with 
i small proportion of Gelatiiie, Mucilage, Albumen, and 
commoa Salt. 


Lra^MBtmrrrf Wis XiOWER Jaw. 

The Capsular Ligament on each side, whtcli arises 
from the whole Margin of the Articular Cavity of the 
Temporal Bone, and is inserted, fiist into the edge of the 
Interarticular Cartilage, formerly taken notice of, and 
afterwards round the Cervix of the Lower Jaw. This 
Ligament, like others which belong to Joints of the 
' tuige kind, is thickest and strongest at the sides of the 
Joint, to confine the lateral motion of the Jaw. Tab. 
Lin. Fig. 1./. Fig. 2. </, (/.—Tab. XXX. Fig. 17. r, 

By it the Jaw is allowed to move upwards, do^Tf- 
wards, or a little forwanis or backwards, or to either 
fflde, and the motions are rendered easier by the interven- 
tion (rf the Intemrticular Cartilage, which follows tlie 
Condyle m its different motions. 

The Suspensory Lif^ameitt of the Stylo-glossus, ^vhich 
Ib attached by one end to the Styloid Process, and to a 
Ligament running from that Pi-ocess to tlie Os Hyoitles, 
zod by the other end to the Angle of the Lower Jaw ; — 
serving to support the Stvlo-glossus, and to give origin to- 
part of it. Tab. LfH.Fig. 1. X". 

The Lateral Ligamfttt, which arises fi-oin the Margin 
of the Articular Cavity of the Temporal Bone, and is 
inserted iikto the iuucr Surface of the Angle of the Lower 
Jaw, near its posterior Foramen ; — assisting to keep the 
Jaw I'nsi/u, and to prevent the inferior Maxillary Vessels 
and Nerve f^i-om being injured by the action of the Pte- 
rygoid Muscle. Tab. LIII. Fig. 1. g. 

LrGAME>fTs connecting the Head teith the First and 
Srconii VEriTEBii-E of the Neck, and these tim Ver- 
tebra u'ith tach other. 

The twn Capsniar Ligamatts, which arise from the 
margin of the superior articulating Processes of the At- 
las, and are inserted into the Base of the Condyles of 
tlie Occipital Bone, where the Head has its flexion and 
•:-xtciision without rotation. Tab. LIU. Fig. 3. e.f. 

The Circular Ligament^ whicli ari.^es from the edge 
of the Spinal Hole of the first Vertebra, is connected 
with the Capsular Ligaments of the superior articulating 
Processes of the Atlas, and is inserted into the edge of 
the Foramen Magnum of the Occipital Bone. Tab. LIII. 
Fig. 3. d. 

The tivo Capsular Ligaments, nhich fix the inferior 
oblique Processes of the Alias lo the superior oblique of 
the Vertebra Dentata, and admit of the rotation of the 
Head, with a small degi-ec of flexjon to either side. Tab, 
LIII. Fig. 3. rt, n. 

The Pcrptmiicular Ligament, which fixes the Pro- 
cessus Dentatus of the second Vertebra to the edge ol 
the anterior part of the Foramen Magnum, between the 
Condyloid Processes, and whiih is twisted in the rotation 
of the Head. Tab. XXXI. Fig. 6. 5. 

The two Lateral, or Modtrator Ligaments, whicli 
arise each from the side of the Processus Dentatus, and 
run outwards and upwards, to be fixed to the iiiner part of 
the sido of tlje Atlas, and to the uiner edge of the Fora- 
men Magnum, at the fore part if rhe Condyles. Tab. 
XXXI. Fig, 6. p, p. Ihey are short,, but of great 
strength, and prevent the Head from tunUiig too far 

The Transverse Ligament, ivhich arises from the in- 
ner side of the Atlas, and, going across behind the Pro- 
cessus Dentatus,, is fixed tathe opposite side of the Atlas. 
Tab. XXXI. Fig. G. 0. 

Tlie edges of this Ligament extend uptvanls and down- 
warda^ and form ttvo Processes, called its Appendices,^ 
which ate fixed to the Foramen Magnum and Pi'ocessu» 
Dentatus. The middle of tlie Lig'ament is rcmaikably 
fii-ra where that Process plays upon it. It keeps tliu 
Processus Dentatus in its place, and prevents it fram in- 
juring the Spinal iVIarrow In the dilTercnt motions of tiie 

In persons who suffer death from Suspension by the 
Neck, this Ligament, and some of the oihci's near it, are 
sometimes so much ruptui-ed, as to allow a partial dis- 
location to take place, or the Processus Dental us to be 
thrust back upon the Spiual Marwiv ; but this is not & 

LreAHENT3 of the other Vertebrae. 

The Anterior Common Ligament of the Vertebr^,^ 
which is a strong Tendinous Baud, ex^nding along the 
convex op outer paft of the Vertebiic, from the upper to 
the mider region of the Spine. Tab, LIII. Fig, i. a, b. 
It beguis at the second Cervical Vertebra, and descends 
as far as the Os Sacrum, where it spreads out, becomes 
thinner, and vanishes about the under part of this Bone. 

It is much thicker upon the fore pait than on tlie sides 
of tlic Vertebra', by ^vhich the Bones ai-e more firmly 
united anteriorly, and is thinnest in the Neck and Loin", 
where the motions of tite Spine are greatest. Internally, 
it is blended with the Periosteum, and, through its whole 
cour-ie, it sends off small Proersses to be fixed to the 
Bodies of the Vertebne, by which their coimrction iji 
made more secure. While it asbista in biitding the Vtr-- 



■f cbia* together, it pi-evcnts ilie Spine from being stretch- 
ed too much backnards. 

Tlie Crucial Inkrvertebral IJgamenis^ wliich are nu- 
merous and short, but slrong, situated behind the Liga- 
mentum Coniraune Anterius, cro^jiing each other oblique- 
ly. They join the Bodies of the YcrtcbiK together, upon 
the outer edges of the Interveriebral Sulistances, to 
which also they firmlv adhere. Tab. LTII. Fig. 5. r, rf. 
'J'he inin-vevtthml Subslamer, (already described 
-iloni; Willi the Kom-s), wliioii join the Bodies of the 
A'ertflira- togalaT, and allow an viflding motion in all 

These Substances arc so comprc&siblc as to yiHd to the 
■weight of tlie uppei- part uf the Body ; so that, after 
having been in an erect posture through the course of the 

■in the evening, lint, after a ni^lu'f, re^t in ihc iiiual atti- 
tude, it isfmuid lu 1)1 reHniTti. 

The L'gainn,!.. ^^\w\^ nm f.o,.. .1.- r.i^c ul" ilic Ronv 
Arch and Spinous Pi'occ.s nf out A\rifbra Hi iliat of the 
next, so as to as-sist in filling up the Litevsticcs, and in 
fixing the Vertebra together. 

A Ligamentous Cord wliitli fixes the points of the 
Spinous Processes together. Tab. LIII. Fig. 9./,/. 

The Ceri'ical L>gn?)ienf, tci-rned Ligavtcntiim Nucfia\ 
vel Colli\ which arises from the perpendicular Spuie of 
Ihe Occipital Bone, and descends on the back part of the 
Neck, adhering (o llie Spinous Processes of the Cervical 
>'eitebr.x, and ^ivintc oilulu to purt of the 'I'rapezfus. 

Li'^amoits between l!ic Transverse Processes of the 
Vcrtcbm- of the Haik, fixing dicse Procfssea to each 
fcther. Tab. XLUI. c,c. 

The Capsular Lignmt-nh, which join the articulating 

are fixed round the Tubercles of the Ribs. 

The Xnlciiial Ligaments ftf the back of the Hibs^ call- 
ed Ligamcnta Transversariu Interna^ which arise from 
tlie inferioi' Surfaces of the Transverse ProceHsee, aud 
ai-e fixed to the superior Margins of the Necks of the 
nearest Ribs. Tab. LIII. Fig. 8. rf, d. 

The Eifcr/iitl Lignments vf the Necks of the Ribs^ 
called LigttiiH-nIa Traimersaria Externa. ' They arise 
from tlic points of the Transverse Processes externally, 
and are fixed to the back pait oi the Necks of the Hiba. 
Tab. Lilt. Ti-. ;*. c, t. 

Ligurnvtiia ftrvicis Cwforum Lxtema, or Exleriwl 
Ligaments i/f the \trLs of the Eibs^ which ariiie from 
the P.xteniLtl ;\Iargins of the inferior oblique Processes, 
and descend oblii|Ucly outivard-i, to be 6xed to the upper 
and outer part of the Necks of all the Ribs. Tab. LllI. 

The IjjganieiiLs at thio «.J n( the Ribs, together with 
the situation of the Transverse Pi-occsses, admit of their 
motion upwards aud dowuwartk, but pi'event them from 
moving in any other direction. 

Short Ligamentous fibres, JvliicJi run from the Mar- 
gins of the anterior extremities of the Ribs to the Mar- 
gins of their corresponding Cartilages ; the Caitilages and 
Ribs being joined by a miioa of Substance. Tab. LIII. 
Fig. 13. d. 

Radicdcd Ligame/ils, i\'hich go from the anterior Sur- 
faces of the Capsular I^iganients over the external Sur- 
face of the Sternum. 'Jab. LIU. Fig. 12. d. Fig. 13. e. 

Many of the Fibres of these Lig.unents intermix with 


1 the 


! Ligament of the 

Processes to each olh 

The Posterior or J 
Vertebra;, soraewliat 
LIII. Fig. 6. 7. 

It begins at the anterior edge of the Foramen Mag- 
num, and passes along the inner or concave part of tlie 
Sodics of the Vertebra, becoming broader over each of 
the Intervertebral .Substances. It adheres Ermly to their 
upper and under edges, and terminates at the lower part 
of the Os Sacrum. It prevents the Spine from being too 
much bent forwards. 

Ligaments of the Ribs. 

The Capsular Ligaments of the Heads of the Ribs^ 
which arise from these Heads, and are fixed to the Cir- 
cumference of the Pits in the sides of the Bodies of the 
Vertebra and Intervertebral Cartilages. The outer part 
of each Ligament sends oft", or is connected with, radiated 
Fibres which are spread out upon the sides of the Verte- 
bra. Tab. LIIL Fig. 8. r, c. 

The Capsular Ligaments of the Tubercles of the Jiibf, 

Tlie Cop^iihir Ligi'imeiils of the Cartilages of the Ribs, 
uiiitli aiisc from the AIargins«f the Articular Cavities 
of the Sternum, and are fixed round the extremities of 
the seven 'JVue Kibs. Tab. LIII. Fig. 13. 

Alembrune priiper to tlie Sivrimin^ which is a firm 
Fxpansion, composted of Tendinous Fibres running ia 
different directions, but chiefly iu a long-itudinal one, and 
covering the anterior and posterior Surfaces of the Rone, 
the Membrane itself being confounded with the Perios. 
teum. Tab. LIII. Fig. 1^. ,i,h. 

L-ga>ncnt.^ -f thr Carlilugo Ltisiformi^, Tab. LIIL 
Fig. l-i. g^ g, ivhiih are p:irt of the pi^per Membrane of 
the .Stemnm, liividwl into sttnng Bands running obliquely " 
from the under ;uid foie pan of (he second Rone of 
the Sternum, and from the Cartilap's of the seventh pair 
of Ribs, to be fixed to the Cartilage Fnsiforinis — The 
Ligaments covering the Sternum sei-ve considerably to 
atrengtiien it. 

Thiti Tendinous Kxpansions, whieli nm over the In- 
tercostalea at the fore part of the Thorax, and connect 
the Cartilages of the Ribs to each other. They are 
ciiiefly seated In the spaces imoccupied by the IntercoS' 
tales Eiterni. Tab. LIU. Fig. 12./,/ 



The im Transverse Ligaments of the Pehis, whkh The Superior Appendit, Mhich h Tc:.^Ll;..,j^, an^e- 

arise from tlie postenoi- jiart of the Spiiic of tlie Os from the back part of the Spine of the Os Ilmm/and L; 

Ilium, and ran transversely. Tlic one U siij>crM\ ajid is fixed along the outer edije of the Li^ameut, which it Li- 
fixed lo the Transverse Process of tlie last Vertebra of creases in breadth. Tab. LIJI. Fi^. lU. /. 

the Loins; the ollici- i/ijirmr, and is connected to the The Infvrior ov Fafcifin-m .lppc?tdix is kiUt:ited withlii 

first Transverae Process of the Os Sacrum. Tab. hill, the Cavity of the Pelvis ; the back part of it is comiect- 

Fig. q. ed with the middle of the large External Ligament, and 

The Ilio-sacral Li'ganicntSy ivhicli arise from the pos- the remainder is extended round the Cuwatuie of tlie Qs 

terior Spbous Process of the Os Ilimn, descend oblique- Ischium. Tab. LXII. Fig. 11. ;r, «. 

ly, and are iixed lo the tii'st, third, and fourth spui'ious These two Produetiouti assif,t the lar'^e Satro-ischiatlc 

Transverse Processes of the Os Sacrum, Tab. LIU. Ligament hi furnishing a more commodi^jus situation for. 

Fig. 10./,^, A. and attachment lo, pai-t of the Gluteus Maximus and 

These, with the two Transverse Ligaments, assist in Obturator Internus Muscles, 

bindiog the Bones together to which they are connected. Besides the Ilio-saci-al and Sacro-ischiatic Ligameut;, 

The Capsular Ligament of the Si/ttip/iT/sis of^ihe-Oji eaueial^ther Slips are observed upon the back of the 

JHvm and Sacrum* vjhi^ ™rrminds-the Joint, and as- Os Sacrtuu, wTiicB desccnJ in aa iri'eguJar mamier, and 

flista in connecting the two Bones to each other. etrengthea the connection between that Bone and the 

Av€ty tkin CorfeVoge within ihis Joint, which cementB 0»sa Eia. Tab. LIU. Fig. 10. /, t . 

the two Bones strongly together, and which constantly The iarge Holes upon the back part of the Os Sacrum 

adheres to the Os Sacrum, when the Joint is opened, are also surrounded \vith various Ligamentous Lipan- 

Tab. LIII. Fig. 11.^ siom projectbg from one Tubercle to another, and giving 

A Ligamentous and Cellufar Stihstance, contaming Origin to Muscular Fibres, and protection to small Ves. 

iUucus, whiefi fonna the back part of this Jomt, also sels and Nerves which creep under them. Tab. LIU. 

asEistmg to fix the two Bones to each other, in such a Fig. 10. 

manner as to aUow no motion ; the Joint, however, along A General Covering sent down from the Ligaments of 

with its felto^vi and that between the Ossa Pubis, being the Os Sacrum, which spreads over and connects the 

useful in duninishing the effects which might result from different pieces of the Os Coccygis together, allowing 

CoDCUssioQ. Tab. LIII. Fig. II. g. considerable motion, as already mentioned in the descrip- 

The two Sacro-ischiatic Ligaments^ situated in the un- tion of this Bone. Tab. LIII. Fig. 10. 

der and back part of the Pelvis. They arise in common Longitudinal Ligaments of the Os Coccygis^ which de- 

from the Transverse Processes of the Os Sacrum, from seend from those upon the Dorsum of the Os Sacrum, to 

the under and lateral part of that Bone, and from the be fixed to the back part of the Os Coccygis. Tab. 

upper part of the Os Coccygis. LIII. Fig. 10. n. The Jjigaments of this Bone prevent 

The first of these Ligaments, called the Large, Ex- it from being pulled too much forn'ards by the action of 

iemalt or Posterior Sacro-ischiatic Ligament, descends the Coccygeus, and they restore the Bone to its natural 

ohliquely to be fixed to the Tuberosity of the Os Ischium, situation, after that Muscle has ceased to act. 

Tab. LIJI. Fig. 10. k. The other, called the Small, The Inguinal, or Poupaht's, or Fallopius's Liga- 

hitema}, oc Anterior Sacro-iichiatic Ligament, runs ment, or Crural Arch, which runs transversely from the 

transversely to be fixed to the Spinous Process of the Os anterior-superior Spinous Process of the Os Dium to the 

Ischium. Tab. LIII. Fig. 10. m. Crest or Angle of the Os Pubis. It has been ah-eady 

These two Ligaments assist in binding the Bones of described as the inferior Margin of the Tendon of the 

the Pelvis, in supporting its contents, and m giving On- ExtemalObliqueMuscIeof the Abdomen. Tab. XXXIV. 

■ gia to part of it-, Muscles. By the Ejttemal, the Notch Trunk, q. 

of the Ilium is formed into a Hole for the passage of the A strong Ligamentous Tendon covermg the upper part 

PjTiform Muscle, the Sciatic Nerve, and the Blood-ves- of the Os Pubis, projecting above the Linea Iho-pec- 

Eels which belong to the outside of the Pelvis. Between tinea, and ha^g part of the Ligament of Poupart fis- 

the two Sacro-sciatic Ligaments, an Opening is left for ed to it. „ , - , , ^ 

the passage of the Obturator Literaus. The Capsular Ligament of the Symphysis of the Ossa 

The two Membrtmmis PmdvcHons which are connect- Pl/ftw, which joms the two Bones to each other exter- 

edwith the iarge Sacro-ischiatic Ligament, termed by ually. ^ ». t ttt r-- n 

Weitbkecht the Supei-ior and Inferior Appendices of The Ligamentous Carttlage, Tab. LIII. *)g- "• "» 

the large Sacro-ischiatic Ligament. which unites the two Ossa Pubis so firmly together as 


to admit of no motion, esccptiiig in the state of l*itg- Foramen Tlivroidciini, and fiila the whole of that Open- 

nancy, whtn it is trcfjutatly found to be so much thick- iug, est t- pi in .u.' tlie Oblique- Notch at its upper pail for 

eued, as to be capable of yieldiog a little in the time of tJic pas^a^ie of tlie Obturator Vessels Euid Nerve. It as- 

Delivei-y. >i'*ts. in sujiporling the coiitcuta of the Pelvis, ant! in giv- 

The Obturalor Manbrane^ or Ligame/if of tht Fm-a- m^ origlii to the Obtui-atores. By yielding a little in the 

men Thyroidcum, Tab. LI II. Fig. 11. r. i'ab. LIU. lime of Labour, it contributes in a small degi-ee to au 

Fig. 1. y, ;■, s, w, .v, which adlicrcs to the iMar^m of Uie easieilJcliverv. 


Ligaments of the Clavicle. Ligaments proper to the Scapula. 

The Radiated Liffatnetti'-, wKich aalse from the outer The Proper ^BiUiCor npr-inneular. Ligament of the 

Surface of the inner end of the Clavicle, and are fixed Scapula, which arises bi'oad from the Ijtfemiil Surface 

i-ound the edge of the corresponding Articular Cavity of of the Coracoid Pi-ocess, and becomes narrower wbwe ii 

the Sternum. Tab. LIV, Fig. 1 ./ is fixed to the posterior Margin of the Acromion. Tab. 

The Capsular Ligament, which lies within the former. LIV. Fig. S.y. 
Tab. LIV. Fig. 2. j. This Ligaraei 

The Literarticular Cartilage, which divides the Joint thickest, liowev< 

into two distinct Cavities, and accommodates the articu- are united by a thin intermediate Ligiu»f>ntous Membrane, 

lating Surfaces of the Clavicle and Sternum. Tab. LIV. which, when removed, gives to the Ligament the ap- 

Fig'. l.y. pearance of being double. Tab. XXXI^ Fig. 2. «. It 

The Jjiterclaviciihr Ligament, joiuing the Clavicles confines the Teudon of tlie Supw-spinatus, and assists in 

tftgether behind the top of the Sternum, and partly form- protecting the upper and inner part of the Joint of the 

ed by a continuation of the Radiated Ligaments. Tab. Hmuerus, 
LIV. Fig. 1. b. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 1. d. The Proper Posterior Ligavitnt of Ihc Scapuia^ which 

By the Ijgaments of tliis Joint, with the assistance of is sometimes double, and is stretched across the Semilu- 

the intervening Cartilage, the Shoulder is allowed to uar Notch of the Scapula, forming that Notch into on« 

move in different directions, as upon a centre. or two Holes for the passage of the superior-pOKterior 

The Ligamentum Rkomboideitm, which arises firora Scapulary Vessels and >(erve. Tab. LIV. Fig. 3, ^. 
the inferior rough Surface at the anterior extremity of the 

Clavicle, and is fixed to the Cartilage of the first llib. Ligamekts, &c. of the Joint of the Shoulder. 

Tab. LIV. Fig. l.g, . . 

Tlie Ligaments which join the posterior extremity of The Capsular Ligamettt^ which arises from the Cervix 

the Clavicle to the Acromion, having a Capsular Liga- of the Scapula, behind the Margin of the Glenoid Cavity, 

ment witliin, and sometimes an luterarticular Cartilage, and is, fixed round the Neck of the Os Humeri, loosely 

Tab. LIII. Fig. 5. h. inclosing the Ball of that Bone. Tab. LIV. Fig. 3. i". 

The Ligunifntum Cotundeum., which arises from the Fig. i 
root of the Coracoid Process, and is fixed to the Tubei-cle A , 

at the outer end of the Clavicle. nitut, 

The LigaiiKittum Trapezoideum, which arises from ?■ e. 
the point of the Coracoid Process, and is fixed to the 
under edge of the Clavicle. Tab. HV. Fig. 5. g. 

A ih;tn Ligamentous Slip which comes fi-om tlie Ten- 
don of the Subclavius, or from the Clavicle, and joins 

the Trapezoid Ligament. Tab. lilV. Fig. 3. o. of Us place. T:.b. Ll\ . lig. f.. r. 

The Ligaments fixing the CI.Lvicle to the Scapula are Additkmil /.igii/fiiutoits litnids of ihc CapstilLir Liga 

of such strength, as to allow -mly a small dt^n-c of mo- mcnt, wliith adht i-c to its anterior Sui'face. Tab. LIV 

tion, and that chiefly of a rolling or twisting nature. Fig. 5. m. What gives most strength to this Joint, a 

Part IU.] 


•il otiicr T, of the Podj, i- tlit u,^ 

U .tllKllllt. Mu Lks 

but no 1 

U d 

oth-i iJjiic oi tiiL 1 ,,h , ,1 , ,„ ,1 I ,„i, „„„^ |,,,|^ 
to C^£Jy aide, but aKn j o=-!,Ubes i cou-Jidtiable dtgitc ot 

Ligaments, &.c. o/"Wtf Joint of the Tlbow . 
^ The Ciip'nilar Ltgnrnent, which qribcs round the jSIir, 
^ of the Articuliip Siu-fitce, at the lowu tiid ot the Os 
Humerif and is fixed about the edge ot the Aiticular 
Surface of the Uhia, and aliio to the (.oronjj> lag inn nt 
of the Radius. Tab. LIV. Fig. 8. /, / l^b XXXII 
Fig. 3. 

The aides of the Elbow-joint are =!frcnglhencd bv 
Ligamentmis BandA, miii-it-mUi' 

when the Aim is lu the extended state, 
I dti^rec ot it is perceptible when the 
ttl) btiit, iiid the Jjigaments thereby re- 

Jiui il ' < <]■> ular Ligament, and chiefly ni the up. 
Ill ..1 ih I'll of th( OsHuiiieii inwliuh the Ole- 
I 111 i\ , tb< / iil/i/ Subs/aticif IB lodctd loi the Jubri- 

Ol ihL .)(Hllt Tib LI 

n/ii/at Sti/i''tiiiKL, but much smallei in qnantitj, is 
.und ui tliu Utpic^sion m ^\hich tht Coiouoid Pro- 

> thi outei 
Surface a£ the Capsular Lig-ament, that tl j appiai to 
be part of its Substance, viz. 

The il'ftchto-Ulnar, or Internal Lalttal Liiiamtnt, 
whitir iu-isfs fioni the fore part of the iiiuci Condyle ot 
the Os Humeri, and spreads out, in a radiated manner, 
to be fixed to the inside of the Coronoid Process of the 
Uhia. Tab. LIV. Fig. 8. m. And, 

The Bravk'o-Radiaf^ or External Lateral Ugament, 
which is like the former, but larger. Tab. LIV. Fig. y. 
h. It arises from the External Condyle of the Os Hu- 
meri, and is exp;uided upon the Coronary Ligament, into 

The Coronary, Annular, or Orbicular JLigament of 
the JRadtus, which approaches to the firmness of Carti- 
lage. It arises from one side of the small Semilunar Ca- 
vity of the IHna, and, after surrounding the Neck of the 
Hadius, is fixed to the other side of that Cavity. The 
upper edge of it is incorporated with, and may be con- 
sidered a^ a part of, the Capsulai' Ligament, while its 
under edge is fixed round the Neck of the Radius, al- 
lowing that Bone to move freely round its oun axis, upon 
the Ai-ticular Surface of the Os Humeri, and in the 
small Semiltmar Cavity of the Ulna. Tab. LIV. Fig. 

Resides the Ligaments ab-eady described, there are 
others which run in various directions upon the fore and 
back parts of the Joint, contributing to its strength, and 
having the names of Anterior and Posterior Accessory 
Ligaments. Tab. LIV. Fig. 8. o,p. Fig. 9. I. 

There are also two Tendinous Substances, termed 
Internm.scular Ligaments of the Os Humeri, which ex- 
tend along the under and lateral parts of tlys Bone, giv- 
ing origin to pai-t of the Muscles situated at this p:ut of 
the Ai-m- 

The Ligaments and Bones of the Joint of the Elbow 
form a complete Hinge, which allows the Fi 

The Intel oi-icou^ Lignmint, wliich (;\teiids between 
the shtrp RKlj,ts of the Kadiu-i tnd Ubn, up the 
gitalti put ot the spati bttueen thtst two Bones. It 
11. broadest ui the niiddlr, m cousequtnce ot the Bones 
htit bimg faigeit ai *h^,. e^trpniitiea, lud is composed 
ot small i'OAr/t (//;, Mhitii luii obliqui.1^ doMuwards and 
unpaids. Two oi tlirct, o\ tbcp '^lijis, however, go in 
the opposite diicction , i id uiii. ot li cm, teimed Oblique 
Ligament, and C/toida 1 iti/i^iifiUi-. I tibiti, is stretched 
between the 'lubeicle ot the Llua and under part of the 
Tubercle of the Radius. 

In different parts of the Interosseous Ligament, there 
are Perforations for the pa.ssage of Blood-vessels from 
the fore to the back pait of the Fore-arm, and a large 
Opening is found at the upper edge of it, which is occu- 
pied by Muscles. Tab. LIV. Fig. 8. r. 

This Ligament assists in binding the Ulna aud Radius 
toother, prevents the Radius &oiu rolling too much 
outwards, and furnishes a commodious attachment for 

The Capsular, or Sacciforvi Ligament, which arises 
fiom the edges of the Semilunar Cavity at the under end 
of the Radius, aud surrounds the Head of the Ulna, al- 
lowing the Radius to turn upon the Ulna, in performing 
the different motions of Pi-onation and Supination of the 
Hand. Tab. LIU. Fig. 10. c. 

Ligaments, Sic. betiveen the Fore-arm anS Wrist. 

The Capsular Ligament, ^vhich arises from the Mar- 
gin of the Glenoid or Navicular Cavity of the Radius, 
and from the edge of the moveable Cartilage at the Head 
of the Ulna, and is fixed to tlie Caitilaginous edges of 
the three first Bones of the Carpus. Tab. UV. Fig. 
11. /. 

The Interarticular Cartilage, placed betivcen the 
Head of the Ulna and Os Cuneiibime, and which is a 
continuation of the Cartilage covering the end of the Ra- 
dius. It is concave above and below, and is connected 
loosely to the end of the Styloid Process. Tab. UV. 

,.- Fig. 10. c. 

he O? Humeri, TYit Two Lateral Liganteats^oae oiyf)ac)\9xi&esirom 



the Styloid Process at the tuider ead of the Radius, and Tlie Iiiierosseom Ligamenta at the Heads of the Me- 

is fixed to the Os Naviculajre ; and the other fiom the tacarpitl Bones, which iiui traaaveraely in the Palm, and 

Styloid Process of the Ulna, and is fixed to the Cuneifonn connect the Heads of these Eoues to each other. Tab. 

aad Pisifoim Bones. . LIV. Tig. VZ. t. Tab. XXXU. Fig. 6. x. 

The Ligaments of tliis Joint allow extensive motion 

forwai-d3 and backwards, and a considerable degree of LtGAME> 
it to either side. Thui 

The Mucous Ligamenty which lies within the Joint, 
Tab. LIV. Fig. 1 1. o, and extends from the Groove be- These conaist of the Capsvlar Ligmients which inclose 

tween the two first Bones of the Carpus, to the correspond- ' ' -— '- -■- ■■ ■- -• ~ ' _.__„.i...i- 

ing part of the Radius. It is supposed to regulate the 
Mucous Organ connected with it. 

Ligaments of the Cabfus. 

The AlUerwr^ Annular^ or Transverse Ligaiment^ 
which ie stretched across from the projecting Points of 
the OssaPisiforme and Uocifornie, to the Scaphoides and 

Trapezium, and forms an Arch which covers and p«- _ _. . _.^. _. 

serves in their places the Tpndoao of ihe Slexor Mnsclea The Lateral Ligaments placnl--at tlu> sides of the 
of the Fingers, Tab. XXXII. Fig. 6. t. Joints, and .idliering to liie Capsular Ugament'S, confining 

The Capsular Ligamient^ wliich arises fix>ai the Carti- the motion to flexioa and eitensioo. Tab. LIV. Fig. 
laginous Edge of the upper Row of the Carpus, and is \7. «. 
fixed in a similai- manner to that of the under Row, chieily 

admitting of flexion and extensioD, and that in a smaUec LiGAMEKTS retaining the TENDONS of the MuscLEs of 
degree than m the former Jomt. Tab. LIII. Fig. 1 5. k. fke Hand and Fingeiw, in situ. - 

The Skwt Ligaments of the Bones of the Carpus, 
which are small Ligamentous Slips running in vaxiims di- The Anterior, Transverse, or Annular Ligament o£ 
rections, joining the different Bones of the Carans,— first the Wri3t,_already deacribed. 

of the same Row, then of the two Roira together. Tab. The Vaginal Ligaments of the Flexor Tendons, which 
LIV. Fig. 12. 13. 14. Tliey arc termed 0*/fgrw, Tron*. are fine Membranons Webs comiectiiig the Tendons of the 
iwrse.CapStt/ar, andProp^rLigamentsoftheBonesofthe Sublimis, first to each other, then to those of the Proftm- 
Wrist, and admit only of a small degree of yielding be- dus, and forming, at the same time, Burs* Mucosae, which 
tween the different Bones in the same Bow. surround these Tendons. Tab. LI. Fig. 1. g—k. 

The Vaginal or Crucial Ligaments of the P/uUanges, 
which arise from the Ridges on flic concave side of the 
Phalanges, and run over the Tendons of the Flexor Mus- 
cles of the Fingers, Tab. L. Fig. 1. s, t, v. Tab. LI. 
The Articular Ligaments, which arise from the Mar- Fig. 1. b,c, d. Upon the Body of the Phalanges, they 
gms of the second Row of the Carpal Bones, and are fixed are thick and strong, to bind down the Tendons while 
to the Margins of the adjoining Bones of the Metac^u^s, their Muscles are in action ; but over the Joints they are 
Tab. LIV. Fig. 12. 16. Other Ligaments run in a ra- thm, and have, in some parts, a Crucial appearance, to 
dialed manner from the Carpal to the Metacarpal Bones -, allow the ready motion of the Joints, 
the whole getting the namea of Articular^ Lateral, The Accessory lAgaments of the Flexor Teiid4ym of the 
Straight, Perpendicular, &c. according to their different Fmgers, which are small Tendinom Frana, ansingfrom 
directioua. the first and second Phalanges of the Fingei-s. They run 

Prom the flatness of the Articular Surfaces, and strength obliquely for^'aixls within the Vagmal Ligaments, termi- 
of tlie Connecting Ligaments, very little motion is allowed nate in the Tendons of the Two Flexor Muscles of tho 
between the Carpus and Metacarpus. Fingers, and assist in keeping them in their places. Tab, 

LIV. Fig. \H.fg,h. 
Ligaments hetmen the Extremities of the Metacah- '^^ Ext^^nal Transverse, or Posterior Annular Li- 
PAL Bones. gament of the Wrist, which is part of the Aponeurosis ot 

the Fore-arm, extending across the back of the Wrist, 
fi-om the inner side of the cxti'emity of the Ulna and Os 
"" '" ' aideof the exti-emityof thelladiuF, 


Paut IU.] 

licis, and the Extensor Carpi riaarig. Tab. L. Fig. 5 

The ragtml Ligament.^, which aaherc to the former of the Extensor Digitoruin Coiuniunis near the H.'a.lVnf 

Lig^eDts, and serve as Sheaths and Bursa: Mucosae to the Metacarpal Bohb, and rctaiiiiiiclhe Tendons k the? 

the Extensor Tendons of the Haud and Fingers. Tab. places, -j-^^t. L Fie 5 o ^ 

LI. Fig. 2. ^ e> ■ • 

The Transverse Ligaments of the Extensor Tendons, 
which are Aponeurotic Slips running between the Tendons 


The Capsular Ligaitwnf, the largest and sti-ongcst of 
the Articular LlgJiiitiits. It arises round the outride t.f 
the Brim of the Acetabulum, embraces tiie Head of tha 
Thigh-bone, and incl'is.-, Oio wl.<y.t(, t^'-hs Cervix as far 
round ^\■llith it is firmly 

with ike fore part of the Acetabulum to the other, but leaving a, 
Hole behind it for containing part of the Substance called 
Gland of the Joints and for the passage of the Vessela 

of that Sub&tai 

This Lig^imcnt allows the Thigh-bone to be moved in- 
"dd, aut! rlie Glandular-looking Substance to be agitated 

connected. Tab. XXXI. Fit 

The outer part of the Capsular Ligament is extended under and 
farther down than the iima-^ wliich is reflected back. 
Upon the Netk of the Bone, and in certain parts forms 

The Subslimcc called Gland of the Joint ^ covered with 
VaaciUar Membmae, and lodged in a Depression in the 
-^ ^ ■ part of the Acetabulum. Tab. LV. Fig. 

Retinacula. Tab. LV. 

; every where of tli 


:ngth. It i 

thickest at its anterior and outer part ; thinner where 
is covered by the Iliacus Intei'nus ; and thinnest poste- 
riorly, where tlie adjacent QuadratuB is opposed to it. 

It is strengthened on its outer Siu-face by various Ac- 
cessory or Addilmial Slips, wliicli run do^n from tlie 
Fascia Lata and sm'nninding Muscles ; but the strongest 
of these Slips arises with diverging Fibres from the infe- 
rior-anterior Spbious Process of ihe Os Ilium. Tab. LV. 
Fig. 1. «,,«,«. 

The Capsular Ligament allow* the Thigh-bone to be 
moved to every side ; and xvlien its Body is moved for- 
ivards or back^vards, a small degree of lotalion is per- 
formed round the Cervix of tlie Bone. 

The Internal, commonly called the Bound Ligament, 
which arises by a broad flat beginning from rhe under and 
inner part of the Cavily of (lie Acftabuliim, and is con- 
nected mth the Suhslancc lerliicd G/u/id if the Joint. 
From this it runs backwaMs and a little «in\ai(ls becom- 
ing gi-adually narrower and rounder, to be fixed to the Tit 
upon the mner Surface of the Ball of the Os Fcmoiis. 
Tab. LV. Fig, 2. g~k. 

The Roimd Ligament prevents the Bone from bcji;g 
dislocated upwards or inwards, and at-sisty iji agitating ihe 
Mucous Substance within tlic Joinl. 

A Cb/Vi^/w.!/.^ /.;■?«//"«/ ^unoiindingllicRrimnl- ilie 
Acetabulum, and thereby incrcasin- the d(|)lli of ilial Ln- 
vi.vfor the reception of the Head of .I,.: Tlnjih-bouc. 
Tab. LV. Fig. 2. c. 

A Double Cartilaginous Ligament, Tab. XA . Vig. 3. 
d, sti-ctched from one of the Breach in the luidn' aud" 

At the edges of this Substance Fringes are scut out, 
which furnish part of the Synovia for the lubrication of 
the Joint. 

The edges of tins Substance are fixed to those of the 
Pit in the Acetabulum, by small Ligamentous Bridles, 
termed Ligamenta Mvcosa^ vel Ligamentula Massas A~ 

Ligaments, &c. of ihe Joint of ike Knee. 

The Lateral Ligaments which lie at the sides of the 

Joint, and adhere to the outer Surface of the Capsular 

Tlie hiternal Lateral Ligament, which is of consider- 
upper part and Tubercle 

passing obliquely forwards, till they have reached a liillc 
belo^v the Head of the Bone. Tab. LV. Fig. J. /. 

The Long External Lateral Ligumenl, uliicli is nar- 
rower, but tliickcr and stronger than ihe IVmnci-, arising 
from the Tubercle above the external Condyle of the Os 
Fcoiorie, and fixed to the Fibula, a little below its Head. 
Tab. LV. Fig. 5. /. 'iab. XXXII. Fig. 8. L 

Behmd the long extenial Lateral Ligament, there is 
an Kxpansidn attached nearly in the same manner as this 
Ligament, which lias been lenned the External Short 
Enteral Ei_:^<ivnnt . Tab. l.\ . Fig. 5. g. 

Tiiese Lig:in:cn(^ prevent the latei-al and rotatory mo- 
tions of the Leg jn the extended state, but admit of a 
imall degree of both when the Limb is bent. 

The Posterior Ligament o£\\iv^>i.o\v, 'lab. LV. Fig. 

5, A, fonncd of in-egular Bands uhith ari^e from the 


upper and back part of the external Condyle of the Os with tlie Thigh. MTien the Knee is bent, they allow 

li^einoris, and de^jceiid obliquely over the tapsulai' Liga- the Foot to be tumetl outwai'daf but not in a contrary 

mcnt, to be fixed to the 'Jibia under the inner and back direction. 

part of its Head. It prevents the Leg from being puJled 'ITie two Interarticular Cartilages, called Semilunar, 

farther forwards than to a straight line with the Thigh, from their shape like a Crescent, placed upon the top 

andalsofurnishcsaconvenientsituatioiifortlieb-ginnings ©f the Tibia. Tab. LV. Fig. 1'. i; d. 'lab.XXXIl. 

of the Gastrocuemiuy and Plantaris Muscles. Fig. 7. c, c. 

"When tliis Ligament is wanting, wliich is Rometimes The outer convex edge of each of these Caitilagcs is 

■ s place is supplied by a jl/emtjv/«0)r>\Eiyja;wion. thick, ivhile the inner concave edge becomes tliin and 

'""'"" ' ' ? from a. De- sharp like a knife or sickle ; and being concave above, 

' *" ' ' the"bocket3 for the Condyles of the <>s Femori 
deeper, :uid thin Bone 
tely adapted to each nthei'. 

1 of this Ligament, the Muscles inserted Each of these Cartilages is broad in the middle, their 

into the Patella are enabled to extend the Leg. extremities becoming nan-ower and thinner as they ap- 

Tlie Capsular Ligament, which ai-isea fi-om the whole proach one another. Fath covei-s about tivo thirds of the 

Circumference of the under end of the Thigh-bone, Superficial Csivity of the ton of the Tibia, lca\'ing one 

some way above the Margin of tlie Articulating Caili- third bai'e iii the miiidlc. I lie exticniities are termed 

lage, and above the posterior part of the great Notch Corniia, and are fixtd by Liguiiicnts to the Protuberance 

between the Condvles. From this it (1pc^''"'Iu tu be h\- of tlie Tibia. The uuiprim- Comua ai^ joined to each 

ed round the Head of the Tibia, and into the whole other by a Ti-aitsverse Ligameiif. 'lab. L,v. fig. 9. k. 

Margin of the Articulating Surfac^ of the Patella, in The convex edge of these Cartilages is fixed to the 

such a manner that the Patella forife part of the Cap- Capsular and other Ligaments, in such a manner as to 

6ule of the Joint. Tab. LV. Fig. G. 7. be allowed to play a little upon the Cartilaginous Sur- 

The Capsular Ligament is of itself remarkably thm, face of the Tibia, by which tlie motions of that Bone 

but so covered by the Ligaments already mentioned, by upon the Condyles of the Os Femoris are facilitated, 

the general Apeneurosis of tlie Limb, and by the Ten- The Mucous or FaUy Svbstances of tliis Joint, which 

dons of Muscles which surround the Joint, as to acquire are the largest of any in the Body, are situated id the 

a considerable degree of strength. different interstices of the Joint, but chiefly round the 

The CapsiJar Ligament, along with the other Liga- edges of the Patella. Tab. LV. Fig. 13. b, b, b. They 

raents of this Joint, admits of the flexion and extension are covered by a fine Membrane reflected from the inner 

of the Leg, but of no lateral nor rotatory motion in the Surface of the Capsular Ligament. 

extended state, though of a small degree of each when the FmbricB project from the edge^ of these Fatty Sub- 
Iamb is fully bent. stances, which discharge Synovia for the lubrication of 

The Ligamcntum Alare, Majm et Minus, which are the Joint. Tab. LV. Fig. 13. c, e. 
Folds of the Capsular Ligament, running like Wirigg at 
the sides of the Patella, to which, and to the Fatty 

Substance of the Jomt, they are attached. Tab. LV. Ligaments connecting the Fibula to the Tibia. 
Fig. 6. f, J. 

The Ligamentum Mucosumj continued from the join- The Capsular Ligament of the superior extremity of 

ing of the Ligamenta Alaria to the Os Femoria, imme- the Fibula, which ties it to the outer part of the Head 

diateiy above the Anterior Crucial Ligament. It pre- of the Tibia, and which is strengthened by the external 

serves the Synovial Substance in its proper place, during Lateral Ligament of the Knee, and by the Tendon of 

the various motions of the Joint. Tab. LV. Fig. 6. c. the Biceps which is fixed to the Fibula. Tab. LV. Fig. 

The two Crucial or Inftrnal Lignm<;nts, which arise 7. i. Fig. 8. o. 

from the Semilunar Notch between the Condyles of ihc The Interosseous Liganitut^ one edge of which is fixed 

Os Femoris, and decussate each other within the Cavity to the Ridge or Angle at the outer and back pm-t of the 

of the Joint. Tab. XXXII. Fig. 9./,/. Tibia, the other lo the correspondiiig Hidge at the in- 

The Anterior Crucial Ligamaif nuis downwards and ner side of the Fibula. It fills llie spiicc between the 

forwards, to be fixed to a Pit before the rough Protu- Tibia and Fibula, like the Interosfctous Ligamiiil of the 

berancc in the middle of the Articubiting Surface of the Fore-ann, and is of a similaj- struttujc, being formed 

Head of the Tibia, Tab. LV. Fig. H. e, of oblique Fibres, and perfoi-.ited in vaiious places for 

The Posterior Crucial Ligament descends to be fixed the passage of Vessels and Nerves, 

fo a Pit behind the abovcmentioncd rough Protuberance. At its upper part tliere is a laige Opening, where the 

Tab. LV. Fig. 8./. Tab. XXXII. Fig. H. k. Muscles of tlie opposite sides aie in contact, aud where 

These Ligaments, in the extended state of the Leg, Blood-vessels pass to the fore part of the Ijcg. 

prevent it from going fonvards beyond a straight line It serves chiefly for llic Ongin of part of the Mum-Ic-^ 




which belong to the Foot, and thereby supplies the place 
of Bone, ' 

The Ligaments of the inferior extremity of the Fibula, 
ivluch are called Anten'or^upenui-, and Posttiioi--s^i(pi: 
riot; accoi-diug to theii- situations, arising fi-om the 
edges ol tlie Seradunai- Cavity of the Tlbiii, and fixed 
to the Malleolus Externus of the Fibula. Tab. LV. Fie 
10. A. Fig. U.e. ^ 

The Ligiimeuts between tlie ends of the Tibia and Fi- 
bula join the two Bones so fuTuly together, as to adcnit 
of uo sensible motion. 

. inl/i 

Tlie Anterior Ligament of the Fibula, uliieh arises 
from the anterior pait of the Malleolus Externus, and 
passes obliquely forwards, to be fixed to tlie upper and 
outer paj-t of the Astragalus. T;ib. LV. Fig. lU. k. 

Tlie Middle., or Perpendicular Liganifid of the Fi- 
bula, which arises from the point of thr lUaUiolus i-L\- 
ternus, aitd deEccnils almost perpendicularly, to be in- 
seited into the outside of the Os Calcis. Tab. LV. Fig. 
10. i. 

The Posterior Ligament of the Fibula, which arises 
from the imder and back part of the Malleolus Externus, 
and runs backwai-ds, to be joined to the outer and poste- 
rior part of the Astragalus. Tab. LV. Fig. 11. k. 

The Ligamentum Deltoides of the Tibia, which arises 
from the Malleolus Internus, and descends in a radiated 
form, to be attached to the Astragalus, Os Calcis, aud 
Os Naviculare. Tab. LV. Fig. 11./. 

The Capsular Ligament^ which lies ivithiu th<v former 
Ligaments, and is remarkably thin, especially before and 
behind, for the readier motion of the Joint. It arises 
from the Margm of the Articular Cavity of the 'J'ibia 
and Fibula, aud is fixed round the edge of tin- Articular 
Surface of the A&tragalus, 

TTie Ligaments and the other conslilucnt parts of the 
Ankle-joint form it into a complete Hinge, which allows 
flexion and extension, but no rotation nor lateral motion, 
in the bended state of the Foot, though a suiiiU degree of 
each when it is fully extended. 

Ligaments of the Tarsus. 

The Capsular Ligament^ which joins the Articular 
Surface of the Os Calcis to that of the Astragalus, 

A number of Short Ligameiitx, lying in the Fossa of 
the AstragaluB and of the Os Calcis, and forming the Li- 
gamentoiis ApparitiW! of the Sinuous Cavity, which as- 
sists in fixing the two Bones strongly together. Tab. LV. 
Fig. 10. /, m. 

The Cup.-vlar^ tlie Broad Stiperiw; and ihc Litniml 
Lateral ligaments, connecting the A^ragalu^ to the iU 
Naviculiivc, and admitting of the lateral aud rolatuiy 
notions of the Foot. 'J'ab. LV. Fig. lU. 

The Superior, the Lateral, and the Inferior Liga. 
nients, fixing the O^ Calcis to the Os Ciiboidts where a 
small degree of motion is allowed lo cverv side. The in- 
ferior Ligaments couMst of a Long, an Oblique, and ;. 
Hknmboid Ligament, which arc the longest and strongeM 
of the Hole. Tab. LV. Fig. Vi. 

The Superior Superficial, the Interosseous, and the 
inferior Tr.ans" Ligament.'.; which llx the Os Navi- 
culare and Os Cuboides to each other. Tab. LV. Fig. 
10. Fig. 12. 

The Supeiior Lateral, and the Plantar Ligaments, 
which tix the Os Naviculare to the Os Cuueiforme. 
Tab. LV. Fig. 10. Fig. 12. 

The Superior Superficial, and the Plantar Ligaments, 
which connect the Os Cuboides to the Os Cuneiforinc 
Externum. Tab. LV. Fig. 10. Fig. 1^'. 

The Dorsal and the Plantar Ligaments, which unite 
the Ossa Cuneiformia to each other. Tab. L\ . Fig. 10. 
Fig. 12. 

Beside., the Capsidar Ligaments of the Tarsus already 
mentioned, each of the other Joints of these Bones is 
furnished with iXa prryper Capsular Ligament. 

From the strength of the Ligaments which unite these 
Boues to each other, and from the plainness of their Ar- 
ticulating Surfaces, no more motion is allowed than to 
prevent the effects of coucussiou in walking, leaping, &c. 


hetween the Tarsus and Metatarsus. 

The Bones of the Metatarsus are fixed to those of the 
Tarsus by Capsular, and niunerous other Ligaments, 
which are called Dorsal, Plantar, Lateral, according 
to their situations ;— and Straight, Oblique, or Trans- 
verse, according to their dii'cctious. The nature of this 
Joint is the same with that between the Carpus and Me- 
tacarpus. Tab. LV. Fig. 10. Fig. 1,'. 

I Bo: 

The Dorsal, Plantar, aud Lateral Ligaments, which 
comiect the Bases of the Metatarsal ]^es with each 
other. Tab. LV. Fig. 10. Fig. 12. 

The Transverse Ligaments, which join the Heads of 
these Bones together. 


of the PH.M 

i of the Toes. 

jiGAMEKTS and Sheaths reiainiiig the Tendons of the 
Muscles of the Foot luid Toes, in situ. 

The Annular Ligament of t|ie Tarsus, ^vhich is a 

184 OF THE LIGAMENTS, [Pait m. 

thickened pai't of the Apeneuroiils of tbe lieg^ EpUtting Prepnut PoUieia, which niB« in a Crucial direction, 

ifito superior and inferior portions, which bind down the Tab. XXXVIII. Right Foot, C. 
Tendons of the Extensors of the Toes, upon the fore The Vaginal Lt^amefU of tie Tendon of the Ftexar 

BBit of the Ankle. Tab. XXXIV. Fig. 2. N, N. Longm PoUicii, wliich amrounds this Tendon in the 

The Vagintd Ligamtnt of the Tendons of the Peronei, hoUqw of the Os Calcis. Tab. LIV. Fig. 3. H. 
which, behind the Ankle, is common to both, hut at the The Vagmal and Crucial Ligamenta 'of the Tendons 

enter part of the Foot foims a Sheath for each Tendon, af the Flexors of the Thea% which inclose these Tendons 

Tab. LII. Fig. %. p, q ,- preserving it in its proper place, on the Surfaces of the Phalanges, and ferm their Butsk 

and forming the Bursa of that Tendon. Mucoss. Tab. LIV. Fig. 3. Q, R, S, T, U Tab. L. 

The Laciniated Ligament^ which ai-ises from the inner Fig. 8. 
Ankle, and spreads in a radiated manner, to be fixed The Accessory Ligavients of the Flexor Tendons of 

partly in the Cellidar Substance and Fat, and partly to the ToeSy which, as in the Fingers, arise from the Pha- 

the Os Calcis, at the inner side of the Heel. Tab. langcs, ajid are included in the Sheaths of the Tendons 

XXXIV. Fig. 2. i. It incloses the Tibialis Posticua in which they terminate, 
and Flexor Digitorum Longus. The Transverse Ligaments of the Extensor Tendons^ 

Tht Vaginal Ligament of the Tendon of the Extensor which nm betw 
their places beh 

C IBS ) 


Ligaments of the Bones of the Head and Trunk. 

fl, The angle of the lower jaw ; 

A, Its condyloid process. 

c, The edge of the zygomatic process of the 

rf, A section of the ear. 
f, The styloid process. 
f^ The. capsular ligament of the lower jaw. 
g^ The later^ ligament. 

A, The connection of the suapeuBoiy ligaments of the 
OS hyoides, and uf the stylo-glossus, to the styloid 

I, The suspensory ligament of the os hyoides. 

i, I — stylo-glossus. 

/, The masseter. 

w. The stylo-glossus. 

ji, The stylo-hyoideus. 

o. The stylo-pharyngeus, upon which 

p, A small nerve rests in its way to the pharynx. 

J, A section of the digastricus. 

r. The stemo-mastoideus. 

f. The lineal nerve. 

The Capsular Ligament nf the Lower Jaw, and 
Part of the Temporal iioNE. 

ff. The zygomatic process of the temporal bone. 
by The tubercle of that process. 
c, The glenoid or articular cavity. 

'^ d. The i:apsular ligament surrounding the whole mar- 
gin of the glenoid tavjty. 

c, Ct Those of the second. 

d, The capsular membrane of the last joint of the occi- 
pital bone. 

e, The membrane of the right joint cut open^ to obtain 
a view of the joint, and, 

f^ The distance of the origin of the membrane. 
. gy The membrane which tills up the anterior opening be- 
T ^^ tween the occiput and iii'st vertebi-a. 

A, A slip inserted into the middle of this membrane. 
?', The origin of this slip in the occipital bone. 
h. Its termination m the tubercle of the first vertebra. 
/, The slip which imites the first and second vertebra, 
, The ligament proper to the first vertebra, 
The ligament of tne articulation of the first vertebra 
with the second. 

Ligaments on the Fore Part of the Spine, and Upper 
and Fore Part of the Inner Side of the Bones of the 

fl, J, The bodies of the dorsal vertebrse. 

e processes of ihe first vertebr; 

f,/, A section of the ribs. 


gy A, The anterior common ligamen 

t of the bodies of the 


iy /, The crura of the diaphragm. 

A-,/-, Part of the longi colli. 

/, /, Two of the transverse process 

es of the lumbal' ver- 


m. The psoas magnus. 

n. The quadratus lumborum. 

o. The OS ilium. 

/), The superior transverse ligamen 

it of the pelvis, of a 

r;, 1 he inlerioi- transverse ligament. 

of a round form. 

/', The luiigitiiiliiial ligamentous fibres, belonging to. 

n. The byiiiphysis of the ilium with the oe sacrum. 

f, 'I'he iiiti;a(iiaim rcclmii. 

i(, Tlio vtaica uriiiai-ia. 

r, A ligament wliich forms a sort 

of sac between the 

Mdes of the bbddcr and rectum. 



The Crucial Intervertebral Ligaments of two of 
the Lumbar Vertebbje, seen Anteriorly. 

o» The first, 

i, The second lumbar vertebra. 

f, rf, Tfae crucial intervertebral ligament, formed of dif- 
fereut strata. 

e, e. The external ligaments of the cernx of the ribs. 
fff, A. ligamentous cord between the apices of the spi- 
nous processes. 

FIG. 10. 
Ligaments on the Outer and Right Side of the Pelvis. 

The Posterior, or Internal Common Ligament of the 
Vertebra seen in the Neck and beginnivig of the 
Back. The Crura of the Spinous Processes are 

Of a. Sec. The transverse processes of the vertebra. 
by i. The vertebral arteries. 

c,c,&c. Sections of the crura of the spinous processes. 
J, d, The whole breadth of the posterior or intern 
common ligament of the \ertebra;. 

FIG. 7. 

;, Tlie OS sacrum. 
I, coccygis. 

', The tuber of the os ischium. 

, The notch of the os ilium, which, together with the 

ligaments, &c. under it, form the foramen magnum. 
i The posterior long ileo-sacral ligament. 
-, The posterior short ileo-sacral Ugament. 
!, The posterior lateral ileo-sacral ligament. 
, ij The ligamenta accessoria vaga, on the back, of the 

jt. The large sacro-ischiatic ligament. 

/, Tlie appendix, or superior membranous production. 

711, The small saci-o-ischiatic ligament. 

«, The longitudinal ligaments of the os coccygis. 

Vy p. The origin of some of the muscles of the thigh. 

a, The first, and, 

i. The second lumbar vertebra. 

I Vestiges of the crura of the spinous pi 

FIG. 11. 

d, rf. The posterio 

e, e. Its expansion o 

internal common bgament of the 
? the cartilaginous interstices. 
FIG. 8. 

teithin the Thorax. 
o, o, a. The bodies of the three vertebrae. 
J, b, by Portions of the three ribs. 
e, c, c. The ligaments which fix the heads of the ribs to 

the bodies of the vertebrae. 
dy d, dy The internal ligaments of the cervix of the ribs, 

by which they are lixed to the tuberosities of the next 

superior transverse processes. 
ty e. Part of the intercostal muscles. 
fy The spinous process. 

FIG. 9. 

0, a, a. The crura of the spinous processes. 

b, by by Portions of the three ribs. 

c, c, c, The external transvci'se ligaments. . 

d, dy The internal ligaments of tlic cervix of the ribs. 

dy ' pubis. 

e, ischium. 

fy The cartilaginous surface of the os aacrum, for tlic ar- 
ticulation with the OS ilium. 

gy A protuberance covered with ligamentous villi for the 
articulation with the os ilium. 

hy The linea alba, which marks the articulation of the 

i. The spinous process of the os ischium. 

k. The small internal sacro-ischiatic ligament. 

/, The remains of the coccygeus. 

Illy A portion of the large external sacro-ischiatic liga- 

fl, n. The inferior falciform production of Winslow. 
0, The foramen magnum, for the transmission of the py- 

riformis, &c. 
Py Tlie for:unen minus, for the transmission of the obtu- 

q, Tlie superior obliijue sinus of the foramen thyroideum. 
r, 'I'lie membrr.nst obtuiaus. 

Sy The traiisveise ligament of the membrana obturans. 
t. The tendon of the psoas magnus. 
H, Tlie cartilago-ligamentouB substance of the os pubis. 


, Tlie 

b. The cartilagiuous part of the rib, 
A part of the stenium. 

Short ligamentous tibres connecting the margin of the 
'^^'■"■"""" oaseous and ciulilagbous parts of the rib. 

The upper end of the sternum. ^' '^^^ capsular ligament which joins the caitilage of the 

b The cartilaqo enaiformis. ' ^''^ ^^ ''"^ sternum ; the external radiated fibres of this 

c] The cartilage of the eighth rib. jou't being removed. 

(/, rf, Tlie ligaments of the cai-tilagcs of the ribs, distri. 

bated in the form of radii. FIG. 14. 

e, *■, The intercostal muscles. 
/,/, The tendinous ligaments of the cartilages of the X Stcnon of t/ie Parts represented above^ to skew their 

g,gj The ligaraenta of the cartilago eosifonnis. 
FIG. 13. 

Represents the Connection of the Osseous Part of a Rib 
with its Cartilage, and of the Cartilage vn'th the 
Sternum ; the Investing Membranes being remove 
ed Anteriorly, 

Interfial Structm 
a. The cancelfi of the rib. 

c. The connection of the inner part of the rib with itri 

cartilage by a fimi union of substance. 
dy The cavity of the joint formed between the cartilnge 

and sterDUm. 

( 188 ) 


Ligaments of the Left Superior Extremity. 

«f 0f Part of the c1a\'icle5. 

A, The interclavicular ligament. 

c, c. The insertions of the steroo-mastoidei into the cla- 

'i, (f. The cartilages of the first ribs. 

e, A section of the sternum. 

Uf^ Iiiga.nient9 connecting the clavicles to tiic interclavi- 
colar ligaments, to the sternum, and to the cartilages 
of the first ribs. 

^, g,, The ligamentura rhomboides, on each side, connect- 
ing the clavicle to the cartilage of the first rib. 

FIG. 2. 

«, The outer edge of the fleshy portion of thia muscle, 
o, A ligament ivhich arises from the sheath of the sub- 

J), The remaius of the tendon of the pectoralis. 
5, The tendon of the biceps. 

riG. 4. 

A Posterior View i^ tlte Ligaments between the Cla- 

, Scapula, and Os Hume: 

o, The dorsum ; 
h. The spine ; 
c, The upper edge ; 
rf, The cervix, and, 

fi, A section of the sternum. 

(., The caitilage of the first rib. 

f, The head of the right clavicle turned back. 

i. The interclavicular ligament. 

'', The articular sinus of the sternum. 

f\f. The interarticular caitilage covering the articular 

sinus and head of the clavicle. 
5, The part to^vhich the head of the clavicle i^ fixed. 
'/, The prolongation of the interarticular caitilage. 
r", /, The capsular ligament. 

FIG. 3. 

/, /, The capsular ligament inclosiug the n 

p The upper edge of the scapula, t 
, The pomt of the acromion. 
coracoid proccs 

o. The upper part of the scapula. 
A, The point of the acromion. 

c, coracoid process. 

rf, A portion of the clavicle. 

. /^ The edge of the aiUciwr pr<>|i<-r lipimt-iit of the scapula. 
§,§■, The posterior propei- li^.iiiunt uf the scapula. 
A, A portion of llic tiHumoii < onui,! ligameut. 
f, ?; The capsulai- liganieiil ol ilif laad of the os humeri. 
/•, The accessory membrane of the capsular ligament. 
/, /, 'Jlie edge of the oval hole in the capsular membrane, 

for the passage of, 
wi, The tendon of the eub^capulaiis, which fills the hole, 
, .md makes pact of the capsule. 

The anterior proper triangular ligament of the S( 
, The common trapezoid ligament of the scapula. 
, Ligaments connecting the clavicle with the acn 

The capsular Ugainent of the head of the os humeri ; 
I, Its appendix. 

, The edge of the oval hole, for the transmission of, 
, The tendon of the subscapularis. 
, The remains of the tendon of the 
, I'hc tendoit of t^e biceps. 
, Part of the sheath of the tendon. 

FIG. 6. 


T.Ui / / 


f ♦ Tiie origin of the loug head of the biceps. g^ A portion of the radius. 

rf, */, The inner surface of the capsular ligament. A, The external lateral ligameat. 

f, The edge of the oval hole. /, The orbicular ligament of the radius. 

^ of the 

A", The accessoiy r 

/, 'riic jiosterior accessor)- ligament. 

FIG. 10. 

o. The kcaJ of the os humeri. ' The Conn; 

b^ Tlie tendon of the long head of the biceps continued 

through its ahealh. . , ^ , , , ^ o. The extremity of the radius. 

c. The rctmaculam m the begmning of the sheath of the j^ j_ xhe double glenoid cavity of the radiU! 

tendon ol the bleeps. c. The intcruudiate triangular cartilage betv 
rf, o, Ihe uuiL-r aurrace oi the capsular ligament. gj,j ^^ cuneilbrme 

e, A fimbriated organ for the secretion of synovia, situat- ^ 'j['jjj, p^, 

ed immediately under the ball of theos humeri, within ^ l^he liir-u.^^^ ^^..^.. .^^^^..,..... ^^ ,.,„ 

the capsular hgaraent. y;y; xiie curedg^"o7 "th^TapVuiar" lijlmeut between the 
fore-arm and wrist. 

FIG. 8. ^^ Xhe mucous hgament withhi the joint . 
The Connection of the Os Humeri and Bones of the 

ToRZ'ARMy and of t/ie latter ivit/i eack other ; viewed FIG. 11. 

^' A View of the Cavitt of the Joint between the Foit£- 
o, A portion of the os humeri. arm a;/rf Wrist ; the Capsular Ligament being cut 

i. The inner, Pofterior/r/, and the Bokes of the CARfVi turned back. 

c. The outer round pFOces«i of articulation. _,, ■ c . j- 

rf. The inner acute pi-omineDt process of articulation be- «' The extremity of the i-adius. 

tween. the os humeri and bones of the fore-arm. * „ ,. , , . i " "■ ,. , ■■ 

The ulna '^' gienoid cavity ot the radius, receivmg, 

/iTheoleci^onofthenba. rf. The fu-st bone of the carpm,. 

g. The coronoid pK)cess. <■' ^hs "ther portion of the glenoid cavity of the rains, 

4, The inferior head of the dna. , ™' . ,. . , ., 

i. The radius. /' ^."° nilermediate triangular cartdage, rt-ceivmg, 

ic. The inferior extremity of the i-adiua. f • ^J" 'f^J^' '^\ , 
11 The cansular liirament * tlurd bone ot the cai'pus. 

»,'The mtemal latSS ligament. ■' 1'''« ''^"'"^I'raiuent between the bones of the fore- 

"'iSm'""'""^' "™'^"' °^ °*''"'" "*""™ °^ ""' *■ ''rhs H"""sl'P intermixed with this membrane. 

0, The accessory ring. 

P, The posterior accessory ligament, 

J, The chorda trausversalis cubiti. 

/, Tlie palmar accessory ligament trom tlie radius. 
, tlie fourth, and, 
tiie third boue of the car])U5. 

■, r. The interosseous membrane or Ugament of the fore- "' ^ '"^ i mtouh 'feameiiu j „^« j 

, , ^ i». ui..L^u.»wu e, ^^ -jjj^ hgament by which the first and second 

id fiUed with ^^ "'■P"^ ^'"^ attached. 

FIG. 12. 

a, A porliiin of llie os humeri ; 
i. Its fxterii;il londyle. 

c, The outer round pi-ocess of articulation . 

d, A portion of the ulna. 

e, The olecranon. 

/, The lateral surface of the olecranon, co 

Sbrirs c. 

[■ Li' 


,n Ik 

,■ 1-ALM-SiDi 

: 0/ the 


1, after llu 

■ I\TEC.fMJ 


omi Tendon 

s 0/ the 


«soiis ion 

I- ta« mm. 


„, The e 

■xtrcmil.v , 

if the ladiu 


c, Tl.c 

,s pi^lfoiiii. 

■, »ilh the 


on of the (Icxi 

)r carpi 


i lixcd to i 

./, The < 

>s trapciiii 

in, plated E 

It the 

' root of the thmnb- 

c. The s 

harp prott 

■ss of them 


in bone. 

/; The n 


bone of the 






gy gy The metacarpal bones of the Sogers. 

A, A, The first phulaiix of the dogers. 

7, The teudou of the flexor carpi itulialis. 

k^ 'I'he tendon of one of the extensors of the thumb. 

l^ I, I, The internal uiterosseous muscles. 

w(, The ligaments between the ulna and os pisiforme. 

n, d, p, y. The capsukr ligament investing tiie extremities 
of the bones of the fore-aim and bones of the wrist, 
intermixed nith numerous accessory slips. 

r, s. Ligaments between the carpal and metacarpal bones. 

f, Ligaments joining the bases of the metacarpal bones to 
each other. 

Uf V, I'f Ligaments connecting the heads of the metacar- 
pal bones to each other. 

FIG. 13. 

A View o/'MeliiGAMENTOus Bands which assist inform- 
ing the Capsular Ligament on the Back Part of 
the "Wrist. 

«, The extremity of the radi 

f. The lii-st, 

rf. The third, and, 

e^ The fifth bone of the carpus. 

f^ The tuber of the seventh cai-pal bone. 

g^ The two tendons of the exteusores carpi radiales. 

A, Tlie tendon of the extensor carpi ulnaris. 

i^ Tlie ligamentmn rhomboides. 

/■, A ligamentous cord, which extends from the styloid 

process of the ulna to the third bone of the carpus. 
^ The common oblique slip. 

m^ The ligament between the third and eighth carpal bones, 
fr, A section of the metacarpal bones. 

FIG. 14. 

The Anterior Ligaments which bind the Bones of the 
Fore-arm to the Bones of the Carpiis, these to each 
other, and aka to the Bones of the Metacarpus. 

ff, The extremity of the radius. 

r, c. The bones of the carpi 

f/, (/, <J, (/, The bones of the metacarpus. 

p, The capsular bgaraent of the wrist, with its accessory 

/, The anterior annular ligament of the carpus. Besides 
the annular ligament, numerous ligamentous slips are 
' ' ■ the 

of the Hand, and tke Una Row of Carpal Eoheb 
separatedjrom each other ^ 

a, 6, r, rf. The first row, and, 

^yf^ Si ^ "^^^ second row of the carpal bones. 

t, The inside of the palmar pait of the capsular liga- 

/-, The inside of the dorsal part of that ligament. 

/, A ligament Joining the hrst and second carpal bones 

together, wliere they are articulated with the end of 

the radius, 
m, A ligament connecting the third and seventh caipal 

bones to each other. 
% The ligsmeutum mucosum connected with the second 

carpal bone. 
Oy A small frsenum of the capsular ligament. 

Ligaments between the Inferior Row of the Carpal 
Bones and thuse of i lie Metacarpus, on the Back of 
the Hand. 

0, t, c, dy The four bones of the second row of the car- 

e. The metacarpal bone of the thumb. 
fyf, The metacai-pal bones of the fingers. 

The ligaments which unite these boaes are seen numiDg 
in various directions. 

FIG. 17. 

The Ligaments of the Joints of one of the Fingers. 

a. The metacarpal bone, 

by Cy dy The first, second, and third bones of the fingen . 

c, Cy Cy The lateral ligaments of the joints of the GngeiSt 

f, Fart of the capsular ligament. 


directions, which unit* 
■s of the carpus to each other, and likewi; 
z of the nietacai-pu: 

a, A section of the vaginal ligaments. 

by The tendon of the perforatus. 

c. The end of this tendon iuseited into the second bone 

of the finger, 
rf, Decussatuig branches of the tendon of the perforatus. 

f, 'I'he tendon of the perforans. 

fy The short accessory ligament of the perforans. 

g, hy Long acccssoiy ligaments of the tendon of the per- 

The tendon of the perforatus has accessory ligaments si- 
milar to those of the perforans, but they could not bo 
represented in tlii*; view. 

( 191 ) 


LiOAHENTS of the Left Inferior Extremity. 

d Vievs of the Cafsular Ligament of the Head of the 
Os Femokis, and of the hiGAMESTs^ing the Fora- 
men Thyroideum. 

0, The spiue of the right os ilium ; 

by lis taferior spinoua process. 

c. The 09 pubis. 

df ■ femoris. 

ey The trochanter major. 

/, _ miliar. 

gy The place of the insertion of the pectineus. 

A, i\ The seat ot the imd-ri' eud of the iliuciui iotenius. 

ky The seat of the gluteus umiinius. 

/, The upper end of the rectus femoris cut and turned 

The space between m and k is occupied by the capsular 
ligameut, which arises from the acetabulmn. 

fflf n, o. The accessory slips of the capsular ligament^ 
placed between the surroundiug muscles, and streugth- 
ening the general capsule. 

p, The oblique termiuatiou of the capsular ligament be- 
tween the two trochanters. 

J, r, Sy Uy Xy Th^ membraue which shuts up the foramen 

r, gy The external and internal ligamentous slips of this 
membrane, which fonn siilci. 

ty Th^ place where the obturator extemus adheres to the 
capsular ligament. 

U) An opening in the upper part of the obturator liga- 
ment, for the passage of the obtui-ator vessels aid nerve. 

Gives a View of the Acetai 

with its Ligaments. 
with its cartilaginous 

FIG. 2. 

The Head of the Os Femoris taken mit of the Aceta- 
bulum, andstUl adhering by means of the Ligamentum 

Oy The baU of the os femoris. 

6, The cavity of the acetabulum. 

f, c. The cartilagiuouR brijn of the acetabulum. 

d:, rf, dy dy The capsular ligament cut and turned back, 

to shew, 
c, e, Its density and thickness. 
/, Retinacula reflected about the cci 
gy hy iy ky The ligameutum rotundum, 
/, /, Small ligaments which bmd the fatty glandular n 

m to the bottom of the acetabulum. 

«, The bottom of the acetabuli 


by The sinus for the synovial fat. 
c, c, c, The cartilaginous brim of the acetabulum, 
dy dy The external transverse ligament. 

FIG. 4. 

o. The 

A, The patella. 

dy A porti 

ey A] 
/, Tl 

side of the head of the tibia, 
of the vastus internus. 

of the vastus intemus. 

s of the inner tendon of the gastrocne- 

t of the 03 femoris. 

gy 1'iie tendon of the semimembranosus. 

hy The tendons of the gracilis and semitendino&us, turned 

i, The popliteus. 

A, ky The broad internal lateral ligament, enlai^ed by, 
/, jln accessoiy branch. 

«/, A circular ligamentous margin adhering to the inter- 
nal semilunar cartUage. 

FIG. 5. 

A Posterior View of the Ligaments of the Knee. 
ff. The OS femoris. 

by The external condyle. >^ 

f. The internal condyle. ™ 

dy The tibia, 
e. The fibula. 

fy The long external lateral Ugament. 
gy The short external lattral ligament. 
Iiy The ligamentum posticura Winsloii, 
/, The tendon of the semimembranosus. 
ky Irregular membi<anous expansions. 

FIG. 6. 

An Anterior View of the Joisrofthe Knee, t/ie Capsu- 
lar Ligament being ojiencdy atid turned dovn along 
with the Patella. 



bj Tlie pjttllu, Hiili tlie capsular ligament at the sides of 
it, cut from the os fcruons, aad turned down. 

f, Tlie ligamentuin inucosum, supporting the fat at the 
trndtr edge of the patella,. 

t},, f. Folds of the inner side of iht- tapsular ligament, 
caUod by Weitbhecht, L^gamfiilnm .l/are externum 
mtnm, and Ligameuiui/i J/are i/ih'nium mujus. 

f, g. The anterior edges of the semilunar cariUages. 

A, Part of the posterior crucial ligament. 

FIG. 7. 

A View of the Crucial Ligaments, asseen in the Back 
Part of t/iv Joint u/the Kn££ ; the Capsular Liga- 
ment being laid '.ptn. 

n. The os femoris. 

t, c, Its condyles ; above wliich is seen the cut edge of 

the capsulai- ligament. 
(/, The tibia, 
c. The fibula. 

i\ The posterior crucial ligament. 
^, 'Ilie insertion of the anterior cru«ial ligament into the 

OS femoris. 
A, The edge of the external semilmiar cartilage, 
/, Iiigamentous fibres strengthening the joint at the head 

of the fibula. 

FIG. 8. 

Anterior View of the Crucial Ligamekts. 

«, i, The condyles of the os femoria. 

c. The tibia. 

f/. The fibula. 

r. The anterior crucial ligament. 

f^f The insertion of the posterior crucial ligament into 
the 03 femoris. 

g. The ligament of the posterior comu of the external 
semilunar cartilage, connected with the posterior cru- 
cial ligament, and with it fixed to the os femoris. 

A, The ligament of the interior comu of the external 
semilunar cartilage. 

;', The ligament of the anterior cornu of the internal se- 
milunar cai'til^;e. 

A", Tlie transverse ligament ci 
of the uemilunar cartilages 

A A slip fived to the traiisvers 
with tlie mucous ligament. 

w, The external lateral ligaine 

», The iiiscFlion of the biceps 

meeting the anterior cornua 

o each other. 

e hgament, and connected 

r>. The a 

r ligament of the fibula. 

r, The external, smd, 

/, The internal semilunar cartilages. 

', The adhesion of the anterior cornu of the external se- 

milimar cartilage to the fore part of the tubeosity on 

the top of the tibia. 
\ The superior ligament of the posterior comu of this cai'- 

tilage, connected ^vith the posterior crucial ligament. 
;, The inferior adhesion of the posterior cornu of the 

external semilunai' caitilage. 
!, 'I'he adhesion of the anterior cornua of the internal se- 
milunai' cartilage to tlie fore part of the margin of 

the head of the tibia. 
, The adhesion of the posterior comu to the back part 

of the tuberosity of the head of the tibia. 
:, i. The common transverse ligament of the semilunar 

, A slip fixing the transverse ligament, and intensixing 

with the mucous ligament. 
m, The posterior crucial ligament. 

FIG. 10. 

An Outer and Fore View of the Lir 

8 of the Ta 

5 those of the Met AT AlMVS and 

B for lodging the condyles of the 

a. The extremity of tl 

b. The malleolus extei 

c. The astragalus. 
(/, The OB naviculare. 

e, -. . — - . cuboides. 

f, cuueiforme i 

g, The metatarsal bone of the great toe, and, farther out, 
those of the other toes. ■ 

/f. The anterior superior ligaments of the malleolus ex- 

z. The middle perpendicular ligament of the malleolus 

A, The anterior ligament between the fibnl.-i and astragalus. 
/, wi, Irregular ligaments forming the ligamentous appara- 
tus of the sinuous cavity of the astragalus and os calcis. 
n. The superior ligament coimfctlng the astrngaluB and 

0,^, 9, Numerous hgaments Joining the bones of the tar- 
sus to each other, and likewise to those of the meta- 
tarsus, and obtaining the names of Perpendicular, Ob- 
lique, Lateral, Dorsal, &c. accoj-ding to t4>cii- diffe- 
rent directions and situations. 

f, A', /, u. Ligaments which connect the bases of the me- 
tatarsal bones to each other. 


Ligaments between the Vmkr and Back Part of thr 
Bones of the Leg, ajid those of Ike Foot, 

IT, A portion of the tibia. 

J, Thi 


. The uppti- part of the asti-agalus, upou which the tibia 


f» The poatcrior-superior ligainenl of the malleohis ex- 

/, A portion of the deltoid ligament. 

£-, The iuferior-postcrior ligmnent of the maUcolua cx- 

ft, A fibrous ligament betMeeu the fibula aiid astragalus. 
l\ A ligamentous slip proper to the astragalus, 
it, A fibrous slip connected ivith the capsular ligament. 
/, The fi'senulum of the capsule* membrane, between the 

astragalus and os calcis. 
Wy The middle perpendicutar ligament of the malleolus 

Of The insertion of tlietendoAcHlLLls,withit3frseaulum. 

FIG. 12. 

Ligaments in ifte Sole of the Foot. 

», The OS caJcis. 

i, naviculare. 

c, ' cuneiforrae magnum. 

rf, f?, A section of the metatarsal bones. 

e,/. The ligaments between the os calcis and naviculare. 

g^ The oblique, and, 

A, The long ligament of great strength, which connects 
the OS calcis to the os cuboides. 

», Tile transverse ligament between the cuboid and ex- 
temal cuneiform bones. 

A", The ligaments between the navicular and internal cu- 
neiform bones. 

I — 9, The ligaments connecting the bones of the tarsus 
to each other, and those again to the metatarsus. 

r, s^ t^ The ligaments connecting the bases of the meta- 
tarsal bones. 

FIG. 13.